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GENEAL.OCV COLLECTION 





3 1833 01814 7162 



G€ MEAL 06V 
977. roi 
AL3P 
I 



VALLEY 



OF THE 



Upper Maumee River 



WITH HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF ALLEN COUNTY AND THE CITY OF 

FORT WAYNE, INDIANA. THE STORY OF ITS PROGRESS 

FROM SAVAGERY TO CIVILIZATION. 



V • 3~ 



QrvO 


VOLUME II. 


111^1 




Ats/u 




\'Jb 








ILLUSTRATE 



MADISON, WIS.: 

BRANT & FULLER, 
1889. 



\p 




Democrat Printing Company, Madison, Wis. 



1510233 



INDEX TO VOLUME II. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



Amusement, places of 284 

Architectural growth 223 

Assembly, members of 384 

Asylum 225 

attorneys, prosecuting (see 
Courts). 

Banks 246 

Bench and bar (see Courts). 

Berghoff brewery 166 

Breweries 165, 166 

Buildings, government 224 

Business interests 145 

Canal Era 17 

Centlivre brewery 165 

Churches, Catholic 411 

Cathedral 415 

St. Aloysius 434 

St. John the Baptist 432 

St. Joseph's 432 

St. Joseph's hospital 427 

St. Leo's 429 

St. Lo-uis 430 

1 S t- Gary 's 416 

IT Patrick's 433 

St. Paul's 422 

St. Peter's 423 

St. Rose of Lima 433 

St. Vincent's 431 

. . 4 St. Vincent's orphan asylum 428 

/Church, Hebrew '. 314 

I Churches, Protestent 296 

Y Baptists 301 

Christian 315 



Churches. Protestant. Page. 

Congregational 315 

Evangelical Association 315 

Lutheran, English 311 

Methodists 306 

Presbyterian, First 296 

Presbyterian, Second 300 

Presbyterian, Third 301 

Protestant Episcopal 310 

Reformed 313 

United Brethren 316 

College, Fort Wayne 30" 

County infirmary 381 

Courts 439 

Common Pleas 460 

Circuit, first session 440 

Criminal 463 

Probate 458 

Superior 465 

Under first constitution 440 

Under second constitution . . 460 

Dentistry 370 

Finances in 1825 376 

Fire department 257 

First election 375 

Gas, natural 286 

Hospital 284 

Improvements, aid to 381 

Manufacturing enterprises 86 

Medical college 335 

Medical profession 330 

Medical societies 334 

Milling interests 23 

Municipal and federal 254 



Page. 

Newspapers 317 

American Farmer 319 

Dispatch 322 

Freie Presse 322 

Gazette 320 

Journal 321 

Miscellaneous 319 

News 322 

Poultry and Pets 322 

Sentinel 317 

Staats Zeitung 319 

Times 319 

Officers, city 255 

county 383 

federal 276 

Organization of Allen county . 374 

Parks 281 

Physicians licensed 336 

Physicians, Monroeville 369 

Poiice, The 256 

Population 390 

Postoffice building 224 

Public buildings 378 

Public enterprises 281 

Railroads 54 

Statistics, financial 382 

political 385 

Street railways 288 

Transportation, local 288 

War record 391 

Water-works . 259 

Wayne Hotel 228 

Y. M. C. A. building 224 



PERSONAL HISTORY. 



Page. 

jAlkins, A. W 77 

klbrecht, Martin L 133 

Alden, S. R 502 

p.rnes, Geo. W 292 

i^jjderson, Calvin 47 

jjjSperson, J. R 84 

jja&ersen, Peter 115 

gfJiber family ■ 35 

yjyiger, Benjamin L 192 

t\i ,,iger, Charles 52 

jjJ3s, Bloritz 49 

Nel" es < Henry B 163 

Neg -es, Henry P 339 

Nev :er, B. H 46 

Niei er > J° nn 243 

Nj e3 er, John ■ 46 

Ninc er, Kilian 45 

Nian.es, M 244 

Norfdt, Fred 236 

£,, s iks, Creed T 362 

ta,H.F 113 



Page. 

Bard, Samuel 193 

Barnett, W. W 345 

Barnum, George P 293 

Barr, William J 193 

Barrand, John B 39 

Barrand Peter F 38 

Barrett, James M 502 

Barrows, Frank R 174 

Bass, John H 93 

Bastian, Jacob 194 

Baxter, Thomas 271 

Beaber, Abraham G 194 

Beaver, A. C 139 

Beaver, Charles B 85 

Becker, Frederich \ . 50 

Becks, Rev. Julius 427 

Becquett, John B 40 

Begue, John C 50 

Beighler , John 195 

Bell, R. C 498 

Bender, Louis 195 



Page. 

Benoit, Rev. Julian 423 

Bensman, Rudolph 98 

Bensman, William J 114 

Beverforden, Henry F 195 

Bierbaum, F. R 74 

Bigger, Samuel 487 

Bitler, Samuel D 139 

Bitner, John R Ill 

Blair, Solon K 74 

Blair, Thomas W 279 

Blakesley, Lyman 77 

Bobilya, Louis J 178 

Boerger, A. H 178 

Boester, F. H 234 

Bonne, Carl 117 

Boltz, Ferdinand F ... 100 

Boltz, Fred. C 124 

Bond, Charles D 252 

Bookwalter, E. H 329 

Borden, James W 476 

Boseker, Christian 228 



INDEX TO VOLUME II. 



Page. 

Boswell, Asa C 361 

Boswell, A. J 360 

Bowen, George W 342 

Bowser, Sylvanus F 135 

Brackenridge, Joseph 486 

Brackenridge, G. W 34 

Brackenridge, Robert 34, 507 

Brames, Louis 141 

Brammer, Rev. J. H 429 

Brandt, Diederich 96 

Brannan, John H 405 

Braun, John 142 

Breen, W. P 505 

Breidenstein, Simpson 192 

Breimeier, Ernst 233 

Brimmer, Joseph 242 

Brenton, Samuel 406 

Brink, John J 178 

Brinslev, George 184 

Brinsley, John C 295 

Brooks, William H 338 

Brossard, John 196 

Brown, Seneca B 370 

Brown, William H 39 

Bruebach, George T 343 

Bruns, C. W 244 

Buchman, A. P 351 

Buck, Charles W 73 

Buckwalter, Louis Ill 

Buhr, Henry 197 

Bullerman, Henry F 404 

Bursley, Gilbert E 157 

Busching, Henry 197 

Byrne, Rev. M. J 416 

Caldwell, James 355 

Campbell, Daniel 113 

Carnahan, William L 159 

Carpenter, Warren 270 

Carrier, A. H 192 

Carson, W. W 478 

Cartwright, Charles 102 

Case, Charles 509 

Chambers, John D . . 352 

Cbapin, A. A 500 

Cody, Maurice 42 

Colerick, David H 482 

Colerick, John 485 

Colerick, Walpole G 483 

Connolly, William A 366 

Coolman, John H 237 

Coombs, William H 474 

Cooper, Henry 473 

Cosgrove, Franklin K 364 

Cosgrove. F. D 400 

Cox, Enoch ... 70 

Cramer, Matthias 103 

Cran, Robert 96 

Cratsley, Frank C 162 

Craw, Edward L 191 

Crawford, John T 238 

Dressier, Alfred D 115 

Cromwell, Joseph C 137 

Cromwell, Joseph W 246 

Dalman, Frederick 41 

Dawson, C. M 476 

Dawson. John W 324 

Dawson, Reuben J 474 

De Haven, Perry N 172 

Delaney, Rev. J. F 416 

Derbyshire, Samuel W 360 

Detzer, Mai tin 179 

Dickinson, Philemon 168 

Diehl, Hugh M 272 

Diet her. Jehu H 127 

Diether, Louis 127 

Dills, Thomas J 851 

Ih mien. James M 351 

Dittoe, Allien J 167 

Doehrmuim, William 268 

Doswell. George W 197 

Doswell, John H 283 

Dougall, A. H 188 

Dreibelbiss, John liil 

Dreibelbiss, Robert B 191 



Dudenhoefer, George P 131 

Dunham, Frank W 104 

Dwenger, Rt. Rev. Joseph 436 

Eckhert, John C 198 

Edgerton, A. P 33 

Edgerton. Joseph K 63 

Ehle, August N 199 

Ehrmann, Charles 198 

Ellison, T. E 503 

Ely, George W 267 

Erne, Claude F 47 

Entemann, Christian 199 

Ersig, William A 199 

Essig, Charles O ... 86 

Ewing, Charles W 472 

Ewing, W. G. and G. W 31 

Fay, James A 487 

Felts, George F 401 

Ferguson, John 128 

Fink, Frank H 97 

Fischer, Henry E 402 

Fisher, Abel 106 

Fisher, R J 95 

Fitch, Charles B 121 

Fitzpatrick, Bernard 105 

Fleming, Thornton J 169 

Fletcher, Charles P 76 

Fletcher, Josiah F 292 

Foellinger, Jacob 45 

Foster, David N 149 

Foster, Samuel M 151 

Fox, Louis, and Bro 160 

France, Joseph S 488 

Frank, Mendel 201 

Franke, A. H 271 

Frankenstein, Max L 200 

Freeman, Samuel C 44 

Freese, August 200 

Freiberger, Ignatius 200 

FreiStoft'er, Henry 201 

Fremion, Joseph 143 

French, Brooks 118 

Fulton, Charles W 294 

Gage, Robert 145 

Gale, George A 202 

Gallmeier, Ernst 240 

Gallmeier, William , 240 

Gard, Brookfleld 350 

Geake, J.J 231 

Geake, William 230 

Geller, W. F 203 

Gessler, Albert F 202 

Gibson, David N 406 

Gilbert, John 164 

Gilmartin, Edward 173 

Glenn, Thomas M 187 

Glenn, William M 80 

Gocke, Anthony 51 

Gocke, Louis H 51 

Golden, Edward J 171 

Gordon, George P 75 

Gotseh, Theodore O 176 

Graff e, Frederick, jr 161 

Graff e, Henry C 160 

Graham. James A 1U5 

Granneman, H. C 179 

Gray, James P 78 

Griffith Levi 234 

Griswold, Crawford 74 

Green, M. Frances 44 

Greenwell, Franklin 367 

Greenawalt, George L 356 

Gregg, James S 344 

Gruber, John Michael 203 

Hackius, G. L 116 

Haiber, Charles F 204 

Haiber, George W 204 

Haller, Gottlieb 204 

Hamilton, AJlen 250 

Hauna, Samuel 2T 

Harding, D. L 262 

Harrison, Robert H 107 

Harrison, Walter S 245 

Hartman, Rev. B 434 



Page 

Hartmann. Henry 405 

Hartman, Jacob 205 

Hartman, John H 205 

Hartman, Joseph H 206 

Hartman, S. B 372 

Hayden, John W 279 

Hazzard, Louis 275 

Heaton, Owen H 507 

Hedekin, Michael 42 

Heimroth, Andrew 112 

Hench, S. M 497 

Henderson, A. R 132 

Henderson, S. C 40 

Henderson, Zenas 40 

Henry, James M 232 

Hensel, Peter 236 

Herber, J. F 226 

Herbst, Otto P 278 

Hetrick, Jacob 356 

Hettler, C. F 265 

Hewes, James C 109 

Higgins, C. R 277 

Higgins, Frank P 82 

Hill irecht, Henry 266 

Hilbrecht, Henry, jr 269 

Hild, Henry 242 

Hilgemann, H. F 206 

Hill, Thomas 118 

Hilton, Charles S 120 

Hinton, John C 206 

Hoagland, Pliny 62 

Hoffman, Henry A 237 

Hull, Lewis 165 

Hunt, John T 207 

Hunter, Lewis C 403 

Hyman, Philip H 139 

Iten, Frank 269 

Jaap, George 235 

Jackson, Thomas 72 

Jackson, William T 

Jenson, James O r 

Jocquel, John J 175 

Jones, Fremont L 

Jones, Joseph H <Jq 

Jones, Maurice L 'fj 

Johnson, A ~o 

Johnston, William, jr \, 

Judy,G. H 

Kabisch, Rudolph 20r 

Kalbacher, Anton 

Kaough, William 

Keef er, Christian ,11 

Keel, Aurora C M 

Keil, Frederick W & 

Kelker, Anthony j 

Keller, Henry. 140 

Kendrick, Frank B 229 

Kendrick, William H 231 

Kern, Jacob J 40"? 

Kerr Murray manufactu 

company 

Kintz, A. W 

Klett, Jacob i: 

Kline, C. W -..' 

Knecht, F. J 

Knight, William 10*, 

Knothe, Charles F I2i| 

Koehler, John A 1 '• I 

Koehler, Paul j 

Koenig, C. F j 

Koenig, Rev. E 

Koerdt, Rev. Ferdinand 

Kollock, Fred. N 

Korn, August 

Korn, John 

Kortee, Frederick 

Kraft, Frederick ( 

Kreite, Charles F I 

Krock, John ! 

Krohne, H. H. L 

Krusy, H. F. W 

Kryder, John L f 

Kuhne, F. W 

Kunkle, E. B 






INDEX TO VOLUME II. 



Page. 

Laubach, A.J 354 

Landenberger, John M 131 

Lauer, Gregory 240 

Lauferty, Isaac 253 

Lang, Rev. J. F 415 

Law, CD 67 

Lenz, Frederick 211 

Leonard, Nathan R 326 

Leonard, Nelson 143 

Lepper, Charles O 180 

Leykauf, John N 211 

Liebman, E. F 233 

Liggett Bros 291 

Lillie, John 129 

Lindlag, Philip J 142 

Lintz, Anthony 43 

Loag, George W 396 

Loesch, George H 180 

Long, Mason 167 

Longacre, M. P 138 

Lowry, Robert 496 

Luers, Rt. Rev. J. H 426 

McCaskey, George W 357 

McCausland, John W 358 

McClellan, Charles A. O 408 

McClure, Andrew 83 

McCorraick, Thomas H 362 

McCulloch, Hugh 248 

McDonald, P. J 269 

McDonald, R. T 120 

Mcintosh. William 53 

McKay, James M 157 

McKinnie, W. M., & Co 228 

McLain, Nelson W 403 

McMahan, Sylvester 76 

McMullen, John 235 

McNamara, Washington 103 

McNiece, Nicholas R 212 

McNutt, L. D 288 

McQuiston, John W 52 

McQuiston, Wilson 124 

Madden, James D 244 

Mark, Rev. J. A 433 

Markey, A. C 212 

Martz, Christian 358 

Matsch, J. Christopher 96 

Mentzer, Simeon E 369 

Mergentheim, A 168 

Messman, Rev. A 423 

Metcalf, S. C 348 

Meyer, Diedrich 264 

Meyer, Frank H 213 

Meyer, Henry William 95 

Meyer, John F. W 152 

Meyer, William D .267 

Meyers, Charles F 289 

Meyers Frederick C 98 

Miller, Cassius A 182 

Miller, Frederick 235 

Moellering, William. 226 

Moffat, D. W 298 

Monaban, Dennis 171 

Monning, Henry 419 

Monning, John B 127 

Moran, Peter A 212 

Morgan, Joseph D 365 

Morgan & Beach 149 

Morris, John 480 

Morris, Samuel L 499 

Mo wrer, Isaac 397 

Moynihan, A. J 328 

Muldoon, John W 242 

Munson, Charles A 399 

Murphy, George 364 

Neireiter, Conrad 189 

Nelson, Isaac DeGroff 409 

Nestel, Daniel 53 

Newton, Charles H 71 

Niemann, Gottlieb 213 

Niezer, John B 397 

Ninde, L. M 508 

Niswonger, Henry W 359 

Northrop, S. A 304 

Nusbaum, Peter 142 



Page. 

O'Brien, Dennis 265 

O'Connor, Bernard 66 

O'Connor, B. S 67 

O'Leary, Rev. T. M 415 

O'Rourke, Edward 489 

O'Rourke, Patrick S 68 

O'Rourke, W. S 505 

O'Ryan, Patrick 273 

Oechtering, Rev. J. H 421 

Ogden, Robert 243 

Olds, N. G. ,& Sons 98 

Olds' Wagon Works 1 14 

Orr, John W 164 

Page, William D 325 

Pape, Charles 123 

Pape, William C 126 

Paulus, Frank D 183 

Pearse, James W 289 

Perrin, A. C 294 

Peters' Box Co 123 

Peters, John C 122 

Pfeiffer, Henry 175 

Pierce, Ogden 182 

Pixley, George W 153 

Porter, Miles F 355 

Powers, Emmet W . 290 

Pressler, John 134 

Quinlan, Rev. W. J 433 

Racine, Aime 135 

Randall, Franklin P 37 

Randall, Perry A 501 

Ranke, Wm 130 

Rastetter, Louis 129 

Read, H. A 291 

Rehling, Ernst 113 

Reidmiller, John M 52 

Reinewald, Rudolph C 263 

Reiter, George 214 

Remmert, H. J 117 

Renfrew, Robert G 104 

Rhinesmith, John . . 125 

Rich, Sanford 227 

Rippe, Frederick 237 

Robertson, R. S 493 

Robinson, H.H 499 

Robinson, James H 46 

Robinson, James M 506 

Rockhill, William 406 

Rockhill, William W 328 

Rodabaugh, Thomas J 110 

Rohan, John H 119 

Romer, Rev. CM 421 

Romy, Robert L 190 

Rose, Charles 215 

Rose, Henry A 214 

Rosen thall, Isaac M 344 

Ross-Lewin, Edward A 132 

Ross, James P 215 

Rossington, R. B 71 

Rowe, Nicholas B. 216 

Rudisill, Henry 36 

Ruhl, Wm. DeLa 367 

Rurode, E. C 158 

Ryan. Patrick 265 

Sallot, Victor A 102 

Sarnighausen, J. D 324 

Sau vain, Samuel H 216 

Schaper, Charles H 238 

Scheid, Peter J 268 

Schiefer, Christian 49 

Schlatter, Christian C 176 

Schmueckle, Frederick 267 

Schneider, Matthias 216 

Schone, H. H 184 

Schroeder, Henry 239 

Schroeder, L. S. C 280 

Schultz, Henry 243 

Schulz, Adolph F 118 

Schulz, William Fred 185 

Schust, G. Adolph 116 

Schust, George A 271 

Schweir, Henry 217 

Seaton, John 345 

Seavey, Gideon W 162 



Page. 

Seibold, H.J 180 

Shafer, Edward A 358 

Shambaugh, William H 402 

Shea, Michael F 83 

Shordon, Daniel 183 

Shrimpton, Alfred 232 

Shryock, William W 373 

Shaman, E 183 

Siemon, A. F 161 

Simonson, James H 126 

Singleton, Michael T 273 

Singmaster, Joseph 49 

Sites, E. F 372 

Sites, Henry C 372 

Siver, Emett L 359 

Slater, John 274 

Smaltz, Francis M 218 

Smaltz, John 217 

Smead, Frank K 218 

Smith, Cornelius S 343 

Smith, F. M 177 

Smith, J. L 366 

Smith, J. Sion 270 

Sommers, H. G 181 

Souder, Daniel W 396 

Sosenheimer, C. J 264 

Spereisen, Jacob A 218 

Spice, John 177 

Spiegel, Gottfried E 219 

Spiegel, Gustave 173 

Stapleford, L. P 41 

Stellhorn, Charles 172 

Stemen, Christian B 352 

Stemen, George B 357 

Stephan, William 107 

Stier, Jacob J 97 

Storm, J. A. M 177 

Strodel, John George 219 

Studer, Himerius L 219 

Stultz, Charles E 362 

Sturgis, Charles E 338 

Stutz, John A 361 

Suelzer, John 238 

Sullivan, Andrew 220 

Summers, James 220 

Sweet, Samuel B 68 

Sweringen, H. V 346 

Tagtmeyer, David 137 

Tapp, Herman W 236 

Taylor, John M 398 

Taylor, Robert S 488 

Thieme, Frederick 171 

Thieme, J. G 170 

Thomas, William A 125 

Thompson, M. M 401 

Thompson, Nelson 137 

Thompson, Nelson W 73 

Thompson, Richard G 70 

Tinkham, John P 220 

Torrence, George K 190 

Tower, Alexander M 112 

Trautman. John 274 

Tresselt, Christian 48 

Trentman, August C 147 

Trentman, Bernard 148 

Underhill, Elliot S 141 

Urbine, James 181 

Van Buskirk, A. E 353 

Vesey, William J. . 504 

Veniard, Rev. Felix 431 

Viberg, George H 398 

Virgil, Thomas S 348 

Volland, Henry 50 

Wa^enhals, Samuel 312 

Wagner, John C 175 

Wahrenberp, Fred 27'4 

Weber, Andrew 107 

Weil Brothers 185 

Weisell, David D 371 

Wenninghoff , Christian 221 

Wheelock, E. G 341 

Wheelock, Kent K 342 

White, James B 154 

Wichman, A. C. F 124 



INDEX TO VOLUME II. 



Wilder, Joseph H 99 

Wilkens, Jacob V 231 

Wilkinson, Frank 272 

Williams, Jesse L 61 

Wilson, John 221 

Wilson, Thomas W 506 

Winbaugh, George W 144 



Winch, Calvin J 133 

Wise, William 222 

Withers, W. H 479 

Wolf, Louis 158 

Wood, George W 322 

Woodworth, Alonzo L 110 

Woodworth, B. S 340 



Page. 

Woolsey, Hiram B 103- 

Worden, James L 465 

Worley, George N 368 

Yergens, William 130 

Zolla'-s, Allen 490 

Zurbuch, Joseph F 222 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Bass, J. H 96 

Benoit, Rev. Julian 424 

Boseker, Christian 192 

Brackenridge, Joseph 304 

Brooks, W. A 336 

Carson, W. W 480 

Colerick, David H 448 

Edgerton, J. K 64 

Ferguson, John 128 



Page. 

Griebel, A. L 288 

Hackett, E. A. K 320 

Leonard, N. R 320 

Loag, George W 384 

Lowry, Robert 496 

Moellering, William 256 

Monning, Henry 416 

Mowrer, Isaac 468 



Old Fort Frontispiece. 

Page, William D 320 

Sarnighausen, J. D 320 

School for Feeble Minded 224 

Thompson, M. M 400 

Tillo, Charles D 320 

White, J. B 160 

Zollars, Allen 464 



THE CITY OF FORT WAYNE, 

By W. P. COOPER. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, 

By B. S. WOODWORTH, M. D. 

ORGANIZATION. 
CATHOLIC CHURCHES, 

By Rev. JOHN F. LANG. 

COURTS OF ALLEN COUNTY, 

By Judge ALLEN ZOLLARS. 



THE CITY OF FORT WAYNE. 



THE CANAL ERA. 




HILE journeying from east to west on the New York, 
Chicago & St. Louis railway, the traveler experiences in 
western Ohio an uninteresting ride through heavily-wooded 
districts until, a half hour after crossing the Indiana line, he 
comes suddenly to a noble river, along whose precipitous 
banks he is whirled for several miles. Houses multiply, 
and are seen to be aligned in streets; the smoke of many 
factories curls about the train, shutting out the glimpses 
of stately churches, tall business blocks, tasteful residences and the other 
abundant evidences of a rich and prosperous city. 

The journey is now along an abandoned water way. Suddenly, 
close to the railroad, but high above it, comes in view a modest little 
park. On a tall staff floats the American flag and from the well kept 
enclosure a cannon looks out, as if to keep watch and ward against 
assailants, who may be expected to swarm up from the valley below. In 
a moment more the train halts and the passengers for Fort Wayne 
alight. 

The river whose meanderings he has followed is the Maumee; the 
abandoned water way is what remains of the Wabash & Erie canal; 
the little park with its flag-staff and cannon mark the site of old Fort 
Wayne, and the traveler stands upon a bustling depot platform which 
has taken the place of a part of the canal dock along which the business 
of the town was for many years transacted. 

The stores that line the old dock in solid rank have made a right- 
about face from the line of the canal and front upon a handsome street, 
but over what are now the back doors of the oldest of them may yet 
be seen signs of quaint and indistinct lettering advising the world that 
West India goods, sugar, rope, provisions, rum, and what not, are to be 
had within. 

Not until the days of railroads did the commerce of Fort Wayne 
begin to forsake the old waterway, and then the city passed forever 
from an interesting era that people love to chat about. The event of 
the day, the day of forty years ago, was the arrival of the gorgeous 
packet. It was drawn by better-whipped mules than those that tugged 
at the slower freight boats; and was a craft of larger size and fitted 
with comfortable accommodations for a passage of many days and 
nights. A packet's approach to a town was always heralded by a great 
ii 



1 8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

blowing of horns from the deck, followed by a prodigious bustling of 
the tradesmen on the wharf, and the hurrying to the dock of no small 
portion of the population. The passengers, having debarked, were 
refreshed at the public houses, made purchases, were questioned about 
the places they came from, the object of their journeys, and were 
thoroughly interrogated for the news that mail and telegraph now 
supply. 

Then the horn summoned on board those who were to continue their 
voyage, the swaggering driver, in slouch hat and top boots, cracked his 
whip, away trotted the mules toward the next stopping place and the 
bustle on the wharf was over until the approach of the next packet boat 
was sounded. 

Though the Wabash & Erie canal has long been a thing of the 
past, it was the most important factor in the development of Indiana and 
the northwest, and the accomplishment of its construction will always 
remain a monument to the memory of a few far-sighted and energetic 
pioneer citizens. It was a most stupendous work of internal improve- 
ment — the largest continuous line of artificial water communication in 
the world, and did more to give to Fort Wayne its early impetus than 
all other agencies combined. All of the more important towns of the 
northern Indiana counties, through which it passed, have similarly pros- 
pered, and have grown to be large and wealthy county seats, viz. : Fort 
Wayne, Huntington, Wabash, Peru, Logansport, Delphi and LaFayette, 
and by reason of the earlier advantages derived from the canal, have 
easily outstripped all neighboring places in both population and business. 
Indeed the first car of progress was not drawn through the Maumee 
and Wabash valleys by the shrieking locomotive, but by the patient and 
plodding mule. 

The plan for uniting by canal the waters of Lake Erie, with those of 
the Ohio river is said to have been entertained by Gen. Washington, a 
practical surveyor, but the glory of the accomplishment of the great 
undertaking rests principally with Hon. Samuel Hanna and Mr. David 
Burr of Fort Wayne. It is related that in a familiar conversation had 
in a summer house, attached to his then residence at the northwest cor- 
ner of Barr and Berry streets, Judge Hanna first broached the subject 
to David Burr. The latter was a man of broad character and great 
ability and much influence. He entered into the spirit of the undertak- 
ing with great ardor and in frequent meetings the plans were matured 
which bore such grand fruitage. For some time before this the project 
of an artificial waterway from the Ohio river to Lake Erie had been 
agitated in Ohio, and a survey of the Miami canal was made in 1824, under 
the direction of Micajah T. Williams, an elder brother of Jesse L. Will- 
iams, who was connected with the party of surveyors. This survey was 
carried to Defiance, on the Maumee and thence to the lake, forming a 
southern branch of the great system. The canal was anticipated in the 
treaty of 1826 with the Miami Indians, in which, where the reservations 
were mentioned, it was stipulated, that the state of Indiana may lay out 



THE CANAL ERA. 



I 9 



a canal or road through any of these reservations, and for the use of a 
canal, six chains along the same are hereby appropriated. 

Messrs. Hanna and Burr supplied themselves with facts touching the 
length and direction of the proposed canal, and became acquainted with 
the engineering difficulties in the way of the undertaking, and they began 
a correspondence with the representatives of Indiana in congress, and 
so impressed upon their minds the importance and feasibility of the pro- 
ject that a survey of the canal by a corps of the United States topo- 
graphical engineers was ordered. As has been previously mentioned, 
this corps, under Col. James Shriver, worked heroically on the survey 
from the mouth of the Tippecanoe to the head of the Maumee rapids, 
though Shriver and Moore, his successor, fell victims to malaria. The 
survey was completed to the Maumee bay by Col. Howard Stansbury, 
who was one of the original party. This work was begun at Fort 
Wayne in May or June, 1826, and completed in 1828. 

Then followed an act of congress, approved March 2, 1827, grant- 
ing to the state of Indiana " every alternate section of land, equal to five 
miles in width for six miles on both sides of the proposed line and 
throughout its whole length for the purpose of constructing a canal from 
the head of navigation on the Wabash at the mouth of the Tippecanoe 
river to the foot of the Maumee rapids. This munificent grant of 
land, amounting to 3,200 acres for every one of the 213 miles of the 
proposed work, was the first of any magnitude made by congress for 
the promotion of public works, and initiated the policy of land grants 
afterward so liberally pursued. A subsequent act approved May 24,. 
1828, provided for a similar grant to Ohio for the southern branch, and 
also for the cession to Ohio by Indiana of the territory granted to Indi- 
ana within the Ohio boundary. Commissioners were appointed by each 
state, W. Tillman on the part of Ohio, and Jeremiah Sullivan on the 
part of Indiana, who arranged a treaty between the two states, by which 
Ohio agreed to construct the part of the Wabash & Erie canal in her 
territory in exchange for the land granted to Indiana between the lake 
and the Ohio boundary. 

The prominence into which Messrs. Hanna and Burr grew as the 
champions of such an important work appears to have excited a strange 
and powerful opposition, but Judge Hanna, in a hard-fought contest, 
was elected to the legislature as the special champion of the canal policy. 
The grant of land was accepted by the Indiana legislature in the session 
of 1828, and the sum of $1,000 was appropriated to purchase the nec- 
essary engineering instruments and make a survey of the summit level. 
Samuel Hanna, David Burr and Robert John were appointed a board of 
canal commissioners, and ordered to make the survey mentioned. 

Mr. Hanna went to New York, purchased the necessary outfit of 
instruments and returned by way of Detroit, bringing the instruments 
from the latter place by horse-back to Fort Wayne. John Smythe, the 
engineer, accomplished no more, after arriving at Fort Wayne, than to 
gauge the river and adjust his instruments when he became a victim to 



20 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

the diseases of the region, and Judge Hanna and Mr. Burr were com- 
pelled to take it up, with the aid of a surveyor and finish it without the 
assistance of the engineer. They provided for the construction of a 
dam on the St. Joseph river six miles north of the town, from which 
point a feeder canal led an abundant supply of water to a point a mile 
west of the town, where the main line was intersected. During the year 
1830, the middle or summit division was located and prepared for con- 
tract by Engineer Joseph Ridgeway. At the legislative session of 
1 83 1-2, the canal commissioners were authorized to place the middle 
division under contract, creating a board of fund commissioners, and 
authorizing a loan of $200,000 on the credit of the state. At the 
first meeting of this board at Indianapolis, in the spring of 1832, it 
was found that the total amount realized from the sale of canal lands 
was $28,651. During this spring Jesse L. Williams was appointed chief 
engineer. 

Here, to give an intelligent idea of this great work, from an engi- 
neering point of view, it will be well to quote the altitudes of various 
points along its line and at the sources oj the streams which were to 
supply it. The elevation of the Maumee above the level of Lake Erie 
at the head of the rapids is sixty-two feet, at Defiance eighty feet, at the 
state line 135 feet, at Fort Wayne 163 feet. The summit level of the 
water of the canal was 193 feet above the lake, two feet higher than 
the marsh which is the summit between the Maumee and Wabash riv- 
ers. The surface of the head branch of the St. Joseph is at an altitude 
of 423 feet; Jackson railroad track at north line of Allen county, 270 
feet. The reservoir at Rome city, built by the state in 1838, to aid in 
supplying a proposed canal from Fort Wayne to Lake Michigan, has 
an altitude of 367 feet. Low water of the Wabash at the forks, 126 
feet. The formal breaking of the ground, with such ceremonies as could 
be performed in a little frontier town, was performed at Fort Wayne 
just in time to save the land grant under the limitation of the act of 
congress. 

The ceremony attending the commencement of the work of build- 
ing the canal is interestingly described in the Cass County Times of 
March 2nd, 1832. The preceding birthday of Washington, February 
22nd, had been selected as an auspicious time for the beginning, and by 
order of the board of canal commissioners, J. Vigus, esq., was author- 
ized to procure the necessary tools and assistance and repair to the most 
convenient point on the St. Joseph feeder-line at 2 o'clock on that day 
for the purpose named. A public meeting was called at the Masonic 
hall and was attended by all prominent citizens not only of Fort Wayne, 
but of the Wabash and Maumee valleys. Henry Rudisill was 
chairman and David H. Colerick, secretar}^. A procession was formed 
and proceeded across the St. Mary's river to the point selected. A 
circle was formed and the commissioners and orator took their stand. 
Hon. Charles W. Ewing then delivered an appropriate address and was 
followed by Commissioner Vigus. The latter after adverting to the 



THE CANAL ERA. 21 

difficulties and embarrassments which had beset the undertaking, and 
referring to the importance of the work and the advantages which would 
be realized, concluded by saying: "I am now about to commence the 
Wabash and Erie canal, in the name and by the authority of the state 
of Indiana." He then struck a spade into the ground and the assembled 
gentlemen cheered. Judge Hanna and Captain Murray, two of the able 
advocates of the canal, next approached and commenced an indiscriminate 
digging, and the procession then marched back to the town. 

Laborers were employed in great numbers, among them men who 
afterward grew to wealth and prominence, and the expenditure of money 
thus made necessary had a marked and healthful influence on the busi- 
ness affairs of the place. The first letting of contracts was made in 
June, 1832, under the direction of the then commissioners, David Burr, 
Samuel Lewis and Jordon Vigus, of fifteen miles, and in the fall, four 
miles more, including the feeder-dam, were put under contract. Work 
was done to the amount of $4,180 by the close of that year. In the 
following May the remaining thirteen miles of the summit division were 
let, and in 1835 this division of thirty-two miles was completed, at the 
small cost, including lockage and an important dam, of $7,177- This 
united the sources of the Wabash with the great lakes, and on the 4th 
of July, the canal boat " Indiana " passed through the canal to Hunting- 
ton. At Fort Wayne, on this occasion there was a great celebration of 
Independence day, with an oration by Hon. Hugh McCulloch. 

The work on the line in Ohio was much delayed by financial diffi- 
culties, soon also to overwhelm the Indiana division. The dilatory action 
of the Ohio government led to the sending of Jesse L. Williams as an 
embassador to Columbus, to hasten the action of that state. The work 
was hastened but proceeded slowly, nevertheless. In 1843, when the 
work was completed, Ohio owed $500 for its share of the work 
and the whole resources and credit of the state was exhausted. The 
position of Indiana was the same, and the work was carried on under 
embarrassments now altogether unknown. In this state, the engineer 
on his own responsibility, procured the printing of notes, bearing interest 
and receivable for canal lands, which became a part of the currency of 
that era, and received the picturesque name of " White Dog." 

The completion of the canal was celebrated July 4th, 1843, by a 
grand demonstration held in Thomas Swinney's grove just west of the 
town. The attendance was beyond any precedent, people coming from 
Cincinnati, Toledo, Detroit, Cleveland and many other points. There 
were few delicacies to serve at that feast and it partook rather of the solid 
and substantial character of the meals of the pioneers and the backwoods 
men. 

Peter Kiser drove a fat ox from the Wea prairie, 145 miles south- 
west of Fort Wayne, at the rate of ten miles a day for the barbacue. 
The principal orator was Gen. Lewis Cass, the projector of the great 
Erie canal in New York state. His speech is still recalled by the older 
residents as glowingly anticipating the development of the country the 



22 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

canal would make possible, a development he might have added quite 
beyond the ability of the orator or his hearers to comprehend. The 
remarks of Gen. Cass were punctuated by frequent firing of a cannon 
that had been captured from the British by Commodore Perry, and which 
now does service as a hitching post in front of Hon. F. P. Randall's 
residence. 

Fast fading from the memory of man are the recollections of that 
historic celebration. The orator has been dead nearly half a century. 
Judge Hanna and the other projectors of the canal have long since passed 
away, and there remains of those who gathered in Swinney's grove but 
a few white haired men and women. Peter Kiser the butcher, survives. 
He has since served in the legislature, and for thirty years kept a gen- 
eral store,- which old settlers made headquarters. He was the last of 
the earlier merchants, and is nearly the only living connection between 
the prosperous and wealthy city of Fort Wayne and the straggling vil- 
lage that gathered about the historic fort. 

The first canal boat at Fort Wayne, was one built in 1834 by F. P. 
Tinkham, to add to the pleasures of the 4th of July celebration of 
that year. In the following year Capt. Asa Fairfield had a boat built, the 
" Indiana," which under the command of Oliver Fairfield, an old sea cap- 
tain, started on the 4th of July from Fort Wayne to Huntington, carry- 
ing a large party of gentlemen, including Dr. L. G. Thompson, Judge 
Hanna, Allen Hamilton, Samuel and William S. Edsall, W. G. and 
G. W. Ewing, Francis Comparet, Capt. J. B. Bourie, William Rockhill, 
Col. John Spencer, J. L. Williams, D. H. Colerick, L. P. Ferry, James 
Barnett and others. Thereafter trips were made every day. In 1843, 
Samuel and Archie Mahon began running packets between Toledo and 
Fort Wayne, and in the summer of 1844, a regular line was organized 
by Samuel Doyle and William Dickey, of Dayton, with eleven boats and a 
steam propellor, foruse on both branches of the canal. In 1854, the opening 
of the Wabash railroad caused the withdrawal of the packet lines for- 
ever. Following are the names of the old packet captains: Thomas B. 
Filton, W. S. B. Hubbell, M. Van Home, John M. Wigton, Clark Smith, 
Byron O. Angel, William Sturgiss, Benjamin Ayres, Joseph Hoskinson, 
William Phillips, George Alvord, James Popple, Nathan Nettleton, 
Thomas B. McCarty, Elias Webb, William Dale, George D. Davis and 
J. R. Smith. 

In 1847 the Wabash and Erie canal, under the state debt act, passed 
into the control of the board of three trustees, two of whom were 
appointed by the holders of Indiana bonds and one by the legislature of 
Indiana. 

That portion of the canal running through Fort Wayne, was, as 
has been stated, purchased by the New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
railway company, which has filled it up, turning it into a magnificent 
right of way through the center of the city. The long acqueduct over 
the St. Mary's river, was taken down several years since, and near its site 
has been erected a handsome iron railway bridge. The wide canal just 



THE CANAL ERA. 23 

west of the St. Mary's is filled up and converted into a splendid railway 
yard, capable of the storage of hundreds of cars, and near the point of 
the junction of the old feeder with the main line of the canal, stands the 
company's round-house and repair shops. 

Early Enterprises. — The earlier enterprises of Fort Wayne, speak- 
ing in a mercantile sense, were trading with the Indians for the furs and 
peltries in which this region abounded, and great packs of the skins of 
the beaver, the otter, bear, deer and raccoon were regularly shipped in 
pirogues down the Maumee to Detroit, whence they were taken by 
lake to Buffalo and other commercial centers. 

A peculiar industry was that established on the river bottom near 
where the jail now stands. It was the trying of fish for their oil. This 
business was managed by Cincinnati parties, and had a profitable exist- 
ence of several years. It gave employment to a number of Indians 
and whites who caught and delivered canoe loads of muskalonge and 
other large fish, which were then so plentiful that they were often caught 
on the ripples with the hands of the fishermen or were driven into a 
cove where they were captured in great quantities. 

The forests of northern Indiana have long been celebrated. Nowhere 
was walnut found of finer grade or in more plentiful quantity. Great oak 
trees of the white and red variety had lifted their strong arms in the gales 
of a century and nodded to the straight hickory, the graceful poplar and 
the stalwart ash. The early settlers who set about hewing farms out of 
the wilderness gave to the business of saw-milling its early prominence, 
and at many points where a water power could be had by damming the 
streams, the sawing of logs into lumber was extensively carried on, the 
farmer being glad enough to rid his land of an incumbrance so great as 
a grove of walnut trees. Where the distance to the saw-mills was 
great these trees were cut up into rails, or oftener still, were burned. 
The first steam saw-mill of Fort Wayne, and one of the best known in 
northern Indiana, was that established by George Baker and his two 
sons, John and Jacob, on lot No. 7, county addition, corner of La- 
Fayette and Water streets, and lying between the canal and St. Mary's 
river. The situation was exceedingly advantageous and permitted ship- 
ments of logs by canal, river or wagon road. The mill was fitted with 
two " muley " saws and employed ten men. It is still operated by Kil- 
lian Baker, but its capacity of 5,ood feet a day is not now often tested. 

In 1842-43 William Rockhili and Samuel Edsall built two saw-mills 
on the north side of the canal and on the east side of St. Mary's river, 
and having effected a lease with the canal company for water privilege, 
built two saw-mills and operated them for a number of years. 

In 1848 William H. Coombs and Mr. Edsall built a steam saw-mill 
on the north side of the canal on lot No. 568, Hanna's addition, and in 
1862 a large and splendidly equipped saw-mill of two stories in height, 
was established on the north bank of the canal between Ewing and 
Cass streets. The original proprietors were John B. Krudup, Louis 
Schroeder, Fred Brandt and Julius Kenoder, the firm's title being 



24 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Krudup & Co. After many changes in partners the mill was sold in 
December, 1876, to D. Tagtmeyer, who continues to operate it. This 
mill's average daily work was the sawing of 4,000 feet of lumber. The 
circular saw was sixty inches in diameter. The capital employed was 
$6,000. 

Other saw-mills were there of H. G. Olds on the north bank of the 
canal at Coombs street bridge and a saw-mill operated in connection 
with the Beaver, or Esmond, grist-mill at the crossing of the St. Mary's 
river by Broadway and the one established on the Maumee river near 
the foot of Hanover street by Mr. Coles. This mill was afterward sold 
to Marshall Wines. 

But by far the most important of the saw-mills is the one of most 
recent establishment. Reference is made to the band saw-mill con- 
structed on the south bank of the old canal between Van Buren and 
Jackson streets in 1S68 by Hoffman Brothers. This firm leads all others 
in America in the extent of its walnut lumber business, and has for a 
number of years been quoted as the largest owner of this timber in 
America. The firm is composed of Messrs. A. E. and W. H. Hoffman, 
and was established nearly twenty years ago. The shops have grown 
to vast proportions and are occupied in the manufacture of fine hard 
wood lumber for house furnishing and for furniture. A capital of 
$300,000 is employed, and the firm has constantly in its employ from 
150 to 200 men. Eight timber buyers make purchases in Kansas, Mis- 
souri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, West Virginia, and other 
states. These mills have cut 125,000 feet of lumber per week. A new 
300 horse-power engine has just been added to the works. The yards 
of the firm have become so extensive that every foot of ground that 
can be leased within three blocks of their mills is covered by their lum- 
ber and logs. 

The first grist-mill was built in 1827 by James Barnett and Samuel 
Hanna on the west bank of the St. Mary's river, near the crossing of 
the Bluffton road. The mill was sold to Louis H. Davis, who again 
sold to Asa Fairfield and Samuel C. Freeman, who in turn sold to 
A. C. Beaver. It was next sold to George Esmund, and was destroyed 
by fire on February 27th, 1878. Mr. Esmund immediately organized a 
company of which the late O. A. Simons, banker, was a principal mem- 
ber, and erected on the site of the old structure a splendidly equipped 
brick mill three stories in height, 44 by 64 feet, fitted with three pow- 
erful turbine wheels and five run of stone. The establishment had a 
storage capacity of 10,000 bushels and could manufacture eighty barrels 
of flour a day. The failing health of Mr. Esmond induced the sale of 
this mill to Messrs Tevis & Proctor, and in 1888 it too was burned 
down and has not been rebuilt. 

Along the canal which early became the great highway for grain 
shipments, a number of good grist-mills and warehouses sprang up. In 
1842-43 the City mills were established by Messrs. Allen Hamilton and 
Jesse L. Williams on the north bank of the canal, between Calhoun and 



THE CANAL ERA. 



25 



Clinton streets. The business was very successful. Within a few years 
Mr. Hamilton retired, and later Pliny Hoagland was admitted as a part- 
ner. After some changes Mr. Christian Tresselt was admitted in 1870, 
and since the death of Mr. Hoagland he has been the principal owner. 
The power was furnished by an over-shot wheel, supplied with water 
from the canal, but since the occupancy of the canal held by the New 
York, Chicago & St. Louis railway, this power has been lost and the 
mill is devoted to warehousing only. 

For many years the Woodlawn mill or Wines mill was one of the 
best known. It was erected in 1838, by Marshall Wines at a dam 
thrown across the Maumee river near the foot of Hanover street and a 
short distance west of the old canal lock. Mr. Wines sold to Samuel 
Hanna and Ochnig Bird. Subsequent owers were Bostick & Frone- 
field, Fronefield & Volland, Trentman & Volland, Orff & Volland, 
Comparet & Haskell, and finally Esthen A. Orff, during whose owner- 
ship the mill was burned, ten years ago. The floods have since nearly 
obliterated the dam. This mill had a capacity of fifty barrels of flour a 
day, and at the time of its greatest prosperity a capital of $6,000 was 
invested. 

The Empire mills or the " Stone mill,"as it used to be called, is one 
of the few old ones that continue to grind. It is the largest in this part 
of the state, and is probably the best known. Its building was begun 
by Samuel Edsall in July, 1843, and it was first put in operation in 1845. 
Soon afterward Milford Smith was admitted to partnership, and in 1856 
the property was sold in its entirety to Messrs. Orff, Armstrong & Lacy. 
Mr. Lacy died, and Mr. Armstrong retired, and since then the business 
has been continued by Mr. John Orff. For a long time, however, the 
active management of affairs has been in the very capable hands of his 
two sons, Edward A. and Montgomery Orff. The elder son, Mr. John 
R. Orff, is the miller. A grain warehouse has of late years been added 
to the mill. The capacity, under the old process, was 200 barrels per 
day, but under the new process it is twenty-five barrels less. The capi- 
tal employed is $6,000. The power was originally supplied by a great 
overshot wheel which was fed from the canal, but a 100 horse-power 
engine was afterward put in, and since the abandonment of the canal 
the sole reliance for power is upon steam. 

In 1853 George Little and Hugh McCulloch built an elevator on the 
south bank of the canal near the foot of Maiden Lane. The elevator 
was afterward converted into a grist-mill, and was the first steam flour- 
ing mill to be operated in Fort Wayne. From 1855 to 1859 ^ was 
owned and run by William Pratt & Co., who sold to John Brown. 
In 1867 it was sold to Hill, Orbison & Whiting, and in 1869 was 
destroyed by fire. 

One of the best known among the early business houses was that 
of Comparet & Hubbell, forwarding and commission merchants. The 
business was established in 1846 by Joseph J. and David Y. Comparet. 
In 1850 M. W. Hubbell was admitted to partnership. In 1857 a three- 



26 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

story steam grist-mill was built which, like so many other of the mills, 
was destroyed by fire. This occurred in 1861. In 1862 Mr. D. F. 
Comparet having succeeded to the sole ownership of the business 
erected another grist mill on the same sight. The capital invested was 
$35,000. The mill was sold to A. Powers in 1871. Next year he died 
and the business was carried on by L. P. Stapleford & Co. until Decem- 
ber, 1876, when fire wrecked the property and the busiuess of milling 
was not resumed. 

The first mill operated by an overshot wheel in this section of the 
country was that built on the St. Joseph river, a mile north of the city, 
by Henry Rudisill and Henry Johns, and this is said to be the first of 
the local mills to manufacture merchantable flour. The building and the 
dam were commenced in 1830. The mill was first known as Johns' 
mill and after Mr. Johns' death was known as Rudisill's mill, taking the 
name of the surviving partner. Mr. Rudisill died February 6, 1858, 
and was succeeded by his son Henry J. Rudisill. He was succeeded in 
1866 by John E. Hill & Co. The mill is not now in operation and is 
somewhat dismantled. The property has passed into the hands of 
Messrs. John H. Bass and the estate of O. A. Simons, principal owners 
of the canal feeder. It has one of the most valuable water powers in 
the state and its value is being increased by leading water from the level 
of the canal feeder to the mill, giving a fall of some eighteen feet with 
an abundant supply of water. This splendid power will be utilized to 
operate the power station of the Jenney Electric Light compan} r , which 
has been newly established within a few yards of the mill, and power 
will be cheaply let to other manufactories by the Fort Wayne Water 
Power company, which owns the property. The water of the St. 
Joseph river will be reinforced by Fish lake, in DeKalb county. 

Before the heavy tax was laid upon distilled spirits their manufacture 
in Fort Wayne was profitably carried on. William Rockhill, in 1836, 
built the first distillery, on the north bank of the canal immediately in 
the right of way of the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad. It was con- 
structed of hewn logs and was two stories high. A man named Hays 
succeeded to the business and the building was abandoned in 1841. 
By far the best known distillery was that built in 1840, by Francis 
Comparet on the south side of the canal, just west of where Coombs street 
now crosses. It was two stories in height. Mr. Comparet conducted the 
business for ten years, when he leased the premises to Jesse Smith and 
J. Dudley. They subsequently removed to Peru, and in December, 1848, 
the common council by ordinance, prohibited any distilling of liquors 
within the city limits. 

The history of a city, however earnest may be the attempt at gen- 
eralization, can best be told by the narrative of the deeds of the men who 
worked together for its upbuilding. Of some of those prominent in the 
history of Fort Wayne, as this account 'of its progress proceeds, brief 
mention will be made, and here appropriately may be noticed some of 
the early residents, sketches of whom have not already appeared in the 



THE CANAL ERA. 27 

account of " the village of the fort." Among these now to be mentioned 
are still honored and leading citizens. 

Of Samuel Hanna, whose name frequently occurs in this work, it 
may be said without exaggeration, that it is impossible to write an ade- 
quate account of his life without reciting the history of Fort Wayne, nor 
is it possible to give a complete history of the city without embodying an 
account of his career. Loving biographers have detailed the events of 
his life with much care, and in this work little more than a brief outline 
can be attempted, in addition to what appears throughout its pages. 
Samuel Hanna was born October 18, 1797? in Scott county, Ky. His 
father, James Hanna, removed to Dayton, Ohio, in 1804, and cleared 
him a farm near the site of that town. Here Samuel's early days were 
passed, and his educational privileges were no greater than those of 
most pioneer boys. His first occupation, away from home, was as a post- 
rider, distributing newspapers to subscribers throughout the country, 
there then being no mail service for that purpose. In his nineteenth 
year he was a clerk in a Piqua store, and he and another ambitious young 
tradesman bought out the store, giving their note for $3,000. Soon 
afterward these notes were transferred to an innocent purchaser, and a 
writ of attachment followed, taking the goods away from Hanna and 
his partner. The notes being pressed for collection the partner pleaded 
infancy, a valid defense, but Hanna refused to do so, and though he had 
been swindled, he declared his purpose to pay his obligations in full. 
When he was able he did so, principal and interest. Such incidents as 
these explain the remarkable strength he afterward had in the financial 
world, and the almost unbounded credit which enabled him to assume 
the main burden of great enterprises. After teaching school some time, 
he next became prominent as a purveyor at the treaty at St. Mary's in 
1 81 8, with his brother Thomas. They hauled provisions from Troy, 
Ohio, and by their enterprise secured a small sum of money, a little of 
which was potent in those days on the frontier. At St. Mary's he 
decided to come to Fort Wayne, and at this little settlement he arrived 
in 1819. He established a trading-post in a log cabin, the work on 
which was mostly by his own hands, on the northwest corner of Colum- 
bia and Barr streets, thoroughfares at that time, however, unknown. In 
the Indian trade Mr. Hanna was a notable exception to those harpies 
who unscrupulously enriched themselves, and his fair and honorable 
dealing endeared him to the red men, and afterward to the settlers who 
took the place of his dusky customers. Legitimate profits were the 
basis of his princely fortune, upon which foundation he built with a rare 
business sagacity, and an economy which dissuaded him from spending 
$1 for personal luxuries until he was worth $50,000. During the period 
of his early trade here, manufactured goods were purchased in Boston 
or New York, and came by the lakes, and down the Maumee in piro- 
gues, or were brought from Detroit with pack-horses. Provisions of 
all kinds were brought from southwestern Ohio, by way of the St. Mary's 
river, in the care of sturdy boatmen who were frequently delayed by 



28 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

fallen trees which barred the stream until they were cut away. These 
discomforts of commerce early turned the attention of Mr. Hanna to the 
improvement of routes of transportation. Before the time of canal agi- 
tation began he had widely extended his possessions. He had acted several 
years as agent of the American fur company, and was rapidly acquiring 
land throughout Indiana. His influence was aided also by his service 
as the first associate judge of Allen county. The canal project had its 
inception in a conversation between Judge Hanna and David Burr, at 
the home of the former, and their efforts secured the land grant by 
congress. There was opposition to the acceptance of the grant and 
Judge Hanna was elected to the legislature as a champion of the canal. 
He had previously served in the house in 1S26, and his subsequent 
membership of that body was in 183 1 and 1840. He also served in the 
senate from 1832 to 1836. He went to New York to purchase the 
instruments, which he brought on horseback from Detroit to Fort 
Wayne, when the survey was begun on the St. Joseph river, Mr. Burr 
acting as rod-man and Mr. Hanna as axe-man, both at $1.0 per month. 
The climate vanquished the engineer on the second day, and the two 
invincible pioneers continued the work alone. They reported to the 
next legislature, and Judge Hanna being a member, secured the passage 
of an act authorizing the construction of the canal. 

No one contributed more to the success of the work in the early and 
trying years of its history than Samuel Hanna. From 1828 to 1836 he 
was successively canal commissioner and fund commissioner, negotiat- 
ing the money with which the work was carried on, besides acting in 
the legislature as chairman of the canal committee. 

During the same period he took a prominent part in the organiza- 
tion of the financial policy of the state, subsequent to the veto of the 
United States bank act. The creation of state banks being recom- 
mended by the president, Judge Hanna was given an opportunity to con- 
sider the proper measures to take in that direction. He strenuously 
opposed and defeated a measure proposed, and in the next legislature 
was given, as chairman of the committee having the measure in charge, 
the duty of drafting a charter. This he did so wisely that the state 
banking system of Indiana, which stood until the time of civil war, was 
always substantial, and a credit to Indiana. A branch was at once 
established at Fort Wayne, of which Judge Hanna was president for a 
considerable period. 

In 1836, Judge Hanna purchased the remaining land interests of 
Barr & McCorkle, now within the city limits, and until the opening of 
the canal brought a large increase of population he was much em- 
barrassed by this absorption of his capital. But he never distressed 
those who had purchased his lands and failed in meeting their obliga- 
tions, preferring to suffer inconvenience himself, and many landowners 
owe their prosperity to-day to his kindness. After the building of the 
canal, an era followed in improvement which may be termed the plank 
road epoch. Jesse Vermilyea visited some of these highways in the 



THE CANAL ERA. 29 

east and Canada, and his report incited Judge Hanna and others, to the 
construction of such roads for the benefit of Fort Wayne. A route 
was provided by the canal from east to west, substantially that of the 
Wabash railway of to-day, and now a route from north to south, a fore- 
runner of the Grand Rapids & Indiana road, was a desideratum. The 
Fort Wayne & Lima (LaGrange county) plank road company was 
organized, and stock subscriptions solicited. But cash was very scarce, 
and subscriptions were mostly made in goods, land and labor. Nearly 
all the necessary capital was borrowed from the branch bank, and this 
was expended in erecting saw-mills. Contractors being timid, Judge 
Hanna himself, took the first ten miles north of Fort Wayne and per- 
sonally superintended and ax in hand, did much of the work. Like a 
born general, he led, and as a necessary sequel, others followed. With 
the efficient co-operation of William Mitchell, Drusus Nichols and others, 
within two years there was a plank road from Fort Wayne to Ontario, 
a distance of fifty miles. This, the pioneer plank road of northern 
Indiana, was followed by the Piqua road, in which Mr. Hanna was also 
an indispensable factor. Now the era opened in which the prosperity of 
cities depended upon the building of railroads, and again Judge Hanna 
led the army of progress. Peculiarly in this direction did he have great 
influence upon the future of Fort Wayne, in the growth of which the 
railroad industries have had a predominant part. When that grand 
national line of railway, which is now the pride and strength of Fort 
Wayne, and with which his name is forever identified, the Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago railway, was first projected — beginning with 
the section from Pittsburgh to Massillon, thence from Massillon to Crest- 
line, thence from Crestline to Fort Wayne, and finally developing in the 
grand idea of a consolidated continuous line of railway from Pittsburg 
to Chicago — Judge Hanna was among the first to see, to appreciate, 
and to take hold of the golden enterprise, that was, in ten years' time, 
to bring up Fort Wayne from the condition of an insignificent country 
town, to rank and dignity among the first commercial and manufactur- 
ing towns of Indiana. When the construction reached Crestline, Judge 
Hanna and his friends induced the voting of a subscription of $100,000 
by Allen county, which was the turning point toward the completion of 
the enterprise. He and Pliny Hoagland and William Mitchell took the 
contract for the construction of the section from Crestline to Fort 
Wayne, 131 miles, but in a short time funds gave out, the work stopped, 
and gloom overspread the hopes of the city. Dr. Merriman, the presi- 
dent of the company, resigned. In this emergency, the great strength 
of character of Samuel Hanna was the unfailing resource. He was 
elected president, and in three days was in the ea st, pledging the indi- 
vidual credit of the contractors for the necessary funds. Being success- 
ful, he hastened to Montreal and Quebec, and redeemed the iron, which 
was held for transportation charges. The work was resumed, and in 
November, 1854, the trains from Philadelphia ran into Fort W ayne. 
While yet overwhelmed with the work just mentioned, the Fort 



30 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Wayne & Chicago railroad company was organized, and Judge Hanna 
elected president. Money was to be derived from the sale of stocks 
and bonds, and stock subscriptions which were paid in cash amounted 
to less than three per cent, of the cost of construction and equipment. 
The main part of the subscriptions were paid in land and labor. The 
sale of bonds was slow and discouraging. 

Quoting again the appreciative words of Hon. J. K. Edgertoun : The 
powerful corporation, now so strong and prosperous, measuring its 
annual income by well-nigh half a score of millions of dollars, from the fall 
of 1854, to the close of i860, passed through a fearful struggle, not only for 
the completion of its work, but for its own corporate and financial life. 
The financial disasters of 1857 found the consolidated company with an 
incomplete road, with meager revenues, and a broken credit. Many of 
its best friends, even among its own managers, were inclined to grow 
weary and to faint by the way. Through all this trying period no man 
worked more faithfully and hopefully, or was consulted more freely, or 
leaned upon with more confidence, than Judge Hanna. He was a 
tower of strength to an almost ruined enterprise. He was at brief times 
gloomy and desponding, but he was a man of large hope, and a robust 
physical organization, that eminently fitted him to stand up and toil on to a 
successful end. No man who has ever been connected with the manage- 
ment of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad has had a larger 
share of confidence of all interested in it than Judge Hanna possessed. 
In all phases of the company's affairs, in the midst of negotiations involv- 
ing the most vital interests in Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Philadel- 
phia and New York, surrounded by the most sagacious financiers and 
railway men of the country, such men as J. F. D. Lanier, Richard H. 
Winslow, John Ferguson, Charles Moran, J. Edgar Thompson, William 
B. Ogden, George W. Cass and Amasa Stone. There was in Judge 
Hanna a weight of character, a native sagacity and far-seeing judg- 
ment, and a fidelity of purpose to the public trust he represented, that 
commanded the respect of all, and made him a peer of the ablest of 
them. Judge Hanna was especially the advocate and guardian of the 
local interests of the road. He was ever watchful for the home stock- 
holders, the local trade, the rights and interests of the towns and coun- 
ties on the railway, and of the men who worked on the road. In those 
dark days, when the company could not, or did not, always pay its men, 
and suffering and strikes were impending, Judge Hanna sympathized 
with, and did all he could for, the men on the road who earned their 
daily bread by the work of their hands. He had always in his mind the 
welfare of Fort Wayne, and worked unceasingly for the establishment 
of the immense shops of the company at this city. In this he had the 
aid of able men, but he had to encounter the opposition of others no less 
active. By direct demand, by strategy and invincible persistence, in the 
meetings of the directors, he pursued his object to success. Before the 
road reached Chicago, the consolidation and formation of the great 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company was accomplished, 



THE CANAL ERA. 3 1 

mainly through the efforts of Judge Hanna, who became vice president. 
The road being completed to Plymouth, there was sentiment in favor of 
using another line from that point to Chicago, but Mr. Hanna pressed 
for an independent through line, and was soon successful. 

About three months before the end of his career he was called to a 
meeting at Grand Rapids of the directors of the proposed Grand Rap- 
ids & Indiana railroad company, another project which languished, and 
was chosen president of the company, though he feared to assume the 
responsibility. In addition to these greater projects, he was a partner 
in the establishment of the woolen factory, the great Bass foundry and 
machine shops, and the Olds manufactories, to the founding of which he 
contributed capital. His religious training was in the faith of the Pres- 
byterian church, of which his father was an elder for some fifty years. 
He joined that church in 1843, and was a ruling elder during the greater 
part of the remainder of his life. His last illness was of short duration. 
Taken ill June 6, 1866, he died on the nth. The city mourned as it 
never had before. The council, passing resolutions of sorrow, adjourned; 
houses were draped with somber crape; and the railroad shops and 
buildings were festooned with evergreen, through which ran the inscrip- 
tion, " Samuel Hanna, the Workingman's Friend." The bells of all the 
churches tolled in unison while a procession two miles in length followed 
his mortal remains to the grave. 

Marked features of Judge Hanna's character were his untiring 
energy, hopefulness and self-reliance. He was not a polished or highly 
educated man, but enjoyed the benefits of a higher education than 
schools can give. He was eminently a leader, a general of civil life, an 
administrator of affairs. Not a man of minutas or notably systematic, 
his office was to call such intellects as lieutenants to his service, while he 
held in his broad and comprehensive mind the great plan with all its 
bearings and objects. He was a planter and builder, rather than a leg- 
islator. With high elements of statesmanship in his character, the work 
that lay before him was of the formative kind, and to him was given 
the opportunity to be higher than a statesman, in that he was one of 
those great characters of imperishable memory, who are known as the 
builders of cities and the founders of commonwealths. Like all such 
men his private character was irreproachable and his family life quaint 
and lovable. A monument to this noble man stands in Lindenwood, but 
Fort Wayne itself is his most worthy memorial, and right worthily 
might be copied for Samuel Hanna that famous epitaph to the architect 
of the great London cathedral, "Si monumentum requiris, circumspice." 

William G. and George W. Ewing, prominent in the early history of 
Fort Wayne, were sons of Col. Alexander Ewing, who was born in Penn- 
sylvania, in 1753, the third son of Alexander Ewing, a native of Ireland. 
Alexander enlisted in the revolutionary war at the age of sixteen, and 
served during the last three<years of that struggle. In 1787 he engaged 
in a trading expedition to the Six Nation Indian tribes, and established a 
post in the wilderness on Buffalo creek, now the site of the city of 



32 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Buffalo. He prospered here, and a few years later settled on a splendid 
farm, on the Genesee, about sixty miles above Rochester. Here he 
was married to Charlotte Griffith, a sister of Captain William Griffith, 
who was one of the garrison at Chicago at the time of the massacre. 
In 1802 thev removed to the river Raisin and settled near where the town 
of Monroe now is, and in 1807, they moved again and settled in the town 
of Washington, Ohio, now called Piqua, and lived there and at Troy 
until 1822, when they came to Fort Wayne. Here Col. Ewing died Jan- 
uary 27, 1822. During the war of 181 2 he served in a company of scouts 
under his brother-in-law, Capt. Griffith, and there gained his honorary 
title. His wife passed away March 13, 1843. Their children were: 
Sophie C, who married Judge Hood: Charles Wayne, formerly presi- 
dent judge of the eighth judicial circuit of Indiana; William G.; Alexan- 
der H., a successful merchant of Cincinnati; George W. ; Lavinia, who 
married George B. Walker, of Logansport; and Louisa, who married 
Dr. Charles E. Sturgis. William G. and George W. were born during 
the residence on the river Raisin. In 1827 they formed the firm of 
W. G. & G. W. Ewing, and by the articles of partnership, all their estate 
became the property of the firm until one died. During the whole 
period of their association no settlement was asked for between them, such 
was their mutual confidence. There were many side branches. Will- 
iam S. Edsall was one of the firm of Ewing, Edsall & Co., and he was 
succeeded by Richard Chute. At Logansport, G. B. Walker was the 
partner in the house, and at LaGro was the establishment of Ewing & 
Barlow. At Westport, Mo., a business was done under the title of W. G. & 
G. W. Ewing, and many other branches were located in Michigan, 
Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Indeed the name of the 
Ewings was familiar from the Alleghanies to the Rocky mountains. 
William G. Ewing died July 11, 1854, and his brother then devoted his 
whole energies to settling up the estate, and this settlement was made 
to the satisfaction of the administrators, Hugh McCulloch and Dr. 
Sturgis, in October, 1865. Col. George W. Ewing began his business 
career at a trading post at Wapakoneta, and he took a prominent part 
in the subsequent treaties in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois. In 
1828 he was married to Harriet Bourie and then lived at Fort Wayne 
until 1839 when he removed to Logansport, which he and a colony from 
Fort Wayne founded. From 1839, to October, 1846, he lived at Peru, 
and was then at St. Louis until the death of his brother. He then made 
his residence at Fort Wayne until his death, December 27, 1865. 
George W. Ewing, the son of Col. G. W. Ewing, was born at Peru, 
Ind. He was an esteemed citizen of Fort Wayne, where he died. In 
1864 he was married to Mary Charlotte Sweetzer, a native of Fort 
Wayne. Their son, George W. Ewing, the third of that name, and the 
only living male representative of the famous family, was born in this 
city September 26, 1866. He is a well known citizen, and takes an 
active interest in politics as a republican. In July, 1889, he was appointed 
a member of the staff of Governor Hovey, with the rank of major. 



THE CANAL ERA. 33 

Hon. Alfred P. Edgerton, a notable citizen of Fort Wayne, who has 
been prominent in the political history of Indiana and Ohio, was born at 
Plattsburg, Clinton county, N. Y., January n, 1813, the eldest son of 
Bela and Phoebe (Ketchum) Edgerton, who were married at Platts- 
burg, March 24, 181.1. His father, a descendant of Richard Edgerton, 
one of the original proprietors of Norwich, Conn., was born in New 
London county, Conn., September 29, 1787. Pie was a lawyer by pro- 
fession, a graduate of Middlebury college, a member of the assembly of 
New York from Clinton county for several years, and died at Fort 
Wayne, September 10, 1874. H* s wife* Phoebe Ketchum, was born at 
Livingston Manor, N. Y., March 27, 1790, and died at Hicksville, 
Ohio, August 24, 1844. Mr. Edgerton, after graduating from the 
Plattsburg academy, took the editorship of a newspaper in his native 
town in 1833, but in the fall of the same year removed to New York 
city and engaged in commercial pursuits. He removed to Ohio in the 
spring of 1837, and became the representative of the American land 
company and Hicks & Co., and established an office at Hicksville, where 
107,000 acres of land were sold by him to settlers. He became the 
owner, himself, of nearly forty thousand acres, which were mostly sold 
by him to settlers on liberal terms. In 1845 he was elected to the Ohio 
state senate from a large territor}^ which embraced nearly ten of the 
present northwestern counties. He immediately took an active part on 
the side of the democratic minority, and showed himself a master of the 
important financial questions which were the subject of discussion in the 
senate by the ablest men of the state. Becoming prominent by a debate 
with the Whig leader, he was mentioned as a candidate for the gover- 
norship of the state, and he was alluded to by a leading democratic 
journal as "an able and talented statesman; while faithfully adhering to 
sound democratic principles, his unimpeached private character, high 
sense of honor and sterling integrity as a gentleman, have commanded 
the respect of his most bitter opponents." So even and consistent has 
been the long career of Mr. Edgerton, that this early expression regarding 
him, may still be truthfully quoted as an estimate of his character. In 
1850, after a brilliant career in the state senate, he was elected to the 
United States house of representatives, and re-elected in 1852. He 
was second on the important committee of claims during his first term 
and chairman of that committee on his second term. On the floor his 
arguments commanded the respectful attention of his associates. From 
1853 to 1856 he held the important position of financial agent of the 
state of Ohio, at New York. In 1856 he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on organization of the democratic national convention held at 
Cincinnati, and subsequently he was one of a committee selected by 
the legislature of the state of Ohio, to investigate the frauds upon the 
state treasury. In 1857 Mr. Edgerton removed to Fort Wayne, but 
retained his citizenship in Ohio until 1862. He became lessee of the 
Indiana canal, associated with Hugh McCulloch and Pliny Hoagland, in 
1859, an d held the position of general manager of the division from the 
hi 



34 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

state line to Terre Haute until 1868. In January, 1868, he was nomi- 
nated by the Indiana democratic state convention for lieutenant-gover- 
nor, Thomas A. Hendricks being at the head of the state ticket, which 
was defeated, it will be remembered, by 861 votes. Other political 
positions he filled prior to the latter date were those of delegate to the 
Baltimore convention of 1848 and the Chicago convention of 1864, but 
since 1868 he has not taken an active part in politics. In 1872 he was 
tendered the nomination for governor of Indiana by the O'Connor dem- 
ocrats, but declined to endorse that movement. He was for many years 
a member of the school board of Fort Wayne, and resigned that position 
to accept the appointment of civil service commissioner tendered him by 
President Cleveland. This office he held until 1888. The latter posi- 
tion, like all others, was filled by him in a manner satisfactory to his 
party, and his constituents, with whom he has always been popular. In 
private life Mr. Edgerton is an accomplished and genial gentleman, and 
during his residence in Fort Wayne, has been held in high esteem by 
the whole people. 

One of the most distinguished citizens of Fort Wayne in its early 
days was Capt. Robert Brackenridge, who enjoyed the distinction of 
being a pioneer in both the cities of Cincinnati and Fort Wayne. He 
was born at Springfield, Bucks county, Penn., February 8, 1783, and 
there resided until 1805, when he made a trip as far west as Cincinnati, 
and then in 1806 became a resident of that place, where he remained 
ten years. When the war of 181 2 broke out, he was one of the first 
to volunteer as one of a company organized at Brookville, Franklin 
county, Ind., and when this met with other companies at Lawrence- 
burgh, for muster, he delivered a patriotic address to his comrades, and 
was elected first lieutenant. After marching to Urbana, Ohio, they were 
ordered by Gen. Harrison to remain in Indiana as a reserve force. Sub- 
sequently the company was disbanded, and Capt. Brackenridge then 
held a position in the paymaster's department at Cincinnati until peace 
was declared. He made his residence at Brookville in 1816, and was 
appointed cashier of the branch at that place of the territorial bank. 
In 1829 he was appointed by President Jackson register of the land 
office at Fort Wayne, and was reappointed, holding the office eight 
years. He resided at Fort Wayne from the fall of 1830 until his death, 
May 9, 1859. He was a prominent Mason, and one of the charter mem- 
bers of Fort Wayne chapter. Capt. Brackenridge was a man of con- 
scientious religious convictions, was of incorruptible integrity and filled 
the responsible positions assigned him with honor and fidelity. He was 
married July 27, 1820, to Mrs. Hannah Northrup, nee Culley, who was 
born in New York, and died at Fort Wayne in 1870, at seventy-six 
years of age. They had five children (two now living), of whom the 
third born is George W. Brackenridge. The latter was born at Brook- 
ville, September 28, 1825, but spent his life after his fourth year at Fort 
Wayne, where he received the education of the pioneer days. One of 
the teachers to whom he is principally indebted was Alexander M. 



1519233 



THE CANAL ERA. 35, 

Mcjunkin, a Pennsylvanian, and another is Myron F. Barber, now a. 
resident of this city. For twenty years from 1848 he engaged in farm- 
ing, and then removed to the city and conducted a spoke factory. He 
is in politics a democrat of the old school. For two years he was trustee 
of St. Joseph township, and in 1888 was elected trustee of Wayne town- 
ship. He was married in 1848 to Mary D. Orwig, who was born io 
Perry county, Ohio, in 1829, and they have three children: Julia B., 
Robert O., and Hannah M. He and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 

The Archer famiby is one conspicuous in the history of the early set- 
tlement and mention is made of their achievements under the head of 
Washington township and elsewhere. Benjamin Archer, the progenitor 
of the family in Allen county, though an elderly man when he came 
here, was full of energy, and his usefulness was recognized by the peo- 
ple in his election to the associate judgeship upon the organization of 
the county. He found time, however, to manage his brick yard in Wash- 
ington township, and he and his family made the brick for and erected 
the first brick buildings in Fort Wayne, one upon the first lot west of 
Morgan & Beach's hardware, the other now owned and occupied by 
John Schweiters. They also furnished the brick and built the first court- 
house, and the first Masonic temple, on the site now occupied by Sol 
Bash & Co. They also aided in the construction of the feeder division 
of the canal and the feeder dam. Judge Archer was of Scotch-Irish 
descent, of the Protestant faith, a whig in politics, of intellectual and 
moral sturdiness, and many mourned his loss when he died at Fort Wayne 
in 1833. The Masons, to which order he belonged, buried him in the 
old grave yard where the county jail now stands. His remains and those 
of his wife, who was a native of one of the Carolinas, and some grand- 
children were afterward removed to the Broadway cemetery, but now 
nothing remains to mark their resting place. Of the few now living 
who attended that funeral one is Peter Kiser, and another Judge Archer's 
son-in-law, Edward Campbell, who lives at Albion, Noble county, and is 
now about ninety years of age. Judge Archer left three sons, David, 
John S. and Benjamin, and three daughters, Susan, Elizabeth and Sarah. 
John S. was a brother-in-law of the Hon. Hugh Hanna, and left one son 
James S., who married Catherine King, of a family which recentlv left 
a valuable estate in the heart of the city. They had three sons and one 
daughter, now the wife of C. E. Archer. Benjamin Archer, jr., married 
a Miss Petit. David, the eldest son, married Anna Chrisenbury, a native 
of Kentucky, and his eldest son, Samuel, married Matilda Whiteside. 
These were the parents of John H. Archer, now a prominent citizen of 
Fort Wayne. The Whiteside family were also notable in the early days. 
The family came from Ireland to Virginia before the war of the revolu- 
tion, during which the grandfather of Matilda Whiteside made clothing 
for Washington's men and received a great quantity of continental mon ey 
in return, which he afterward burned as worthless. His son James and 
his son Samuel removed to Baltimore, where James married Mrs. Ward, 



36 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

a very handsome and intelligent lady who was related to the Baltimores 
of Maryland. They came west and settled at Chillicothe, and came 
thence to Fort Wayne in 1825, accompanied by all the children of Mr. 
Whiteside. Of the children by his first wife, Madison, John, Harvey, 
and Jane, and the children by his second wife Mrs. Ward, Jeremiah, 
Matilda, Malinda and Harriet, all are dead except Jane who is living 
with a daughter in Kansas. James Whiteside settled near the Archers, 
and the marriage of the children of the two families above referred to 
soon occurred. Then Samuel and Matilda Archer moved upon their 
land, three eighty-acre tracts of canal lands, three miles north of Fort 
Wayne. They had eight children, six sons and two daughters, five of 
whom are living: David R. is engaged in real estate business in Omaha; 
Mary J. is a resident of Fort Wavne, and Anna, of Piqua, Ohio; John 
H., the eldest son, was born on the farm March 23, 1837, and passed 
his early life there, receiving such education as was possible to gain by 
attending a country school three months out of a year. His father died 
in 1S52, en route to California. June 10, i860, Mr. Archer was married 
to Anna M. Hopple, born of German parentage in Northampton county, 
Penn., and they have had five children, all residents of Fort Wayne: 
Charles E., born March 28, 1861; Joseph F., born January 23, 1864; W. 
Sherman, born October 19, 1866; Olive Edith, born August 24, 1868, 
and Mary L., born November 19, 1870. Charles E. and Sherman form 
the firm of Archer Bros., printers, who have been doing business as the 
Gazette Job Printing company, and are now located in a handsome 
office of their own on Clinton street, near the new government building. 
In 1872 Mr. Archer purchased fifty acres of land in the northern suburbs 
of the city of Fort Wayne, at a cost of $20,000, and had it platted as 
Archer's addition. The remarkable advantages of this tract as a resi- 
dence portion of the city has made it a popular site for many comfort- 
able homes. Mr. Archer has a vivid memory and can recall many 
historic scenes and characters back to the time almost of his infancy- 
He is one of the leading citizens of the metropolis he has witnessed the 
growth of, and his unfailing energy has contributed much to the progress 
of events. The sixth generation in Allen county of this family are now 
counted in the census. The family are nearly all republicans in politics, 
and are independent, manly and honorable in all the relations of life. 

Henry Rudisill, a pioneer in manufacturing in northern Indiana, was 
born at Lancaster, Penn., in 1801. His father subsequently moved to 
Franklin county, Penn., and at the age of fourteen, Henry was placed 
in a mercantile establishment at Shippinsburg, Penn. Three years 
afterward he removed to Chillicothe, Ohio, as an employe of Barr and 
'Campbell, who were then engaged in merchandise at that and other 
points, east and west. He remained with this firm till 1824, when he 
moved to Lancaster, Ohio, where he engaged in business on his own 
account, and was subsequently married to Elizabeth Johns. In 1829 he 
came to Fort Wayne, and, as the agent of Barr and McCorkle, the 
original proprietors of Fort Wayne, had charge of their interests here 



THE CANAL ERA. 37 

until 1837; and while acting in that capacity, cleared and cultivated a 
large portion of the "old plat" and "Hanna's addition" to Fort Wayne. 
Mr. Rudisill was of active and energetic temperament, and a true rep- 
resentative of the men, who, under Providence, have made the western 
country what it now is. As early as 1830, he, in connection with his 
father-in-law, Henry Johns, commenced the improvement of the water 
power of the St. Joseph river, at the point where the St. Joe mills are 
now located, one mile north of Fort Wayne, and built there a saw-mill 
and the first flouring-mill capable of manufacturing merchantable flour 
in northern Indiana. A few years later, he put in operation the first 
machine for carding wool that was ever used in Allen county; and, 
several years subsequent, in company with Mr. L. Wolkie, he started 
the first mill for making oil from flax-seed; and also established the first 
woolen factory of northeastern Indiana. In church and educational 
matters also, and in such public improvements as tended to develop the 
resources of the county, he was always ready and willing to aid. Being 
of German descent, and for a number of years the only one in the city 
who could speak both languages, he became the counsellor of many 
who came from the old world, and there are many in the county who 
can date their first steps in prosperity to his assistance. He was a prom- 
inent supporter of the democratic party, and served as postmaster at 
Fort W r ayne eight years under Jackson's administration, and a term of 
three years as commissioner of Allen county; and probably did more 
than any other man, through his personal influence with the Germans, 
to make the democratic party the ruling power in the county. While 
superintending some work at one of his mills, he fell in such a way that 
his spine became affected, causing partial paralysis and subsequent death 
in February, 1858. His uprightness, kindness, and affability, won for 
him a host of friends among the early settlers, the survivors among 
whom cherish his memory. 

Hon. Franklin P. Randall, an old citizen, and prominent in the his- 
tory of Fort Wayne, was born in Madison county, N. Y., June 2, 1812. 
His ancestors emigrated from England and Mayor Randall is of the 
seventh generation in descent of the family in America. His grand- 
father was an officer in the army of the revolution, and commanded a 
regiment at the battle of Saratoga, and witnessed the surrender of Gen. 
Burgoyne. His father was an officer in the American army during the 
war of 1812, and after peace was declared, he resumed his occupation 
as a farmer in Madison county, where the early youth of the subject of 
this mention was passed, attending school meanwhile during the leisure 
of winter. He also was a student in the Cortland and Hamilton 
academies, and obtained a good education, especially in mathematics 
and classics. He taught a select school in Oneida county, two years, 
and then in October, 1835, went to Williamsport, Penn., where he read 
law in the office of Judge Ellis Lewis, who was for fourteen years chief 
justice of the supreme court of that state. In February, 1838, he was 
admitted to practice, and in April of the same year, he removed to Fort 



38 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Wayne, and began the practice of law. Soon, however, he entered 
upon an official career, which has been long and honorable. In 1840 he 
was elected school commissioner of Allen county, and for four years 
had the control and management of the school lands and funds of the 
county. In 1847 he was elected state senator for the district composed of 
the counties of Allen, Adams, Huntington and Wells. He was commis- 
sioned by Gov. Wright as colonel of the state militia for Allen county, 
and in 1855 was promoted by Gov. Hammond to brigadier-general of 
the tenth division. In 1856 he was appointed director of the state prison 
south, by Gov. Willard, and in the same year he was chosen one of the 
presidential electors who voted for James Buchanan for president. Be- 
sides these higher offices, he has from the early years of his residence 
been closely identified officially with the progress of the city. He pre- 
pared the first city charter, which was made a law in 1840, and since 
then he has thrice been employed to revise the ordinances of the city, 
and publish them in book form, the edition which he published in 1874, 
forming an octavo volume of 300 pages. He was city recorder in 1840 
and 1841; city attorney for three terms, beginning in 1840, 1853 and 
1865, and alderman in 1843 and 1855. He was elected to the office of 
mayor in 1859, and re-elected at the following dates, 1861, 1863, 1869 
and 187 1, serving in all ten years. Taking an active interest in the 
projects for the development of the city, he was for about ten years a 
director, representing the city, of the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad 
company; and for many years, was either president or prominently con- 
nected with the county agricultural society during the flourishing days 
of that organization, to the success of which he contributed in no slight 
degree. In horticulture and • floriculture he is a standard authority, and 
his handsome residence and grounds on Berry street are filled with rare 
exotics, a delightful resort for all as enthusiastic as he in the study of the 
beauties of nature. His interest in the collection and preservation of 
the remains of the past, have saved to the student many interesting 
relics of by-gone da} r s, and his memory is stored with a seemingly inex- 
haustible treasure of anecdotes and reminiscenses of the early history 
of Indiana and especially of Fort Wayne. His antiquarian collections, 
Indian antiquities, old and rare books, and cabinet of coins, are among 
the most valuable in existence. Mayor Randall in social life is genial 
and hospitable, preserving to this latter day the fine qualities of the 
gentleman of the old school, and is still remarkably active and vigorous 
both in mind and body. 

One of the pioneer families of the county was that of Peter F. Bar- 
rand, who was born in France in 1804. He received a good education and 
became a teacher in his native land. In 1836 he emigrated and came 
directly to Allen county. The trip from Toledo to this place he made 
in a pirogue upon the river as far as the rapids. At the date of his 
coming the population was small, and there was little but a trading sta- 
tion at the site of the present city. Mr. Barrand's first employment here 
was with the Indian chief, J. B. Richardville, and he afterward worked on 



THE CANAL ERA. 39 

the construction of the canal. November 22, 1838, he was married to 
Ann J. Poirson, who was born in France, in 1820, and immigrated with 
her parents in 1834. The family spent a few years at Tandawanda, 
N. Y., about eighteen miles from Niagara Falls, and then settled on the 
old plank road four and a half miles from Fort Wayne, where they 
farmed and kept the " French Mary's Tavern," so-called by the early 
settlers. Peter and Ann Barrand began farming on the Penn farm, 
about one and a half miles north of Fort Wayne, and three years later 
purchased a farm in Washington township, where they have since 
resided. In 1888, they celebrated their "golden wedding." They 
have reared nine children out of eleven born to them. Their son, John 
B. Barrand, born in Washington township, April 23, 1849, is now super- 
intendent of the sash, door and blind factory of Louis Deither & Bro., 
and an esteemed citizen. Before he left the farm he learned the carpen- 
ter's trade, and in 1869, began working at that occupation at Wallen, 
where he remained ten years. Since 1879 ne nas been a resident of the 
city. For the first two years he was engaged in the grocery business, 
but afterward resumed his trade. In February, 1887, he entered the 
manufactory referred to, and in the following June was made superin- 
tendent. He was married May 24, 187 1, to Catharine L. Cremer, of 
Washington township. 

William H. Brown, a popular citizen of Fort Wayne, is one of an 
honored family of the city's pioneers. He was born here, March 3, 
1839. His father, John Brown, was born at Dayton, Ohio, September 
10, 181 1, by birth, indeed, a western pioneer. He is a blacksmith by 
occupation, and in 1825 came to Fort Wayne, where he was married in 
1833, to Dorcas Rodgers, who was born in Ohio in 1814. They are 
both living in the city, esteemed and venerated by all. Her father, John 
Rodgers, born December 9, 1785, died September, 1877. He voted 
first for Madison, and was afterward on the winning side for Monroe, 
Harrison, Taylor, Lincoln, Grant and Hayes. William H. is the oldest 
of their living children, the others being Benjamin H., John C, Alex- 
ander M., and Susie. The paternal grandfather was Samuel Brown, a 
native of Ireland, who was one of the early settlers of Allen county, and 
died here at an advanced age. The maternal grandfather, Collins by 
name, was a Frenchman who came to the United States and fought 
for the independence of his adopted country in the war of the revolu- 
tion. Early in life Mr. Brown learned the blacksmith's craft, and was 
so occupied until 1866, since which date he has been engaged in team- 
ing and heavy transfer business. His career has been an honorable and 
successful one, and he and his family have won the respect and esteem 
of the community. He is well-known to have a great regard for 
thorough-bred horses, and among his valued possessions are some of the 
most handsome of those valued co-workers with man. Mr. Brown was 
married in 1870 to Cassander Yost, who was born in Preble county, 
Ohio, in 1833. Mrs. Brown is a daughter of Isaac Yost, who was 
born in Virginia and died in Cincinnati in 1850, while returning from a 



40 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

trip to California. Her mother was Susanna (Collingsworth) Yost, a 
native of Ohio, who died there in 1851. Mrs. Brown is one of six 
children living. Mr. Brown is a staunch republican having cast his first 
vote for Abraham Lincoln, and his father's first vote was cast for Henry- 
Clay. The residence of the family is at No. 73 Holman street. Mr. 
Brown has by his first wife, one daughter, Mary, born in 1866. 

John B. Becquett, a pioneer citizen of Fort Wayne, was born in 
Detroit, Mich., January 13, 1824. He is the son of John B. and Theresa 
(Durett) Becquett, the former a native of the province of Quebec, and 
the latter of Detroit, Mich. In 1826, their son John B., being two years 
old, they removed to Fort Wayne and located on the corner of Colum- 
bia and Clinton streets. Here the father followed the trade of an Indian 
jeweler until his death, September 17, 1846. His wife survived him 
until March, 1884, when she died, aged eighty-four. At eighteen years 
of age, John B. Becquett began an apprenticeship of three years as 
brick layer; this trade has been the occupation of his life, and he has 
pursued it in this city for nearly half a century. Mr. Becquett was married 
November 16, 1855, to Elizabeth, daughter of George and Catharine 
Baker, with whom she immigrated from Germany 'when she was five 
years old. They located at Fort Wayne where Mr. Baker followed the 
trade of wagon-maker. He-and his wife are now deceased. Mr. and 
Mrs. Becquett have four sons and four daughters, all of whom are grown 
to maturity. Their names are: John A., Jacob, Henry, George F., 
Catharine, Mary, Elizabeth and Theresa. Mr. Becquett and family are 
members of the Catholich church. In politics he has been a life long 
democrat. He is one of Fort Wayne's earliest residents now living, 
having been here for sixty-three years. His memory is good and his 
recollections of early times are man} r and varied. He possesses an 
extensive acquaintance and is highly respected. 

« Zenas Henderson, who has been referred to in this work as one of 
the pioneers of the city of Fort Wayne, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, 
and came to Fort Wayne early in the thirties. He was an interpreter 
for the Indians and was also in business as an Indian trader. This he 
subsequently abandoned to engage in hotel keeping, on the corner of 
Calhoun and Columbia streets. He married Rosina McKee, who was 
born in Wheeling, W. Va., and died in 1855. His death followed two 
years later. To these parents seven children were born, rive of whom 
are living. Samuel C. Henderson, one of these, was born December 17, 
1 841, on the corner of Main and Barr streets, and is now foreman of 
the tin, copper and flue department of the shops of the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago railroad company. He attended the school at the 
corner of Clay and Washington streets on the first day that it was 
opened, and gained a good education in the city schools. At the age of 
eighteen years he set in to learn the trade of copper-smith, and entered 
the shops of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company 
for that purpose September 20, 1859, an( ^ si nce tnat date has been one 
of the trusted employes of that corporation. Three years after begin- 



THE CANAL ERA. 



4 1 



ning work he was appointed assistant foreman of the copper department, 
and in 1877 he became foreman. He is a member of the First Presby- 
terian church, and of Home lodge, No. 342, F. & A. M., and of the 
National Union. He was married in September, 1876, to Mary Kin- 
nard, who was born at Sidney, Ohio, but reared in Fort Wayne. 

Frederick Dalman, a well known and esteemed citizen of Fort 
Wayne, has had the rare privilege of becoming acquainted when a boy 
with the tangled forests then covering Allen county, and has enjoyed 
the pleasure of observing the growth of a beautiful and prosperous city. 
He was born near Burton-on-Trent, Derbyshire, England, May 30, 1824. 
His father, John Dalman, who was born in April, 1774, married Anna 
Burcher, who was born in 1790. They had eight children, of whom 
Frederick is the youngest, and three of whom survive. The father, a 
carpenter and joiner, became dissatisfied with life in the old country, and 
in 1833, to seek a field where his energy and industry would yield better 
rewards, sailed for America, landing at New York in June, with his 
family. After stopping two weeks in Madison county, N. Y., they 
sailed from Buffalo' to Maumee City. Being transported by wagon to 
the head of the rapids, they there embarked in pirogues, and reached 
Fort Wayne after a week's journey. They located at Barnett's Springs, 
now within the city limits, but in December removed to land they had 
purchased in section 33, in Wayne township, a tract of 120 acres on 
Little river. On this land Mr. Dalman had built a cabin in the dense 
woods, and there was not to the south of him another habitation of 
white men for twenty miles. Here the parents lived the life of pioneers, 
self-sacrificing, patient and persevering. At a ripe old age, they passed 
away, the father in 1864, the mother in 1868. Frederick remained on 
the farm, managing it until, July, 1884, when he divided the land amount- 
ing to 301 acres among his three children, and removed to town. He 
still was the owner at the time of dividing the farm of 140 acres, sixty 
of which is still in his possession. His property in the city includes 
seven houses and lots, among them his residence at 116 Williamson 
street, and three vacant lots. The superintendence of his property 
occupies his time mainly, though he is also superintendent and treasurer 
of the Bluffton gravel road, in which he was one of the original stock- 
holders, and superintendent of the construction of a portion of it. Mr. 
Dalman was married in 1846 to Mary M. F., daughter of David Hill, 
a native of Pennsylvania. She died in 1870, leaving the following chil- 
dren : David, and Jesse, farmers in Wayne township; America E., wife 
of Thomas King, a prosperous farmer of Pleasant township. In July 
1884, Mr. Dalman was married to Louisa Flinn. 

Among the early settlers of Fort Wayne, Edward Stapleford will be 
remembered as one widely known and generally esteemed. He came 
to this city in 1833, and for many years was a prominent merchant. He 
was born in Delaware in 1809, and at an early age he accompanied his 
father and mother and brothers and sisters to Piqua, Ohio, where his 
father died, and he thence came to this city. He was eminently social 



42 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

in his relations to the public, affectionate to his family, and strictly hon- 
orable as a business man. He married Susan E. Powers, and to them 
was born October 15, 1838, Lucien P., now a resident of this city. The 
latter gained his education at the Methodist college, in which he com- 
pleted a full course. He afterward entered the Fort Wayne commercial 
college, of which C. J. Diedrich was principal, and attended it some two 
or three years, graduating at the age of nineteen. He acquired mean- 
while a high proficiency in penmanship, and has the credit of being one 
of the best penmen in the city. Up to the time of his father's death, 
January 1, 1861, he clerked in his store, and after that date became his 
successor, and successfully managed the business until 1872. Soon 
after that date he purchased the Comparet mills and warehouse on the 
corner of Columbia and Lafayette streets, but after remodeling the 
property and making extensive improvements, Mr. Stapleford suffered 
the crushing loss of the whole property by fire, a loss of $40,000. For 
several years past he has given his attention to the livery, coal and wood 
business and the management of the Herdic coach line, of which he is 
proprietor. For more than thirty years he has also acted as auctioneer, 
and in this manner has an extensive acquaintance throughout the whole 
county. He was married in January, 1871, to Caroline E., daughter of 
Peter Heller, the founder of Heller's corners, of Eel River township. 
They have had two children: Leonidas P. and Norris E., the latter of 
whom died in the ninth year of his age. Mr. Stapleford was reared in 
the Methodist faith and takes much interest in the Sunday-school work, 
having been secretary of the Wayne Street Sabbath school five years. 
He was formerly a Good Templar, and is an ardent temperance man. 
He is secretary of the Liverymen and Hackmen's protective association, 
and formerly was secretary of the Audubon club. In politics he is a 
republican. 

Michael Hedekin, frequently referred to as an early settler, was a 
native of County Westmeath, Ireland. Emigrating to America he was 
married to Rebecca Pau, a native of Ohio. They came to Fort Wayne 
in 1834. In 1843 and 1844 he built a three-story brick hotel building 
on the east side of Barr street south of Columbia, and on May 15, 1846, 
Calvin Anderson opened it as a tavern. Under various proprietors it 
was maintained until 1876, since when it has been conducted by Jacob 
Swaidner. The Hedekin House is a notable monument of early da}'S, 
and was, when built, excelled in its size and appointments by none in the 
northwest. Thomas B. Hedekin, son of Michael, who was not a year 
old when his father came, established a grocery in 1848, which he man- 
aged for twenty years. 

Maurice Cody, well-known among the early settlers of Fort Wayne, 
was born in County Cork, Ireland, September 15, 1818, the son of John 
and Mary (Bolland) Cody. His parents were both born in County Cork, 
the father in 1790, and the mother in 1804. They emigrated to America 
in 1825, and settled at Oswego, N. Y., where the mother died in 1829. 
In the following year the father died at Horseheads, Chemung county, 



THE CANAL ERA. 43 

N. Y. In 1832, Mr. Cody removed to Penn Yan, and from there to 
Maryland, in the fall of 1833, and in December, 1834, he came to Fort 
Wayne. His route thither was over the Alleghany mountains to Wheel- 
ing, W Va., thence to Columbus, Ohio, and then to Troy and Piqua, 
and up to St. Mary's, and then overland to Fort Wayne through what 
was then called the Black swamp country, the difficulties of which may 
be imagined from the fact that it required three weeks to make the trip, 
and one six miles of the way required three days to traverse. In com- 
pany with him were his uncle, Patrick Cody, and Patrick and Garrett, 
his brothers. On reaching Fort Wayne Mr. Cody engaged in cutting 
stove wood and other odd jobs, until 1839, when he became a clerk in 
the pioneer store of Michael Hedekin, with whom he was associated for 
four years. In 1841 he was interested with Mr. Hedekin in a store one 
mile east of Antwerp, Ohio, where he lived eleven months, but subse- 
quently he returned to Fort Wayne, was married, and purchased a farm 
in St. Joseph township. He had occupied this but six months, when he 
went to Paulding county, Ohio, and was there engaged in merchandise 
for two years. Returning to Fort Wayne, in October, 1845, he went to 
Chicago, and became engaged in merchandise at Blue Island. In May, 
1847, he resumed business at Fort Wayne, and was in merchandise 
until 1862, when he went into the milling business on the St. Mary's 
river, ten miles south of the city, and was so engaged for twenty years. 
Previously he had been engaged in the ice business for four years, in 
the city. Since 1882 he has been living in the city, on the same lot, on 
the corner of Barr and Superior streets, that he rented in 1835, and 
bought in 1847, and is retired from business, but busies himself in man- 
aging his farm. Mr. Cody is a democrat and cast his first vote for Mar- 
tin VanBuren. For ten years he was councilman for the second ward, 
and in 1852 was elected marshal of Fort Wayne, and street commis- 
sioner at the first election by the people. He is a member of the con- 
gregation of the Cathedral. Mr. Cody had the following brothers and 
sisters: Ellen, John, James, Bridget, Mary, Patrick and Garrett, of 
whom Mary Bonfield alone survives. February 1, 1843, he was mar- 
ried to Mary Daugherty, a native of Ireland, who died in December, 
1859, leaving six children, John H., Margaret, Ellen, Thomas G., Ann E. 
and Mary R. May 14, 1861, he was married to Mrs. Bridget Muldoon, 
a native of St. Lawrence county, N. Y. 

Among the pioneers who came here at a time when Fort Wayne 
was a village and Allen county was almost a wilderness, was Anthony 
Lintz (deceased). Mr. Lintz was born in France, of German parents, 
in 1806, and emigrated to the United States in about 1832. He spent 
about two months in New York city, then went to Rochester, N. Y., 
where he remained almost a year, and then to Detroit. In 1834 ne re ~ 
moved to Fort Wayne, and about two months later went to Rochester, 
N. Y., and was married to Delia Klem, who was born in Baden, Ger- 
many, in 1814. When two years old she came to America with her 
parents, who settled in Rochester, N. Y. In coming to Fort Wayne, 



44 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



Mr. and Mrs. Lintz went from Rochester to Buffalo by canal, thence 
to Toledo by lake, and from Toledo came to the head of the rapids by 
wagon, and then in a pirogue on the Maumee to Fort Wayne. Four 
weeks were spent in making the trip, which to-day can be made in less 
than eighteen hours. To Anthony Lintz and wife eleven children were 
born, eight of whom survive : Delia, the widow of Casper Schoeripp, of 
Marion, Ind.; Mary Wirley, of Rochester, N. Y.; Catherine Bauer, of 
St. Louis, Mo.; Josephine Martin, of Socorro, New Mexico; Anthony, 
of Fort Wayne; Carrie Sigl, of Rochester, N. Y., and Theodore L.,in 
business in Fort Wayne. Anthony Lintz was for years in the boot and 
shoe business in Fort Wayne. In about 1865 he went to Europe on a 
tour for pleasure and health, and remained nine months. Upon his re- 
turn, and while in New York city, he met with an accident in which his 
leg was broken, and his death occurred in that city on February 6, 
1866. His remains were interred at Indianapolis. For five weeks be- 
fore his death his wife was with him in New York city. He was a 
member of the Cathedral Catholic church of Fort Wayne. In about 
1859 tne f amn y removed from Fort Wayne to Indianapolis, and contin- 
ued to live there until 1867, when they returned to Fort Wayne. Mrs. 
Lintz is among the oldest citizens in point of residence at Fort Wayne, 
and in December, 1889, she will have been here for fifty-five years. 
She is a member of the Cathedral congregation. She and husband 
gave all the black walnut lumber for the pews of the first church, and 
he was one of ten who bought and donated the land upon which the 
Cathedral now stands. Before the erection of a Catholic church in 
Fort Wayne, services were held in Mr. Lintz's residence. In the fall of 
1884 Theodore L. Lintz established the China Bazar at No. 12 E. 
Columbia street. 

Samuel C. Freeman (deceased), one of the early settlers of Fort 
Wayne, was born at Williamstown, N. Y., December 6, 181 2, son of 
Samuel and Sarah (Hoffman) Freeman. At his native place he was 
married in 183 1, to Mary A. Taylor, born in Connecticut in 1810, to 
William and Electa Hale Ta} T lor. In 1S36 Mr. Freeman and wife, and 
her brother, Royal W. Taylor, came to Fort Wa}me, where Messrs. Tay- 
lor and Freeman became known as successful and enterprising business 
men. Mr. Freeman was engaged at different times in milling, merchandise, 
and the foundry business. His first wife died in 1838, leaving two children. 
One, M. Frances, who became the wife of Seth R. Green, now deceased, 
is a practicing physician of the city. The other, Samuel P. Freeman, 
died in 1873, at the age of thirty. In 1840 Mr. Freeman married Sarah 
Bigelow, a native of Massachusetts, who formerly had charge of a suc- 
cessful school for young ladies in this city. He died March 7, 1888, 
his loss being deplored by the many citizens who had for so long had 
with him pleasant associations. His widow survives in her eighty-first 
year. Mrs. Green, daughter of Mr. Freeman, graduated from the 
Women's Homeopathy college of Cleveland, in 1871, and has since then 
been enjoying a very successful medical practice in Fort Wayne. She 



THE CANAL ERA. 45 

is the mother of four children: Freeman R., Malcolm A., M. Gertrude 
and Seth F. Green. 

One prominent among the pioneers of Fort Wayne is Jacob Foel- 
linger, who settled here in the latter part of 1836. He was born in 
Prussia, December 19, 1817, son of Jacob and Sophia (Goebel) Foel- 
linger, the former of whom died when his son Jacob was fourteen years 
old. The son found a home in the family of his uncle, George Foellinger, 
for two years, engaged in farming and worked at the shoemaker's 
trade. The latter vocation he followed in France, and at eighteen years 
of age, April 2, 1836, he sailed for America on the sailing vessel 
"Majestic," and was seventy-eight days at sea, landing at New York 
August 19. Arriving at Fort Wayne he worked three years as a 
journeyman and then set up a shop of his own and conducted it many 
years, finally becoming a dealer in boots and shoes, to which he gave 
his attention until 1880. Subsequently, owing to impaired hearing, he 
has been leading a retired life. In 1872 he removed his family to the 
beautiful home they now occupy on Fairfield avenue. His residence is 
a large and handsome brick situated on a tract of ten acres which, owing 
to its nearness to the city, is very valuable property. He is also the 
owner of two valuable business blocks on Calhoun street, from the rent 
of which he realizes a handsome income. He also has a residence 
property on Harrison street. He possessed nothing whatever when he 
came to America and his present prosperity speaks creditably of his 
business ability. Mr. Foellinger was married May 30, 1840, to Margaret 
Kiefer, a native of Prussia, born March 17, 1S18, the daughter of Chris- 
tian and Barbara Kiefer, with whom she came to America in 1837. 
Mr. and Mrs. Foellinger have had ten children: Elizabeth, Frederick, 
Jacob, Christian, Martin, Augusta, Julia, Adolph, Louis and Margarita, 
of whom Jacob, Martin, Adolph and Louis are living. Mr. and Mrs. 
Foellinger are members of Emanuel's German Lutheran church. He 
has been a life-long democrat, and has served as a member of the 
city council two years. 

Kilian Baker, a prominent manufacturer of lumber, is one of a fam- 
ily which were among the pioneers of Fort Wayne. He was born to 
George and Catherine (Baschinger) Baker, in Hesse-Darmstadt, Ger- 
many, December 15, 1830, and five years later the family, including 
eight children, emigrated, and after landing at New York went to Pitts- 
burgh. In the following year, 1836, the father came to Allen county 
and entered a piece of land in Cedar Creek township, and removed his 
family in the spring of 1838 to Fort Wayne, then a town of about 400 
inhabitants. He worked at the wagon-maker's trade until 1848, when 
he erected a saw-mill and began the manufacture of lumber. In this he 
was associated with his sons, John, Jacob, Henry and Kilian. Two 
years later the father and John sold the mill to the other brothers. 
Henry retired in 1867 and Jacob in 1878, leaving Kilian the sole proprietor. 
This mill, founded by his father, he continues to operate. The mother 
died in 1850, and the father in 1S70. Kilian Baker was educated in the 



46 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Catholic schools. He has grown up with the city, and is possessed of 
many valuable historical reminiscences. His life has been devoted to 
business, and in it he has achieved a high standing in the community.* 
Mr. Baker was married in 1859, to Annie Daugherty, who was born at 
Areola, Allen county, in 1840, of Irish parents, and they have had 
eleven children, of whom nine survive. He and wife are members of 
the Catholic church. 

John Baker, an old citizen of Fort Wayne, was born in Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, Germany, in 181 7, and came to America in 1835 and to Fort 
Wayne in 1838. He is the son of George and Catherine (Baschinger) 
Baker, both natives of Germany. The father was one of the early 
blacksmiths of Fort Wayne, and his son worked with him, the latter 
doing the wood-work. Later he was engaged in a saw-mill enterprise 
with his father and brothers, Jacob, Henry and Kilian, but after two 
years at that business he sold out and began the manufacture of trucks 
and delivery wagons. He was very successful and built up a large busi- 
ness which he conducted until 1883, when he retired and was succeeded 
by his son, B. H. Baker. In November, 1841, he was married to Mary 
Fauth, who was born in Baltimore in 1826, and came to Fort Wayne in 
November, 1840. To their union, five daughters and three sons have 
been born. Both Mr. and Mrs. Baker are members of the Catholic 
church, and are among the most highly respected of Fort Wayne's old 
citizens. 

B. H. Baker, son of the above, is a prominent young manufacturer, 
being extensively engaged in the production of carriages, trucks and 
express wagons at Nos. 16 and 18, Lafayette street. He was born in 
this city in 1856. Mr. Baker was given a liberal education in the Catho- 
lic schools, and then entered the factory with his father, and succeeded 
in 18S3, to the business which he is now successfully conducting. He is 
a member of the Catholic church. 

James H. Robinson, born near Morristown, N. J., January 31, 1802, 
died at Fort Wayne, May 2, 1878, was one of the conspicuous figures 
in that period of the history of Fort Wayne covered by his residence 
here. He was a lineal descendant of Rev. John Robinson, the pastor 
of the pilgrims, and his family had- resided in New Jersey for more 
than a century. At sixteen years of age he went to Newark, and when 
still a young man became a partner of Caleb B. Shipman in the whole- 
sale boot, shoe and leather trade. The firm of Shipman, Robinson & 
Co., was one of the most important in the country, and its very large south- 
ern trade was attended to in person by Mr. Robinson. He retired from 
business at the age of thirty-five, with a handsome fortune, and built 
him a residence at Newark afterward occupied by Gov. Marcus L. 
Ward. In the panic of 1837, however, he lost most of his possessions, 
and then he engaged in the wholesale dry goods trade at New York. 
Removing to Fort Wayne in 1843, he purchased the tan-yards at the 
head of Columbia street, at the site of the Robinson house. After man- 
aging that property for several years he engaged in the boot and shoe 



THE CANAL ERA. 47 

trade, erecting the large buildings for that purpose which have subse- 
quently been converted into a hotel. He was the pioneer wholesale 
merchant of Fort Wayne and carried on a large and profitable trade 
until 1868, when he retired from business. In 1872 the buildings were 
refitted for hotel use, becoming the most popular hotel in the city, and 
of this establishment Mr. Robinson had personal charge two years be- 
fore his death. Mr. Robinson took an active interest in politics, first as 
a whig and then as a republican. He represented Newark in the New 
Jersey legislature in 1840 and 1842, and was the whig leader, enjoying 
the personal frienship of such men as Governor Pennington and Theo- 
dore Frelinghuysen. Further political honors he never sought, though 
repeatedly asked to become a candidate for mayor of Fort Wayne. He 
was a leading member of the Presbyterian church, and was a member 
of the First church, then during the pastorate of Rev. Charles Brechen, 
of the Second church, subsequently returning to the First church. He 
was in bearing a dignified gentleman of the old school, in character 
upright, pure and strong but unobtrusive. He was married in 1822, 
to Mary Crane, of Newark, who died in 1835, m Georgia. Their four 
children all died in childhood. In the spring of 1837 he was married to 
Mary C, daughter of Hon. Obadiah Meeker, of New Jersey, and they 
had two children: James H., jr., of Chicago, and Henry H., of this city. 

Among the old residents should be mentioned Claude F. Eme. He 
came to Allen county with his parents, who settled in St. Joseph town- 
ship in June, 1844, and has been a resident ever since. He was born 
in France, July 8, 1831, son of John H. and Claude Frances (Cotes) 
Eme, who were born in France, the father in 1808, the mother in 1813, 
and now. live in Fort Wayne. Two of their children are living, Claude 
F. being the elder. He spent his youth on the farm, receiving a com- 
mon school education, and in 185 1-2 was employed for two seasons on 
the " state boat," on the canal. He was then employed for a year and 
a half with A. H. Carier, and afterward lor fourteen years with H. R. 
Schwegman in the dry goods business. In January, 1870, he formed a 
partnership with Henry Rohs and Frederick Reinking in the dry goods 
trade, and this firm continued until 1882, when the death of Mr. Rein- 
king occurred, when it was succeeded by the firm of Rohs & Eme, 
which did business until 1888, when Mr. Eme permanently retired from 
mercantile pursuits, in which he was successful and prosperous. He 
was married in 1856 to Adele Duval, a native of France, born in 1836, 
daughter of Nicholas and Catherine (Bastien) Duval. Her father 
came to this county in 1844 and died in 1849. They have three chil- 
dren: Julius J., Josephine and Joseph F. Mr. and Mrs. Eme are mem- 
bers of the Catholic church, and he is in politics a democrat. 

Calvin Anderson, a venerable and honored citizen of the city, has 
been a witness of its growth and a participant in its commercial enter- 
prises for the past forty-three years. He was born at Manchester, Ben- 
nington county, Vt., July 3, 1803, son of Andrew and Sarah (Sexton) 
Anderson, natives of the Green Mountain state. The father was born 



48 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

in 1760, and died in 1816; the mother was born in 1769, and died in Ohio 
in 1837. Of their six children, Mr. Anderson is the only one living 
now. At the age of twelve he came to Ohio with his parents, and 
remained on the farm until he was twenty-one, when he embarked in the 
hotel business, which he followed for thirty years. Nine years of that 
period was spent in Fort Wayne, whither he came in 1846. In 1855 he 
opened a grocery and provision store, which he conducted successful^ 
for twelve years, and then retired from business life. He was a pioneer 
in the settlement of Ohio, and also one of the earlv settlers of this city. 
He was married April 13, 1828, to Rebecca Lybarger, born in Penn- 
sylvania, June 26, 1803, still the faithful companion of his life. The} r 
are the oldest couple in the city, and are highly honored and esteemed. 
They have six children: Laura Ann Lvdia, Sarah Ann, Mary Eliza, 
Theresa, Calvin A. and Eli G. Mr. Anderson is a member of the First 
Presbyterian church. He cast his first presidential vote for John Quincy 
Adams in 1824, voted for Gen. W. H. Harrison in 1836 and 1840, and 
has been a republican since the organization of the party. 

Christian Tresselt, proprietor of the City Mills, was born in Thurin- 
gia, Germany, September 3, 1823. His father, August Ludwig Tresselt, 
an artist by profession, was born in 1776, and died in Germany in 183S. 
His wife, Hannah Machold, died in her native land about 1828. Of the 
eight children of these parents, three survive: Doretha, Benjamin Will- 
iam and Christian. Mr. Tresselt was educated in Germany at the com- 
mon schools, and in 1838 engaged in mercantile pursuits at Gross 
Brietenbach, at which he was engaged for seven years. In 1845 he 
emigrated to the United States, and after his arrival at New York, re- 
maining there fifteen months, clerked in a dry goods store. His resi- 
dence at Fort Wayne began in 1846, and for four years he was 
employed as a clerk in the store of Hill, Wilson & Company, afterward, 
for one season, running a freight boat on the canal. In the fall of 1850 
he was a clerk in the City Mill, and from 185 1 to 1854 was m the dry 
goods business with George Wilson as a partner. Then, after one 
year as a partner of his brother-in-law, H. R. Schwegman, he returned 
to the City Mills. In 1866 he was engaged with Siemon Brothers, and 
four years later became a member of the firm of Hoagland, Tresselt 
& Co., proprietors of the City Mills. Mr. Hoagland died in 1884, and 
since then Mr. Tresselt has been sole proprietor, the firm now being 
known as C. Tresselt & Sons. The mill which they operate was estab- 
lished in 1843. Mr. Tresselt was married in 1854 to Elizabeth Siemon, 
who was born in Prussia in 1829 and came to Fort Wayne in 1853. 
They have three children: Oscar W., born in 1858; Herman C, born 
in 1859, and Frederick G., born in 1866. Mr. Tresselt is in politics a 
democrat, and he is a member of the Lutheran church. His long resi- 
dence in the city, and worth as a man and honorable in business life, have 
made him a prominent and respected citizen. He was one of the city 
commissioners from 1872 to 1885, in which year he was elected to the 
city council and served for two years. 



THE CANAL ERA. 49 

A well known early business man of Fort Wayne, Christian Schiefer,. 
is now at the head of a successful boot and shoe house of the city, that 
of Christian Schiefer & Son, of No. 8 East Columbia street. The senior 
member of this firm, Christian Schiefer, was born at Hamburg, Ger- 
many, in 1829. In 1846 he came to America, and going directly to 
Toledo, came up the old canal to Fort Wayne. He had learned shoe- 
making in the old country, and as soon as he reached Fort Wayne he; 
began work at his trade. In 1854, he formed a partnership with E. 
Vordermark, in the boot and shoe business, and they were associated 
for seven and a half years. After that he was in partnership with one 
Hood, for about one year, and since then managed the business alone 
until 1 88 1, when his son-in-law was admitted to the business. Mr. 
Schiefer was married in 1851, to Elizabeth Harbecker, who was born 
in Lancaster county, Penn. To them two children have been born, of 
whom two are living: William D. Schiefer, ex-sheriff of Allen county, 
now in the boot and shoe business on Calhoun street, and Lizzie, the 
wife of Herman H. Hartwig. Mr. Schiefer is a member of the Luth- 
eran church, and is a Master Mason. Mr. Hartwig, above named, was 
born in New York city, December 17, 1855. In that city he was reared 
and educated in the Lutheran and public schools, and also in commercial 
college. In 1875 he engaged in the window glass trade in New York 
city. In 1877, he was married to Lizzie Schiefer, and in 1881 he 
removed to Fort Wayne, and entered the firm of Schiefer & Co. He 
is a member of St. Paul's Lutheran church, in which connection he is a 
trustee of the church and treasurer of the building committee. To his 
marriage four children have been born. 

Moritz Axt, one of the prominent pioneers of Fort Wayne, came to 
the town when it was in its struggling infancy, and he has witnessed its 
magnificant growth, and not a little by his industry and good citizenship, 
aided in the growth of the city. Mr. Axt is a native of Germany, and 
was born January 29, 1811. In 1847 he immigrated to the new world, 
and in the same year made his home in this city, from which he has not 
removed. His life occupation has been the carpenter's trade in which 
he was a skillful and expert workman. He is an esteemed, member of 
St. Paul's Lutheran clurch. Mr. Axt was married July 12, 1848, to 
Christena Brackenridge, and their union has given them eight children:: 
William, Henry, Catherine, Charles, Christena, August, Sophia and 
Moritz, the last two of whom are deceased. 

Joseph Singmaster, a venerable citizen of Fort Wayne, was born irt 
Bucks county, Penn., October 2, 1804. His parents, Jacob and Susan 
Singmaster, were both natives of Pennsylvania. He was reared to man- 
hood in his native county, and in youth learned the tanner's trade. 
About 1S48 he came to Fort Wayne, and worked awhile at his trade, 
after which for twenty-five years he was employed in the Pittsburgh 
shops. For the past thirty years he has acted as agent for the Great 
American Tea Company of New York. Though now eighty-five 
years of age he still acts in that capacity, and transacts business with as 

IV 



50 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

much accuracy as he did twenty-five or thirty-years ago. Mr. Sing- 
master was married in early manhood to Catharine Stager, who died in 
September, 1880. He has living three children: Catharine E., Sarah M. 
and Joseph M. Six others all deceased. Mr. Singmaster is a member 
of the English Lutheran church, and in politics is a democrat, having 
cast his first vote for Andrew Jackson. He was very fond of hunting 
in the early days and frequently indulged in that sport. His memory is 
still good and his recollections of early times are interesting and varied. 

A member of the early German families of Fort Wayne, Frederick 
Becker, now a well-known citizen, is a native of Fort Wayne, born 
November 4, 1849, son of Frederick and Margaret Becker, both of 
whom were natives of Germany. They were married in that country in 
1847, and coming to America in 1848, located at Fort Wayne, where 
the father, who by trade was a blacksmith, died in 1882. The mother 
is still living. Frederick Becker learned the blacksmith trade with his 
father very early in life, and the pursuit of it has, thus far, received his 
entire attention. He makes a specialty of shorseshoeing and for a 
great man) 7 years past has done an exclusive business of that kind. He 
erected his present shop in 1S83. It is a splendid brick building at 13 
East Washington street, and is an establishment which does credit to the 
city. Mr. Becker is a member of the German Lutheran church, and is 
a democrat in politics. The firm name now is Frederick Becker & Bro. 

Henry Volland, one of the prominent millers of northern Indiana, has 
devoted more than forty years to that business, and has been a resident 
of Fort Wayne for the period named. In 1847 he came to America and 
settled in Ohio, coming thence to Fort Wayne on foot in 1849. The 
two previous years he had been alternating his time between work in 
a mill and labor upon the farm. Reaching this city he found employ- 
ment in the city mills for three years, after which he was for nine years 
engaged in Judge Hanna's flouring mill on the Maumee river. Prior to 
the war he purchased an interest in this property and held it for three 
years, subsequently to that period being for fourteen years connected 
with the mill of John Orff on West Main street. Then the firm of H. 
Volland & Sons was formed, and for the last four years they have been 
•doing an extensive business at No. 14 West Columbia street. Their 
■mill is equipped in the best manner for the production of an excellent 
grade of flour, etc., having the full roller process. Mr. Volland was 
"born in Bavaria, January 21, 1827, son of John and Margaret (Shoulty) 
Volland, who were born and passed their lives in that country. He 
was married in 1851 to Isabella Billman, born in Ohio, October 4, 1835, 
-of parents who came from Pennsylvania. She died in 1885, leaving six 
children: Henry J., born 1857; Tillie, 1859; J onn 5 1861; William, 1863; 
Mary, 1S65; Charles, 1871. The family are members of the Lutheran 
church. Mr. Volland is in politics a democrat. 

One of the prominent early manufacturers and worthy citizens of 
Allen county, John C. Begue, now deceased, was born in Alsace, France, 
April 11, 1827. When he was but three months old he lost his mother 



THE CANAL ERA. 5 1 

by death. In 1844, he accompanied his father and step-mother to 
America. They landed at New Orleans, and settled about twenty miles 
from Dayton, Ohio, on a farm. The son obtained employment with a 
tanner, and worked at that trade four years, and afterward came to 
Fort Wayne, in the fall of 1850. On November 23, 185 1, he married 
Marie Beugnot, daughter of Francis and Collet Beugnot, natives of 
France. She was born at Hautsonne, France, March 24, 1830, and 
accompanied her parents to this country when she was thirteen years 
old. Theystopped first in Stark county, Ohio, but in May, 1848, settled 
in Jefferson township, Allen county. For some time after their marriage 
Mr. Begue and wife resided in Fort Wayne, and then removed to Jefferson 
township, where he worked as a cooper. In May, 1S54, they settled at 
New Haven, where they resided about twenty-one years, Mr. Begue 
giving his attention to coopering and the stave manufacture. He aided 
in the building of the Maumee Valley Mills, and was one of the owners 
of that property about two years. He helped build a stave • factory at 
Antwerp, Ohio, and was connected with it three years. He was also 
connected with the Indiana Stave campany, which had three factories at 
New Haven, and one in Fort Wayne. In the fall of 1875, he removed 
to Fort Wayne, and was engaged during the remainder of his life as a 
contractor. He was prominent in politics as a democrat, and served two 
terms as one of the commissioners of Allen county, from 1869 to 1874. 
In the fall of 1874 ^ e ma de a visit to France for the benefit of his health, 
and remained several months. He died October 2, 1880. Of the eight 
children of Mr. Begue, only two are living, Mrs. Alice Schoenbein and 
Mrs. Amelia Baker. The former, who is also a widow, resides with 
Mrs. Begue at 164 East Wayne street. Mrs. Begue is a member of the 
Catholic church, as was her husband. 

Anthony Gocke, an old citizen of Fort Wayne, was born in Ger- 
many, November 3, 1815. In 1851 he emigrated to America, landing 
at New Orleans, January 25. He came directly to Fort Wayne where 
he has since resided. Before coming to America his occupation was 
chiefly that of a coal miner. During thirty years of his residence in 
Fort Wayne he occupied a position in the wholesale grocery establish- 
ment, formerly owned by Barney Trentman and now by his son A. C. 
Trentman. Mr. Gocke was married in February, 1856, to Elizabeth 
Rensman, a native of Germany, who came to America at seventeen 
years of age. They have had eight children: Frank, Anna, Henry, 
Bernard, Louis H., Theresa, August and Clara, two of whom, Bernard 
and Theresa, are dead. Mrs. Gocke died January 15, 1875. Mr. 
Gocke is a member of the Catholic church. 

Louis H. Gocke, above named, is occupied as book-keeper for A. C. 
Trentman. He was born at Fort Wayne, July 20, 1863. November 8, 
1887, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Grimme, by whom he is the 
father of one child, Edward H., born August 10, 1888. Mr. Gocke 
and wife are members of the Catholic church, and he is a member of 
the Catholic Knights of America. 



52 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Charles Auger, prominent among the citizens of Fort Wayne, of 
French nativity, has resided in the city since 1853.. He has witnessed 
the great development of his adopted town, and throughout his life has 
been honored by his fellow citizens. He was one of the first to engage 
in business as a florist in this city, and has had an extensive business, 
owning as many as six green houses at one time. Having prosered in 
his affairs and grown advanced in years, he has retired and turned over 
his business to his son, Louis B. Auger, who continues it successfully. 
Charles Auger was born in France, March 4, 1822, the son of John B. 
and Marie C. Auger. He came to America in 1850, and at first spent 
two years in New York city. He was married November 25, 1850, to 
Catherine Thorpe, a native of England, daughter of William and Ann 
Thorpe, also of that country, but of French descent. Mr. and Mrs. 
Auger have had two children, Louis B. and Charles W., who died at 
the age of eleven years and eight months. Mrs. Auger is a member of 
the Episcopal church. Mr. Auger has made three trips to his native 
country, and he and wife visited the Paris exposition in the summer 
of 1889. 

John M. Riedmiller, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, now deceased, 
was born in Asbach, O. P., Crailsheim, Koenigreich, Wurtemberg, Ger- 
many, on March 14, 1836. He emigrated to America in 1S53, and came 
at once to Fort Wayne. He was a shoemaker by trade, and was a 
prominent and influential citizen until his death, which occurred August 
19, 1885. For three terms he was a member of the common council. 
He was prosperous in business and left his family in good circumstances. 
Mr. Reidmiller was married May 5, 1857, to Catherine Wolf, who was 
born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, December 24, 1839, and came with 
her parents to America in 1852. She is the daughter of William Wolf, 
an early citizen of Fort Wayne. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Ried- 
miller three children were born, as follows: Julia Eliza, born May 15, 
1859, now t ^ ie w ^ e °^ F re d Rippe, a liveryman of Fort Wayne; Charles 
John, born October 3, 1863, now in business in Fort Wayne; John M., jr., 
born August 7, 1866, engaged in the bottling business, and a well-known 
business man of the city. Mr. Riedmiller was, and all the family are, 
members of St. John's Lutheran church. 

John W. McQuiston is one of the early settlers of Allen county, who 
has done well financially by bringing shrewd business qualifications to 
bear upon the early advantages, and by continuous and intelligent appli- 
cation through life has gained a wide fund of information, which well 
stands instead of the educational advantages now so abundant, but then 
infrequent. His father, John McQuiston, was born in Westmoreland 
county, Penn., in 1782, and married Jane McDaniel, who was born in 
York county, Penn., in 1789. Both were children of revolutionary 
soldiers, who held rank as officers. They removed to Allen county in 
1837, settled in Perry township, and cleared out a farm. The father 
served as one of Allen county's early commissioners. He died at his 
home in 1877, having survived his wife two years. John W., the oldest 



THE CANAL ERA. 53 

of their eight children, was born in Westmoreland county, Penn., June 
27, 1812. He did his share of the pioneer work, and continued farming 
until 1887, when he removed to the city. In politics he is a democrat. 
He was married November 16, 1836, to Eliza Rodgers, born Septem- 
ber 16, 1 8 16, in West Virginia, and they have had thirteen children, of 
whom eight are living : Jane, William Henry, Wilson, Allen Perry, Ben- 
jamin, Edward L., Charles and Franklin. Mrs. McQuiston is a member 
of the Presbyterian church. 

William Mcintosh was born in Adams township, November 28, 
1 83 1. His father, John Mcintosh, one of the earliest of the pioneers of 
Allen county, was born in County Derry, Ireland, and came to America 
just after the close of the war of 1812. After spending a few years in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, he came to Allen county in 1823, and entered 
land in Adams township. In 1827 he was married to Ruth, daughter 
of Samuel Brown, and this was the first marriage that occurred in 
Adams township. Mrs. Ruth Mcintosh died when her son William was 
but three years old, and a few years later Mr. Mcintosh married Mrs. 
Olive Young, who died in September, 1858. John Mcintosh spent all 
the rest of his life in Adams township, his occupation being that of a 
farmer. He died in December, 1859. William W. lived in childhood 
on the old homestead where he was born, and followed farming there 
until December, 1888, when he and wife removed to Fort Wayne. He 
was married July 4, 1859, to Emily A., daughter of Peter L. and Han- 
nah G. (Kenworthy) Carrier, the former a native of Ohio, and the latter 
of England. Mrs. Mcintosh was born in Trumbull county, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1843. They have had eight children: Grace M., Jessie B., 
Elmer E., Alice and Helen (twins), and Lila R. and Lulu A. 
(twins), and Archie W., all living except Grace M., who died aged six- 
teen months. Mr. Mcintosh is a member of the I. O. O. F., New 
Haven lodge, No. 253, and in politics is a republican. He is an honora- 
ble, upright man and he and wife are highly respected. 

Daniel Nestel, a worthy and honored pioneer citizen of Fort Wayne, 
was born in Carlsbronn, Prussia, January 31, 1818, the son of Daniel 
and Elizabeth (Klein) Nestel. He attended school until he was four- 
teen, devoting his attention during the last year to the study of veterin- 
ary surgery. During six years of his youth he was employed in a grist 
mill, filling the position of superintendent during the last two. June 1, 
1840, he started for America, on the sailing vessel Cotton Planter, com- 
manded by Capt. Harley, and reached New York City August 7, after 
a voyage of forty-seven days. His entire capital when he landed was 
but eight cents and the first meal he ate in America was earned before it 
was eaten. He arrived at Fort Wayne on August 27th, having walked 
a good portion of the way. He had a companion who had started with 
him from Germany, Fred. Foellinger. When within thirty miles of 
Fort Wayne thev camped for the night in the woods, after having 
walked all day long with no food but green walnuts. The wolves in 
the surrounding forest prowled about them and not knowing what the 



54 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

result might be, Mr. Nestel took occasion to carve upon a tree near by 
the following inscription : " D. Nestel and Fred. Foellinger, died from 
hunger and eaten up by wolves." Here he was first employed as a day 
laborer but soon began to learn the blacksmith trade, and setting up a 
shop of his own he worked at that trade about twenty-six years. While 
so engaged he worked sixteen hours a day for more than fifteen years. 
Mr. Nestel was married June 4, 1844, to Henrietta, daughter of Adam 
Goebel, who located in Preble township, Adams county, Ind., in 1835. 
Mrs. Nestel was born in Germany, about 1821. Mr. and Mrs. Nestel 
have had six children : Henrietta, Charles W., Daniel, Charlotte, Eliza 
S. and Oscar W., of whom Charles W. and Eliza S. are familiarly 
known to the world as Commodore Foote and Fairy Queen, and though 
perfectly developed, weigh respectively but forty and thirty-five pounds. 
They are highly educated in different languages and have traveled 
throughout the civilized world, appearing before all the royal personages 
of Europe. Mr. Nestel traveled with them for eighteen years, visiting 
all the larger cities in the eastern, western, northern and middle states, 
and also Canada. For six years after this he was engaged in the dry 
goods business in Fort Wayne. For the past three years he has owned 
and conducted the Broadway nursery. In politics he is a staunch repub- 
lican. He has been a member of the city council two terms. He is 
one of the city's old citizens, is extensively known and very highly 
respected. Mr. Nestel, in his extensive travels, had an opportunity to 
witness the progress of American cities and this excited in him greater 
interest than anything else. He has for several years past, given some 
time to the real estate business, besides attending to his nursery. The 
Commodore and Fairy Queen (Charles and Eliza) have just returned 
from their second visit to Europe. 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 

Few cities are blessed with railroads in number and excellence equal 
to those which center in Fort Wayne, and have made of this inland city 
a commercial place of the first class, a distributing point for freight and 
passengers second only to the very largest of American cities. 

It is fortunate that its location is on the fort} r -first parallel of latitude. 
On the same parallel New York city is situated and Chicago and Omaha 
are not far from it, accordingly. Fort Wayne lies directly on the high- 
way which commerce has established between the metropolis by the 
Atlantic and the great western cities with which it interchanges so much 
of its vast business. Accordingly it is not strange that three great 
trunk lines lead from Fort Wayne to New York city with two to 
Chicago and that another trunk line now in course of construction will 
connect the lakes with the city by the sea through this bustling place. 
The fact that six railways enter Fort Wayne and provide easy commu- 
nication in ten different directions is of the highest importance to the 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 55 

manufacturing and commercial interests of the city. New York, Phil- 
adelphia, Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, Grand Rapids, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Indianapolis, Detroit, Louisville, Cincinnati and many other cities are 
reached without change of cars and generally by two or more through 
routes. 

The fact that the city has the advantage of railway competition 
has greatly contributed to cheapen freight rates from eastern trade 
centers and thus enhance the profits and strengthen the business of the 
wholesale merchant, who can secure his supplies at as low cost as though 
he resided at Chicago or Cleveland, Indianapolis or Detroit. 

The railroads which enter or pass through this city are the Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railway company, operated by the 
Pennsylvania, the Wabash, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Fort 
Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville, the Cincinnati, Richmond & Fort 
Wayne, the New York, Chicago, St. Louis ("Nickle Plate"), and the 
Fort Wayne & Jackson a branch of the Lake Shore. 

Within a few miles of the city these roads intersect other lines which 
thus become almost as intimate and direct a portion of the general sys- 
tem. For example, the Chicago & Atlantic, the western feeder of the 
Erie system, is crossed by the Wabash at Huntington and by the Muncie 
at Kingsland; the Baltimore & Ohio is crossed by the Wabash at 
Defiance, by the Lake Shore at Auburn, and by the G. R. & I. R. R. 
at A villa; the " Clover Leaf" is crossed by the Muncie at Bluffton and 
by the G. R. & I. R. R. at Decatur; the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern is intersected by the Fort Wayne branch at Auburn, and by 
the G. R. & I. R. R. at Kendallville. All of these points are within a 
few miles from the city and the lines there met with regularly contribute 
to Fort Wayne's commercial prosperity. 

The regular time for fast freight shipments between New York, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore and Fort Wayne has recently been reduced 
to seventy-two hours, and in some instances of special shipment even 
below this low figure. Between Boston and Fort Wayne the time is 
five days; between Fort Wayne and Cincinnati and Chicago fifteen 
hours, while in the fruit and oyster seasons special trains are run through 
the city on the schedule of the fastest passenger trains, thus supplying 
Fort Wayne with the fish of the sea and the fruits of the orchard of 
delightful flavor and freshness. An immense trade in oysters and fruits 
has been developed here in consequence of the unusual excellence and 
cheapness of these staple luxuries. 

The Pittsburgh Fort Wayne & Chicago railway is the result of the 
consolidation, effected in 1857, of the Ohio & Pennsylvania, the Ohio & 
Indiana, and the Fort Wayne & Chicago railways. The entire road 
extending from Pittsburgh to Chicago, is 469 miles long and Fort Wayne 
is the largest city on the line and is the seat of the principal erecting 
and repair shops. 

In January, 1850, the contract for building the entire length of the 
Ohio & Indiana, from Crestline, Ohio, to Fort Wayne, a distance of 131 



56 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

miles, was let to Samuel Hanna, Pliny Hoagland and William Mitchell, 
for $740,000. This sum was to include all necessary buildings and 
fixtures, but no iron or cars. In January, 1852, the entire contract was 
sublet. The firm name of the contractors was William Mitchell & Co. 
In the same year Allen Hamilton donated six acres for depot purposes, 
the site of the south depot, and Samuel Hanna donated five acres, for 
grounds for the company's shops. The railroad was completed to Fort 
Wayne in the fall of 1855, about one year after the contracted time. 
The track deflected from the present straight east and west line at a point 
just west of Clay street and swung around to Lafayette street down which 
it passed northward to the canal basin at the foot of Columbia street, 
where a frame depot and a frame engine house were erected. These build- 
ings remained until 1857, and marked the western terminus of the road. A 
principal reason for extending the road to the canal was to secure a 
profitable interchange of business, and this expectation was substantially 
realized, the railroad at once receiving great consignments of east-bound 
wheat from the canal boats. The depot and freight grounds embraced 
all lands between the canal and the north side of Columbia street, and 
extending from Barr to Lafayette street. The first locomotive seen in 
Fort Wayne was brought from Toledo on a flat boat, under the charge 
of Mr. R. W. Wohlfort. He landed it at the foot of Lafayette street 
and for several years run it over the road. After its usefulness had ended, 
by reason of greater perfection in machinery of that character, the old 
locomotive was stored on the wharf in front of the company's warehouse 
where it remained for a considerable time an object of much curiosity 
and interest. It has long since been consigned to the scrap pile and the 
melting pot. The original depot was a small frame affair, and the 
original engine-house was a store which was converted to the purpose 
by tearing out the gable end. This old building may still be seen near 
the Globe flouring mill of J. B. Monning & Co. The first buildings on 
the present site of the south depot were of frame and consisted of a pas- 
senger depot and a freight house. The depot was removed to a point 
west of Calhoun street, and was subsequently demolished. The freight 
house was destroyed by fire. The present elegant buildings were in 
part erected to take their places but both have been largely added to to 
meet the wonderful increase of traffic. 

4 Operating this railroad without through business or connecting lines, 
and extending out into a sparsely settled country, with its agricultural, 
manufacturing and commercial interests all undeveloped, was by no means 
as satisfactory as the owners of the stock and bonds find it today. 

In 1854 an d ^55 tne condition of the Ohio & Indiana, and the Fort 
Wayne & Chicago roads was by no means prosperous. The first had 
been imperfectly constructed; the ballast was largely of sand or a poor 
quality of gravel, the bridges and culverts were flimsy wooden affairs, 
and the imperfect drainage of the country subjected the track to fre- 
quent and annoying washouts. The equipment of the road was woefully 
lacking, and, worse than all, the financial credit had been exhausted by 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 57 

three mortgages, all of which had been inadequate to complete and 
equip the road. The Fort Wayne & Chicago road was at a stand-still, 
the track had been laid for a distance of some fifteen miles west of Fort 
Wayne, when no more money for construction work was available. In 
this predicament a consolidation of the three lines leading from Pitts- 
burgh to Chicago was proposed at a meeting of the presidents of the 
Pennsylvania railroad, the Pennsylvania & Ohio, the Ohio & Indiana and 
the Fort Wayne & Chicago roads. The object of this scheme was to 
vitalize the stagnant corporations, and its principal champion was Hon. 
Joseph K. Edgerton of this city, president of the Ohio & Indiana rail- 
road. Mr. Edgerton's plan of consolidation was approved almost unan- 
imously by the stockholders of the various corpprations, and the enlarged 
possibilities that grew out of a great line of travel operated for through 
business, became at once apparent, and the completion of the road to 
Chicago was not much longer delayed. 

The consolidation, called the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
Railroad company, went into operation August i, 1856. George W. 
Cass of the Ohio & Pennsylvania railroad, was chosen president, and 
Mr. Edgerton, vice president. The first four Indiana directors were 
Messrs. Samuel Hanna and J. K. Edgerton, of Fort Wayne, William 
Williams of Warsaw, and A. L. Wheeler of Plymouth. 

In 1857 the road became seriously involved financially, and German 
bondholders applied to the United States court of the Northern District 
of Ohio for the appointment of a receiver. Mr. Edgerton was appointed, 
and at once the stockholders and bondholders in the Pennsylvania railroad, 
who had been gradually acquiring stock in the promising western feeder, 
opposed the appointment in the courts and Mr. Edgerton resigned, giv- 
ing way to William B. Ogden, who appeared to be better able to har- 
monize the conflicting interests. He introduced Samuel J. Tilden, 
deceased, as a legal adviser, who devised a plan of reorganization. The 
control of the road was finally acquired by the Pennsylvania railroad 
company upon foreclosure sale to a purchasing committee of which Mr. 
Tilden was one and was at once re-sold to a reorganizing committee. 
The name of the road was changed to Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne& Chicago 
railway. A lease to the Pennsylvania interests for 999 years followed 
and the operation of this great line of travel has since been out of the 
hands of its projectors and builders. 

It is probably the best equipped trunk line for freight and passenger 
business between Chicago and the seaboard, runs solid through trains 
of royal magnificence and has established in Fort Wayne the finest 
equipped car shops in the west. 

The Pennsylvania company, lessees, now run sixteen passenger trains 
daily in and out of Fort Wayne. The monthly ticket sales at the Union 
passenger station are $13,000, about a third of which amount must be 
accredited to the passenger business of the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
railroad, which the Pennsylvania company also controls. Mr. C. D. 



58 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Law, the enterprising superintendent of the western division resides 
in this city. 

Fort Wayne is the largest city and most important commercial point 
on the Wabash main line between Toledo, Ohio, and St. Louis, Mo. 
The company's principal engine shops are located here, and give employ- 
ment to 550 skilled mechanics who are largely occupied in the building 
of locomotives, famous for their speed and power. Ten passenger trains 
arrive and depart from the Wabash depot daily, eight of them being 
through trains. The affairs of this road have occupied the attention of 
the courts for many years, and the history of Wabash litigations, arising 
from the control of jay Gould, the extension of the system, the creation 
of the $70,000,000 debt and the various receiverships, would greatly 
exceed the compass of this chapter. Under the receivership of Gen. 
John McNulta the road has been magnificently equipped, and its man- 
agement by General Superintendent K. H. Wade and Assistant General 
Superintendent G. W. Stevens, has been exceedingly satisfactory to its 
patrons. The gross receipts at Fort Wayne station are about a million 
and a quarter of dollars annually and the yearly tonnage is 500,000. 
The last sale of the road was in June, 1889, under order of Judge 
Gresham, when the entire property was purchased at foreclosure sale at 
Chicago by the Wabash Western railway, whose lines are generally 
west of the Mississippi. It is now operated from St. Louis, and O. D. 
Ashley is president of the consolidated systems. 

The Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad forms a north and south trunk 
line of vast commercial importance. It extends from the Straits of Macki- 
naw on the north, through t he center of Michigan and on through Fort 
Wayne in an almost due southerly line 459 miles, to Richmond, Ind., 
where direct connection is made to Cincinnati. The road is noted for 
its splendid passenger equipment, and in the summer runs through sleep- 
ing cars from Cincinnati to Mackinaw. It is under the control of the 
Pennsylvania company, and to that company at Fort Wayne it is a 
principal feeder, delivering thousands of car-loads of pine collected from 
the Michigan forests, tons of salf, millions of dollars worth of furniture 
from the factories at Grand Rapids, solid train loads of ice from Cadillac, 
besides Michigan-grown potatoes, apples and other fruit in great abund- 
ance. The road is known among pleasure seekers as the " Fishing 
Line," and during the summer months a constant stream of tourists seek 
the cool, refreshing resorts in Northern Indiana and Michigan, by way 
of this road. Mackinaw, Petoskey, Traverse City, Charlevoux, Michi- 
gan and Rome city, Ind., are perhaps the best known of these places of 
delightful remembrance of the summer tourist. The superintendent of 
the southern division, extending from Grand Rapids, Mich., to Rich- 
mond, Ind., is P. S. O'Rourke. His headquarters are in Fort Wayne. 
Besides ranking very high as a wide-awake and pushing railway offi- 
cial, he has taken a leading part in politics, and on the subject of a 
reform of the tariff his views have been widely quoted for many 
years past. 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 59 

Like the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railway the construc- 
tion of the " Rapids " was attended with great financial difficulties. In 
1866, when Joseph K. Edgerton became president of the company, it 
had for more than ten years held a grant of about two thirds of a 
million acres of Michigan land, for the construction of a road from Grand 
Rapids to Traverse Bay, and in 1864, congress had enlarged the grant 
over 200,000 acres, and extended it to a line from Fort Wayne to 
Traverse bay. But not a mile was built, nor a bar of iron bought, and 
the land grant was subject to immediate forfeiture from January 1, 1866. 
Samuel Hanna, during the three months preceding his death, had 
initiated movements at Fort Wayne and elsewhere for aid to the road, 
and his operations were taken up and continued by Mr. Edgerton, with 
vigor. In December, 1866, iron was obtained to begin track laying on 
the twenty miles between Grand Rapids and Cedar Springs, the first 
section required to be built by the land grant, and at the following 
session of the Michigan legislature, Mr. Edgerton memorialized it for an 
extension of time. This prayer was granted, though with much oppo- 
sition. The struggle for the restoration of the company's credit was a 
long and arduous one, but was finally successful. The company is now 
in excellent financial condition. Its improvements are of the most sub- 
stantial character. Its shops at Grand Rapids are of great magnitude 
and excellently equipped. The city of Fort Wayne is a large owner of 
its stock, which the mayor votes at the annual meetings held at Grand 
Rapids. J. H. P. Hughart is the president of the road and C. L. Lock- 
wood the general passenger agent. Eight passenger trains are run 
through Fort Wayne every day. 

The railways heretofore mentioned, run their trains through the 
south depot on Calhoun street, between Railroad street and Grand street. 
The Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago, and the Grand Rapids & 
Indiana, occupy a large and finely appointed brick building, which con- 
tains a hotel and an eating house, noted all along these lines of travel for 
the excellence of the cuisine. On the opposite side of the tracks and facing 
this depot is the passenger depot of the Wabash companv, a frame 
building well adapted to the purposes intended. 

There are two other depots and all are connected by street cars, 
making passenger transfers cheap and expeditious. On the north side 
of the city, in the Ninth ward, is the union depot used by the Fort 
Wayne branch of the Lake Shore road and the Fort Wayne, Cincin- 
nati & Louisville railway. These roads form a continuous north and 
south line from Cincinnati and Louisville on the south to Jackson and 
Saginaw, in Michigan, and the volume of business transacted is of such 
rapid growth that the engine service has recently been very largely in- 
creased. Both roads are laid with steel rail. The principal shops of 
the Muncie road are at Fort Wayne and here its general superintendent, 
W. W. Worthington, who has grown up with the company, has his 
office. 

The latest addition to Fort Wayne's railways is the New York, 



60 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Chicago & St. Louis railway, or Nickel Plate, which was built for the 
sole object of profitable sale to the Vanderbilts, which- object was finally 
accomplished. It parallels the Lake Shore main line from Buffalo to 
Chicago and so greatly threatened the business of the Lake Shore that 
after Vanderbilt had denounced it as valueless property, " a string of 
dirt leading from nowhere to no place," he paid, a good round price for 
it. It has been of the greatest service to Fort Wayne in developing a 
new country, famous for its hard wood timber and heretofore quite 
difficult of access. 

The Vanderbilt management of the " Nickel Plate " has not directed 
much attention to its passenger business, though its two daily trains are 
well patronized, but the road has been devoted almost exclusively to 
the quick movement of freight, especially live stock, dressed meats and 
perishable goods generally. Its direct line, from Chicago to Buffalo, with 
easy grades, permits of such rapid transportation of these food products 
that the Nickel Plate has long since been dubbed the " Meat Express " 
line, and the claim is made for it that shipments from the great Chicago 
packing houses reach New York by this line from ten to twenty hours 
in advance of all other routes. It is common for the Nickel Plate to 
haul six long meat trains east through Fort Wayne every night. The 
road has a very handsome depot located in the heart of the wholesale 
trade, and in this city are the offices of C. D. Gorham, superintendent 
of the western division, of trainmaster S. K. Blair, engineer W. McK. 
Pardee and other officials. The principal shops of the company are at 
Stony Island, 111., where they were located to improve the value of real 
estate owned by the road's speculative projectors. There is reason to 
expect that these shops may be removed to Fort Wayne, their natural 
place of location. 

An ambitious project in railway building, which, when accomplished 
will greatly benefit the city, is that of the American Midland company. 
Its officers assert that its early financial embarrassments have been 
arranged, and that before many months its trains will be running into 
and probably through Fort Wayne. An aid of $200,000 has been voted 
the company, conditioned upon the early construction of the line and the 
erection and maintenance of its principal shops in this city. The bonds 
of the company are said to have been placed, and a number of miles of 
the road are now constructed and in operation. The scheme of the 
projectors is for a trunk line between Jersev City on the east, to Omaha 
on the west, crossing the Allegheny mountains at the Red Bank pass, 
and traversing the country in almost an air-line, paralleling the forty-first 
degree of latitude. It is planned to lead a branch from Fort Wayne to 
Chicago, and another from -Fort Wayne to St. Louis, making this the 
junction point of all branches. It is stated that terminal facilities and 
wharfage of the greatest value have been secured at Jersey City and 
Philadelphia, and by a traffic arrangement with the Reading and other 
lines, access to both New York and Philadelphia may be had whenever 
needed. An item of particular interest here is that an arrangement has 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 6 1 

been entered into by the Midland company with a large eastern car 
building concern by which mammoth car shops, which are expected to 
give employment to at least 1,000 men, are to be located here. 

Jesse L. Williams, who was for a period of more than forty years 
prominent in the history of the public works of Indiana, Ohio, and the 
whole great west, was born in Stokes county, N. C, May 6, 1807. His 
parents, Jesse and Sarah T. Williams, members of the society of Friends, 
removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and subsequently to Warren county, 
and in 1819 to Wayne county, Ind. In his early youth he was a student 
at the Lancaster seminary at Cincinnati for a short time. He early 
selected the profession of civil engineer as his life work, being inspired 
by the great schemes of canal improvement then popular. The Erie 
canal was nearing completion, and the Miami and Erie canal from Cin- 
cinnati to Maumee bay was about to be surveyed. x\t the age of sev- 
enteen he accepted a minor position in the engineer corps on this work, 
and served until the construction of the canal in the Miami valley. In 
the spring of 1828 he was appointed by David S. Bates, then chief 
engineer of Ohio, to make the final location of the Ohio canal from 
Licking summit to Chillicothe, and to construct a division of that work. 
In his twenty-fifth year he was appointed chief engineer *of the Wabash 
& Erie canal, and two years later, in 1834, the surveys of all other canals 
in Indiana were placed by the legislature in his hands. In 1836, under 
an act for internal improvements he was appointed engineer-in-chief of 
all the canal routes, to which duties were added those of chief engineer 
of railroads and turnpikes in 1837, giving him supervision of 1,300 
miles of public works. In the summer of 1841 he attended thirteen let- 
tings of contracts, and he journeyed during those four months, on horse- 
back, some 3,000 miles, the mental task of mastering the details of 
construction being at the same time an equally gigantic effort. His 
work was actively prosecuted until 1841, when the improvements were 
suspended for want of funds. From March, 1840 until 1842 he was 
also by appointment of the legislature, ex-officio a member of the board 
of internal improvements and acting commissioner of the Indiana divis- 
ion of the canal, including the management of the canal lands. In 1847 
the Wabash & Erie canal, under the state debt act, passed into the con- 
trol of a board of three trustees, two of whom were appointed by the 
bondholders and one by the legislalure. The act required the appoint- 
ment of a " chief engineer of known and established character for expe- 
rience and integrity," and Mr. Williams was selected for this position in 
June, 1847. This was held by him until the canal was sold by decree 
of the United States district court in 1876. Prior to 1842 there were 
many criticisms arising from political excitement, but a legislative com- 
mittee appointed by the legislature in 1842, after making an exhaustive 
examination of the management of state improvements, completely 
exonerated- Mr. Williams, closing with the words, " every man has 
his enemies who deserves them." In February, 1854, ne was 
appointed chief engineer of the Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, which 



62 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

he held until its consolidation in 1856 in the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago railroad. Of the last named company he became a trustee. 
Mr. Williams was appointed by President Lincoln a government director 
of the Union Pacific railroad in July, 1864, and held that place until the 
Union and Central Pacifies met west of Salt Lake, in 1869, being com- 
missioned by three successive presidents. He served on the committee 
of location and construction, and made frequent tours of inspection 
through the canyons and over the slopes of the Rocky Mountain ranges, 
always insisting on the adoption of the lowest possible maximum grade. 
He made frequent reports to the secretary of the interior, which were 
communicated to congress and printed as public documents. In his re- 
port of November 23, 1866, he described ten distinct routes, describing 
briefly each proposed line. The lowering of the maximum grade was 
his object. Congress, for want of preliminary surveys had fallen into 
the grave error of authorizing by law, a maximum grade of 116 feet per 
mile. But Mr. Williams, having ascertained that a maximum grade of 
ninety feet per mile was possible, resisted the establishment of any 
higher grade, which would limit the load of a train for the whole road. 
This question was intimately associated with the cost of the road, in 
which congress had also acted unadvisedly. Mr. Williams submitted a 
report November 14, 1868, showing that the actual cash outlay for con- 
structing and equipping the entire road of 1,110 miles would be 
$38,824,821; while the cash means provided by the act of 1862, as a 
subsidy, together with the company's first mortgage bonds, amounted to 
$56,647,600, without including the value of the land grant. Mr. Will- 
iams' report led to discussion, and the famous " credit mobilier " investi- 
gation followed. January 19, 1869, Mr. Williams was appointed receiver 
of the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad company, and in October fol- 
lowing he resigned his position as director of the Union Pacific, and 
devoted his energies to the completion of the Grand Rapids road, open- 
ing for transportation nearly 200 miles of that road. Mr. Williams was 
married November 15, 1831, to Susan Creighton, daughter of Judge 
William Creighton, of Chillicothe, Ohio, who was a representative in 
congress from the Chillicothe district during the war of 181 2, and from 
1828 to 1832. 

Pliny Hoagland, who was prominently associated with canal, rail- 
road and city improvement of the Maumee valley, began his professional 
life as an engineer on the Sandy and Beaver canal, in the spring of 
1835. I n I 838 he was engaged in the same capacity on the Ohio por- 
tion of the Wabash & Erie canal, and remained so until the canal was 
completed in 1843, when he was given charge of the work he had 
been engaged upon, and of the Western Reserve and Maumee road. 
In the fall of 1845 he removed to Fort Wayne, and thereafter took an 
active part in all the schemes for improvement of the city and its com- 
mercial avenues. When the Ohio & Pennsylvania road was partly con- 
structed to Mansfield, and the company was hesitating whether to build 
to Chicago or simply connect with Cincinnati, Mr. Hoagland urged upon 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 63 

the projectors the probable advantages of a Chicago extension, and 
writing to Hugh McCulloch regarding the situation, he urged that 
movement of the citizens of Fort Wayne which secured the road. The 
Indiana legislation in regard to this road was secured chiefly by Mr. 
Hoagland's efforts, and when the corporation for connecting Crestline 
and Fort Wayne with the Ohio & Indiana railroad was formed, Mr. 
Hoagland, Judge Hanna and William Mitchell became contractors for 
the whole line, except furnishing the iron, and taking the contract Janu- 
ary 28, 1852, completed it November i, 1854. From that time Mr. 
Hoagland held the position of director of the road, under its various 
names, and subsequent to 1866 was a director of the Grand Rapids and 
Indiana road. In 1856 he was elected to the lower house of the assem- 
bly, and in 1S62 to the senate. His position as senator he resigned to 
accept the presidency of the Fort Wayne branch of the bank of Indiana, 
succeeding- Hugh McCulloch. When this concern became a national 
bank he declined the presidency and became vice president. During 
his service in the city council, beginning in 1865, the system of sewer- 
age, which is hardly excelled in any city of the land, was begun at his 
instance. Permanent street grades and Nicholson pavements were also 
begun at that time. In the upbuilding of the schools, models of effi- 
cienc}^, his influence was also strongly felt. His career as a public man 
was most honorable, and was characterized by a degree of independence 
and devotion to the public good, that is apparently becoming most rare. 
This benefactor of the city died January, 1884. 

Joseph K. Edgerton, who has been prominent in the railroad and 
political history of Indiana, is the third son of Bela and Phebe (Ketchum) 
Edgerton, and was born at Vergennes, Vt., February 16, 1818. His 
maternal grandfather, Joseph Ketchum, was a merchant and ironmaster 
at Plattsburg, N. Y., and died in New York, in September, 1794. He 
is* of the fifth generation in direct descent from Richard Edgerton (or 
Egerton, as the name is spelled in England), one of the band of English 
Puritans, who, under the leadership of Maj. John Mason, the hero of 
the Pequod war, removed from Saybrook to Mohican (afterward Nor- 
wich, Conn.), and on the 6th of June, 1659, purchased from Uncas and 
other sachems of the Mohican Indians, a tract of land nine miles square, 
embracing the site of the city of Norwich, Conn. Another of the Eng- 
lish settlers and proprietors was William Hyde, one of whose female 
descendants, in 1744, married Elisha Edgerton, grandson of Richard. 
The late Chancellor Walworth, of New York, who was a descendant of 
this William Hyde, devoted the leisure of the later years of his life to 
the compilation of a genealogy of the Hyde family. In a letter addressed 
to the subject of this sketch, he wrote: "I suppose you have seen my 
Hyde genealogy. I find, by the congressional dictionary you sent me, 
that fifty-two senators or members of the house of representatives, were 
either descendants of our ancestor, William Hyde, of Norwich, or mar- 
ried wives who were descendants." Col. Elisha Edgerton represented 
the town of Franklin in the legislature of Connecticut in 1803, and was 



64 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

a member of the constitutional convention of that state in 1818. His 
son, Bela Edgerton, born September 28, 1787, was graduated at Middle- 
bury college, Vermont, in 1809; was a lawyer and magistrate in Clinton 
county, N. Y., and in 1827, '28 and '29, represented that county in the 
legislature. In 1S39, Bela Edgerton removed to Hicksville, Ohio, where 
for many years he was engaged in farming. In the later years of his 
life, he resided at Fort Wayne, Ind., in the family of his oldest son, 
Alfred P. Edgerton, and died September 10, 1874. ^ e was a rnan °^ 
ability and fine social qualities. Joseph K. Edgerton was educated in 
the common schools of Clinton county, and at the Plattsburg academy, 
until his sixteenth year, when he became a law student in the office of 

J J 

William S wetland, of Plattsburg — "the great lawyer of northern New 
York," as he was called by his cotemporaries. In 1835, Mr. Edgerton 
sought employment in the city of New York, and became a student in 
the law office of Dudley Selden and James Mowatt. He was admitted 
to the bar of New York in 1839, and until 1844 practiced law in that 
city, associated with George B. Kissam, under the firm name of Edger- 
ton & Kissam. He was married in 1839 to Hannah Maria, youngest 
daughter of William and Elizabeth (Chatterton) Spies, of New York. 
In 1S43 Mr. Edgerton visited the west in the interests of a New York 
client, and being favorably impressed with the country, he removed to 
Fort Wayne and established an office here in 1844, occupying the office 
of ex-Governor Samuel Bigger, with whom he formed a partnership in 
the following year, which was terminated by the death of his partner in 
1846. Mr. Edgerton soon established a profitable business as a land and 
collection agent, and from July, 1850, to July, 1851, was associated in 
practice with Charles Case. He was one of the first to interest himself 
in the progress of the Ohio & Indiana and Fort Wayne & Chicago rail- 
roads, and on his own account and on behalf of clients made large land 
subscriptions, including large tracts in LaGrange county, owned by the 
New York house of Grinnell, Minturn & Co. . Mr. Edgerton was made 
a director of the Fort Wayne & Chicago road in 1854, an ^ m Novem- 
ber, 1855, succeeded Mr. Hanna as president. He was elected director 
of the Ohio & Indiana road in January, 1856. During the critical 
period of the existence of these companies, Mr. Edgerton was promi- 
nent in their affairs, proposed the consolidation which was effected and 
the formation of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad com- 
pany, and negotiated the preliminary contract for that purpose and the 
final articles. He was the first vice president of the new company, until 
his appointment as receiver in December, 1859. From 1857 he had 
also been financial and transfer agent of the company with his office in 
New York, and from February until December, 1859, was tne legal 
adviser of the company with office at Fort Wayne. Owing to the oppo- 
sition of the Pennsylvania company, which aimed to acquire the new 
road, he resigned the receivership, and in March, i860, he was defeated 
as a candidate for director, though supported by 37,000 shares. His 
defeat in this connection was the end of the final struggle of the builders 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 65 

of the road to preserve its independence. The reorganization and sale 
that followed, at great expense, put the road forever out of the hands 
of those who had struggled for its success in the early da} r s. In July, 
1866, upon the solicitation of the Michigan directors, Mr. Edgerton 
became president of the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad company, on 
the death of Samuel Hanna, and again had an arduous struggle to 
encounter for the establishment of a great thoroughfare. In August, 
187 1, after five years' service, Mr. Edgerton left the company on the 
removal of its offices to Grand Rapids, being succeeded by William A. 
Howard of Michigan. In the mean time, the land grant had been full}" 
protected by the construction and putting in operation, under a contract 
with the Continental Improvement company, of 200 miles of the road, 
from Fort Wayne to Paris, Mich. In the leisure following the cessation 
of his railroad duties, Mr. Edgerton, in the fall of 1871, crossed the 
continent to San Francisco. 

Mr. Edgerton's political career has also been a notable one. Prior 
to i860, though until then never active in politics, he had been a whig, 
and voted with the party up to 1853. In 1852, after the taking effect of 
the new constitution making judges elective, he was an independent can- 
didate for judge of the court of common pleas for the district of Allen 
and Adams counties. Judge James W. Borden was the democratic 
nominee and was elected, the district being strongly democratic. In 
October, i860, Mr. Edgerton made his first political speech in Indiana 
in favor of Stephen A. Douglas for president. The address was printed, 
and with other publications from his pen, gave Mr. Edgerton prominence 
as an advocate of the democratic doctrine of popular sovereignty, rep- 
presented by Mr. Douglas. In August, 1862, Mr. Edgerton received 
the democratic nomination for congress in the then tenth district of 
Indiana, against William Mitchell, of Kendallville, the republican nomi- 
nee, who had been elected in i860, by nearly 3,000 majority, and Mr. 
Edgerton was elected by 436 majority. In the summer of 1863, Mr. 
Edgerton visited Europe, but just before his departure published a letter 
in the Indianapolis Sentinel, concerning the right to free discussion, 
which was widely commented upon. It was called out by the military 
order No. 9, of Gen. Milo S. Hascall, commanding the district of In- 
diana, following military order No. 38, of Gen. Burnside. In the 
XXXVIIIth congress, Mr. Edgerton was a member of the committee 
on naval affairs, but for over two months of the first session was kept 
from his seat by sickness from small-pox. During his term in congress, 
he spoke in opposition to the republican measures of confiscation, the 
constitutional amendment as to slavery, and on reconstruction, taking 
conservative democratic ground. He was re-nominated for congress in 
1864, against Joseph H. Defrees, of Goshen, but was defeated by 5S0 
majority. Pending the canvass of 1864, and the enforcement of the 
draft of that year, the state was greatly excited, and Mr. Edgerton was 
invited to attend a meeting at Indianapolis, on the 12th of August, of 
the democratic state central committee. He was requested to prepare 
v 



66 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

a brief address, in the name of the committee, and his draft, with some 
modifications, was adopted, and the address published, which was made 
an occasion by Gov. Morton, for a proclamation " To the people of 
Indiana." Since engaging in railroad service in 1855, Mr. Edgerton has 
never fully resumed the practice of his profession, although he has con- 
tinued to be an active business man.. He is among the largest owners 
of land in Allen county, but these for a long period proved more of a 
burden than a profit. In 1866, he established the Woodburn lumber 
and stave mills, on his property in the eastern part of Allen county, but 
the mills were burned in 1867, involving a large loss. In 1871, he aided 
in establishing the Fort Wayne steel plow works, and in 1875, became 
sole owner, and so continues. This house manufactures the Fargo 
harrow, the Pioneer plow and Osborn fanning mill, and is an extensive 
establishment. In 1878, on its organization, he was made president of 
the board of trustees of the Fort Wayne medical college, and is the 
author of the law of Indiana, of 1879, to provide means for obtaining 
subjects for scientific dissection. For many years, Mr. Edgerton has 
been a member of the Vestry of Trinity Episcopal church. 

Bernard O'Connor, prominent in railroad and telegraph history, was 
born in Ireland in 18 17, and at the age of twelve years journeyed 
alone to America. Joining an uncle, a Catholic priest at Lancaster, Pa., 
he resided with him for several years and was educated. About the 
year 1835, he became a contractor for the construction of a portion of 
the Susquehanna canal, and from that found his way into the then young 
science of telegraphy, engaging in line construction. He is now the old- 
est living telegraph builder in the United States. In 1845 he built the 
telegraph line from Baltimore to Philadelphia, by Havre de Gras, and 
Wilmington, which was the first telegraph line built by private enter- 
prise, continuing the first line from Washington to Baltimore, built by 
the government. Bernard O'Connor became the third operator in the 
United States, and he was the first to use the ground as one-half of the 
circuit, in opposition to the opinion of S. F. B. Morse, that such an 
arrangement would be a failure. Soon afterward, he and Henry O'Riley 
made important contracts for the construction of telegraph lines, and 
from Buffalo, N. Y., put up lines to Cleveland, Cincinnati, Louisville, 
Memphis, Vicksburg and New Orleans. His next important enterprise 
was the building of the Charleston & New Orleans railroad, and this 
was followed by the construction of the Keokuk & Des Moines railroad. 
Obtaining extensive contracts for building levees on the Mississippi, he 
was there engaged, and next in the construction of the Vandalia & Terre 
Haute railroad, the St. Louis & Southeastern, and 105 miles of the 
Houston & Texas Central. In early life he was married at Lancaster, 
Penn., to Elizabeth McGonigle, and the completion of a half century of 
happy married life was celebrated by them at their wedding aniversary, 
October 23, 1888. To them were born five children, of whom four are 
living. Mr. O'Connor and family made their home at Fort Wayne in 
the fall of 1858, and they have since resided here. He retired in 1872 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 6$ 

from the occupation which had busied him for many years, and in which 
he had been an important factor in the development of the country north 
and south. In 1SS1 he engaged in the establishment of the City 
National Bank at Dallas, Texas. Bernard S. O'Connor, son of the 
above, now a prominent capitalist with interests in Fort Wayne and 
Dallas, Texas, was born in Lancaster county, Penn., in 1842. He 
removed with his parents to Illinois when eight years old, but returned 
to Lancaster a year later. From 1852 to 1855 he resided at Dayton, 
Ohio, and there attended school. He finished his education at St. Mary's 
Landing, Mo., at a Catholic institution where his brothers also were 
educated. During this time the family removed to Alton, 111., where 
Charles died. In 1859 ne came to Fort Wayne, and learned the crafts of 
machinist and marble cutter. But his father being then engaged in levee 
work on the Mississippi, Bernard joined him and afterward was engaged 
with his father in his enterprise. His brothers, John and James, subse- 
quently joined them and the firm of O'Connor & Sons was formed. In 
the banking business, John F. owns a controlling interest and James C. 
is president. The latter, in 1873, went to Europe, where he was joined 
the next year by Bernard S , and they made a trip through England, 
Ireland and France. Mr. O'Connor, with an energetic spirit, has inter- 
ested himself in various enterprises. He is a stockholder in the 
Salamonie gas company, the Natural gas company of 1888, the Sum- 
mit City soap company, the Gladstone land company, of Kansas City, 
and has interests at Duluth, Minn. He is a member of the Cathedral 
congregation. Mr. O'Connor was married November 4, 1878, to 
Marietta Fox, of Mansfield, Ohio. 

C. D. Law, superintendent of the western division of the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, was born in Philadelphia, Novem- 
ber 23, 1S44. Three years later his parents removed to Carlisle, Penn., 
where he was reared, and obtained his early education in the public 
schools. He then entered the polytechnic institute at Philadelphia, and 
graduated from the same in 1863. In the same year he enlisted in the 
army of the Union, in Company G, Thirty-second Pennsylvania regi- 
iment, and served from 1864 until 1866 with the United States engineer 
corps, in the army of the Cumberland. At the close of this service 
he began his railroad career with the engineer corps of the Philadelphia 
& Trenton, now part of the united railroad of the New Jersey division 
of the Pennsylvania road. Subsequently he was engaged with an engi- 
neer corps in Connecticut, and in April, 1873, he was appointed civil 
engineer of the western division on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chi- 
cago. At this time he became a citizen of Fort Wayne. In February, 
1S80, he was given the position of roadmaster of the same division, and 
on November 15, 1881, was appointed superintendent. In 1880 he 
removed to Chicago, but returned in 18S6, and has since made Fort 
Wayne his home. Mr. Law takes an active interest in political and fra- 
ternity affairs. During the campaign of 1888 he served as president of 
the local Harrison and Morton railroad campaign club. He was made a 



6S VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Mason at Matteawan, Duchess county, N. Y., in 186S, of Beacon lodge, 
•and has since attained eminence in the order, being past eminent com- 
mander of Fort Wayne commander}*, No. 4, Knight Templars, and has 
passed through the chairs of Wayne lodge, No. 25, and Fort Wayne 
chapter, No. 19. Mr. Law was married in June, 1870, to Josephine 
Clarkson, of New York city, and they have had three children, of whom 
two survive. 

Patrick S. O'Rourke, superintendent of the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
railroad company, was born at Newark, N. J., September 25, 1S30. 
His parents, Christopher and Ellen (Flannagan) O'Rourke, natives of 
countv Kildare, Ireland, were married about 1823, and two years later, 
came to the United States, and made their home in New Jersey. In 
183S they removed to Ohio, and subsequently to Fort Wayne, 
where thev died. Mr. O'Rourke's career, which is a notable 
illustration of the opportunities for advancement which the development 
of this country offers to talent and energy, however circumstances may 
impede at the outset, first found employment on the farm, and 
gained his early education in the country schools of Carroll county, Ohio. 
Afterward, he was engaged on a construction train on a railroad, 
beginning at the humblest point his long and distinguished career as a 
railroad man. His executive ability and strength of character were 
soon manifested, and in 1856 he was made conductor of a construction 
•train, the next year freight conductor, three years later a passenger con- 
ductor. He became master of transportation "in 1866, assistant superin- 
tendent in 1871, and superintendent in 1872. He is now recognized as one 
of the most successful railroad men of the west, thorough!}' acquainted 
with all details, shrewd in conception of enterprises, and of undaunted 
energy in execution. Mr. O'Rourke has found time also to devote con- 
siderable attention to political affairs, and has given the great questions 
of statesmanship thorough study. He stands high in the councils of the 
democratic party. He is particularly devoted to the doctrine of tariff 
reform, which he has ably advocated upon the platform and by the 
publication of papers upon the subject. His devotion to party is strong 
but more to what he believes the true principles of the organization than 
to nominations, so that in 1S72, he supported O'Connor in preference 
to Greeley, because of the latter's protection principles. He and family 
are members of the Catholic church. 

Samuel B. Sweet, a prominent railroad man of Indiana, would be 
recorded well toward the top of the list, if such a one were made, of 
-those popular men of the state whose place in the general esteem is 
based upon worthy lives and solid traits of character. Perhaps the key 
to his popularity and success is to be found in that generous devotion to 
■(principle and stalwart resolution which led him, when a bov of sixteen, 
to enlist in an Allen county company, organized for the defense of the 
Union, and serve with it, Company C, of the Forty-fourth Indiana 
regiment, through the active and dangerous duties of that command, 
until the close of the war. The years of youth usually devoted to higher 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 69 

education or business training he gave with hearty enthusiasm to the 
nation; and his'cherished diploma is an honorable discharge, and his degree 
that of a private in a gallant regiment, to the hearts of the survivors of 
which no one of the comrades stands closer. Mr. Sweet's ancestors 
came to America in 1636, and were leading people in the Massachusetts 
Bay colony. In 1671, some of the family removed to Guilford county, 
N. C, and subsequently to Tennessee, where, near Jonesboro, Francis 
Sweet was born, July 28, 1806. In early youth he settled in western 
Ohio, and was married December 13, 1827, to Abigail Hammond, who 
was born in Abbeyvilie district, S. C, May 27, 1S10. She was the 
daughter of Louis Hammond, born in South Carolina, May 20, 1785, 
who served in the second South Carolina regiment in the war of 181 2, 
and was killed in a battle near Washington, D. C, in 1813 Her mother 
was Nancy Buffington, born in South Carolina, September 14, i79i,died 
about 1856. Francis Sweet came to Allen county in 1835, and in 1836 
brought his family by ox-team from Troy, Ohio, and settled in the west- 
ern part of the county. He was a prominent pioneer, was one of the 
first Masons in this part of the country, was a leading old line whig, 
served twenty-five years as justice of the peace, and was postmaster at 
the old Indian office of Taw-taw, two and a half miles north of the pres- 
ent hamlet, Areola. His first wife died August 13, 1S65, and in 1867,. 
he was married to Hannah, widow of John Peabody of Areola, Ind. 
Francis Sweet died at Columbia city, March 25, 1884. In this worthy 
pioneer family, Samuel B. Sweet was born, near Fort Wayne, March 
25, 1845. He is the eighth of ten children born, four others of whom 
are living: Nancy, born March 8, 1830; Stephen, April 24, 1834; 
Joshua, February 7, 1836 and Rhoda, May 10, 1841. Mr. Sweet 
attended the common schools, his first teacher being Edward Litchfield. 
August 23, 1861, he enlisted in the union army, and was mustered out 
September 14, 1865. At the battle of Shiloh, he was wounded while 
serving as a color bearer, the flag of the regiment being repeatedly shot 
down in the engagement. He also received wounds in the engagements 
of Stone river and Chickamauga. His brothers, Lewis and Joshua, 
were members of Company C, Eighty-eighth Indiana, and the former 
lost a limb at the battle of Bentonville, N. C, and the latter was wounded 
at Stone river. The former died at Edgerton, Ohio, in 1883: Joshua 
now resides at Albion, Ind. In 1866, Mr. Sweet entered the employ- 
ment of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific railroad company, and served 
in various capacities, gradually advancing until in 1874, he was appointed 
agent at Fort Wayne. In 1884, he was advanced to the position of 
division freight agent, with headquarters at Peru. Three years later, 
after a service of twenty-one years with the Wabash company, he 
resigned the last named position to become assistant general freight 
agent of the Lake Erie & Western railroad company, with his office at 
Indianapolis. Mr. Sweet is in politics, a steadfast republican. As a 
Knight Templar, he is prominent, having been grand commander in 
1882. He became a Master Mason in 1868, Knight Templar in 1S70, 



70 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Scottish Rite, 1882, and thirty-third degree, 1885. He was married Sep- 
tember 19, 1867, to Amanda, daughter of Allen Pratt,' a pioneer of 
Allen county, and they have two children, Frank E., born August 30, 
1868; and Jessie M., born May 3, 1872. 

Enoch Cox, one of the popular men of the city, and a prominent 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was born at Delphi, 
Ind., December 4, 1842. His boyhood was spent upon a farm, with his 
parents, and in 1859 ^ e entered Asbury (now Depauw) university, 
where he took the classical course and graduated in 1864. After his 
graduation he became connected with the ordnance corps of the United 
States army, and served eight months, after which he was transferred to 
the engineer corps, served with Col. W. E. Merrill, chief engineer of 
the army of the Cumberland, and was engaged with Maj. Burroughs 
in closing up the engineer depot of that army. Mr. Cox left the service 
in May, 1867, and engaged in business in Lafayette, Ind., at which he 
was occupied about two years. A subsequent period he spent at farm- 
ing and with the Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago railroad company. 
In 1876 he went into the newspaper business at Delphi, and conducted 
the Journal at that place until January 29, 1882, when he was ap- 
pointed by superintendent C. D. Law as store-keeper of the western 
division of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company, 
at Fort Wayne. This department has been reorganized and very effi- 
ciently conducted by him. Mr. Cox is a member of the Delphi lodge, 
No. 28, I. O. O. F., and in 1879 was elected grand master of the grand 
lodge of Indiana. In 1881 he received the additional honor of election 
as representative of Indiana grand lodge at the sovereign grand lodge, 
at its session at Cincinnati. Mr. Cox was married June, 1870, to 
Martha M. Jones, of Delphi, and fhey have three children. 

Richard G. Thompson, passenger and ticket agent of the Wabash 
railroad, at Fort Wayne, is a native of Iowa, born at Lyons, August 3, 
i860. His father, Richard G. Thompson, sr., now residing in Michi- 
gan, and following the business of contractor and builder, was born near 
Harrisburg, Pa., May 4, 1825, and married Sarah Harris, who was 
born in New York, April 29, 1830, the daughter of Judge Davis Har- 
ris. Richard G. Thompson was educated at the Reading, Michigan, 
high school, and began his railroad life in 1880, in the employment of 
the Fort Wayne & Jackson railroad. He was first stationed at Water- 
loo six months, and then removed to Fort Wayne. Until 1888 he was 
in the service of that company, which in 1883, was merged into the great 
L. S. & M. S. system and the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville. 
During this period he gained an enviable reputation for efficiency and 
thorough knowledge of the multifarious duties of a railroad agent, and 
in 1888, he was tendered the passenger and ticket agency of the 
Wabash road, which he accepted May 1, and now holds. Though a 
a young man, his thorough grasp of the work in which he is engaged, 
and his business-like methods and affable manners, have put him rapidly 
to the front in railroad circles. He is devoted to business, but never- 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 7 1 

theless is well known throughout the community and highly esteemed. 
Mr. Thompson is a member of the Scottish Rite in Masonry, and a mem- 
ber of the Fort Wayne lodge of Perfection. His political alliance is 
with the republican party. 

R. B. Rossington, a native of Allen county, has attairted a prominent 
place in railroad affairs, and is a deservedly popular and highly esteemed 
gentleman. He was born eight miles north of the city, in 1853. His 
parents, William and Julia Rossington, the former a native of Cork, Ire- 
land, and the latter of Manchester, England, were married in England, 
and emigrated in 1S44. After spending two years at Tarrytown, N. Y., 
they came in 1846 to Allen county, where the father died in 1879 anc ^ 
the mother in 1888. Mr. Rossington lived upon a farm until nine years 
of age, when the family removed to Fort Wayne, and here he attended 
school until thirteen years of age. Then seeking an occupation he 
learned the trade of a hatter, but in 1872 took the first step in a career in 
which he has been notably successful, by entering the railroad office at 
Auburn, Ind., as a student of telegraph) 7 . Two weeks later he returned 
to Fort Wayne, and was employed by the American telegraph company 
until March, 1873, when he became a member of the engineer corps 
under John Ryall, assistant civil engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
company. Three weeks later he was taken from outside duty by C. D. 
Law, and given a position in the Fort Wayne offices. In the fall of 1873 
he entered the freight office under J. C. Davis as bill clerk, and in 1875 
was promoted assistant cashier, and January 1, 1877, cashier. He was 
appointed freight agent July 1, 1886, succeeding J. K. McCracken, and 
in that capacity represents the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago, and 
Grand Rapids & Indiana railroads. Mr. Rossington is a member of the 
Masonic order and the I. O. O. F. 

Charles H. Newton, freight agent of the Wabash railway at Fort 
Wayne, is one of the valuable citizens of Fort Wayne, and has while a 
resident of the city, worked out an honorable career that is deserving of 
extended mention. His childhood was mostly spent at Clayton, 111., and 
he there attended the public schools until sixteen years old, when he be- 
gan an apprenticeship of three years in a printing office, the last year 
of which he was employed at Clinton, Mo. In June, 1874, then being 
in his nineteenth year, he came to Fort Wayne, and took a position as 
messenger boy for the Wabash company. A few months later he was 
promoted to a clerkship in the yardmaster's office, where he remained 
until December 1, 1879, during which he improved leisure moments by 
completing a course in the commercial college. Leaving the service of 
the Wabash company, he removed to Clinton, Mo., and engaged in 
newspaper work, but in September, 1880, he returned to his former 
place, the freight office at Fort Wayne, and took the position of car clerk, 
subsequent 1 ) 7 being promoted chief clerk and cashier. The division 
terminus of the road being changed from Fort Wayne to Andrews in 
May, 1882, the yard force at Fort Wayne was placed in the hands of 
the agent, who appointed Mr. Newton yardmaster, a place he filled until 



72 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

August i, 1S84, when the freight agent at Fort Wayne was made divis- 
ion freight agent, and Mr. Newton was appointed to his place as local 
freight agent. Upon the organization of the local freight agents' asso- 
ciation Air. Newton was elected secretary, a position he still holds. He 
is a thorough railroad man, and his executive ability and rare tact en- 
ables him to win the approbation of the company and the esteem of his 
fellow citizens in the discharge of his duties. He is a member of the 
Wayne street Methodist church, and has since January 1, 1866, held the 
position of superintendent of the Sunday-school. He was one of the 
organizers of the Railroad Young Men's Christian Association, was 
chosen recording secretary and is now president. He was also one of 
the organizers and a charter member of the local Young Mens' Christ- 
ian Association, was recording secretary and is now first vice president. 
Mr. Newton's parents, John Clark and Mary Jane (Chapman) Newton, 
were born the father in Connecticut, the mother in New York, and 
both descended from revolutionary soldiers. In 185 1 they went to the 
Pacific coast, overland, and the father followed his trade of blacksmith 
in California until his death in 1857. In that state Charles H. was born 
December 31, 1855. In 1865 the widow and five children removed to 
Clayton, 111., where she remained until 1887, when she returned to Cali- 
fornia where she is now living. Mr. Newton was married June 19, 
1878, to Mary J. Wilding, and they have four children, of whom three 
are living. 

Thomas Jackson, engineer maintenance of way, western division, 
P., Ft. W. & C. railroad, with headquarters at Ft. Wayne, was born at 
Hockessin, New Castle county, Delaware, March 21, 1845. There he 
attended the common schools, and later entered the academy of T. 
Clarkson Taylor, at Wilmington, Del., and finished his education at 
Westtown Friends' boarding school, in Chester county, Penn. At about 
the age of nineteen, he became engineer for the Diamond State Oil 
Company, at Beaver county, Penn., and two years later joined the 
engineer corps of the Wilmington & Brandy wine Railroad, now known 
as the Wilmington & Northern. Later he was made assistant engineer 
of the Delaware Western, now a branch of the Baltimore & Ohio rail- 
road, serving until its completion, in 1872. In March, 1873, he was ap- 
pointed roadman on the eastern division of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad, 
and received various promotions on that division. In January, 1880, he 
was appointed division engineer of the western division, succeeding 
C. D. Law, now superintendent. In December, 1884, he was appointed 
roadmaster of the western division, a title which has since been changed to 
engineer maintenance of way, the duties being those of division engineer 
and road master combined. During Gen. Trimble's raid on the Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington & Baltimore railroad, in 1864, he enlisted in the 
Seventh regiment Delaware volunteer infantry, and served sixty days, 
doing guard duty on the steamer Maryland, at Havre de Grace. Mr. 
Jackson was married to Anna R., daughter of Spencer Chandler, Esq., 
of Mill Creek hundred, Delaware, and they have three daughters and 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 73 

one son, the latter is named for Ralph Jackson, an ancestor, who was 
burned at the stake, June 27, 1556, in Queen Mary's reign. 

Nelson W. Thompson, superintendent of bridges and buildings of 
the western division of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, 
from Crestline to Englewood, was born in Clarendon, Orleans county, 
New York. His father, Warren Thompson, removed his fam- 
ily to Hillsdale county, Mich., in 1838, and resided there until his death 
in 1882. When about seveeteen years of age, Nelson W. went to 
Logansport, Ind., and was there engaged for two years boating on the 
Wabash & Erie canal. Then going to New York he was for two years 
employed on the Erie canal. During the next two years he was engaged 
in erecting railroad fencing on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
railroad, in Michigan, and in 1854 ne ar, d his father graded one mile of 
the air line branch of that road at Waterloo, Ind., by contract, l^or 
some years subsequently he was farming in Michigan, then in Nebraska, 
working a section on the Lake Shore road, and in 1861, he began work 
on that road as a carpenter, a trade he subsequently followed on the state 
line branch of the Panhandle west from Logansport, then on the Peru & 
Indianapolis road. From 1867 to 1869 he was contracting in Michigan, 
then worked on the construction of the Muncie railroad, and in 187 1-2 
had charge of the construction of bridges on the Cincinnati, Richmond 
& Fort Wayne railroad. He had charge of pile-driving on the Chicago 
& Kansas Southern road in 1873, and in 1874-5 was foreman of carpen- 
ters on the Valparaiso division of the Pittsburgh road, and in the follow- 
ing year was appointed to his present position. Mr. Thompson is a 
member of Star lodge, No. 93, F. & A. M., at Osseo, Mich., and Hills- 
dale chapter, No. 18. He was married in 1853, at Osseo, Mich., to 
Nancy Orcutt, a daughter of Amba Orcutt, a pioneer of that region, 
one of whose daughters was the first white child born in Florida town- 
ship, Hillsdale county. Mr. Thompson began his railroad career as a 
section foreman on the Lake Shore road in Hillsdale county, when he 
was sixteen years old, and his record since then has been a creditable 
one. 

One of the veteran railroad men of the city, Charles W. Buck, who 
now holds the position of section foreman, Fort Wayne yards, of the 
Wabash railroad, began work at Zanesville, Ohio, on what was then 
known as the Ohio Central road, in 185 1. Six months later he entered 
the employment of the Mad River railroad, so known at that time, where 
he remained six months, then going to Toledo and taking a position on 
the Lake Shore goad. He then spent four years in Iowa, and on his 
return to this state was employed seven years with the I., P. & C. rail- 
road. In 187 1 he came to Fort Wayne and accepted a position on the 
Wabash road in 1874, and has since remained in that service. Mr. 
Buck was born in Saratoga county, N. Y., November 18, 1830. His 
father, William Buck, was born in England in 1S00, came to the United 
States about 1816, and married Mary Beach, who was born in New 
York about 1802. Both died in Washington county, N. Y., the mother 



74 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



in 1852, the father in 1853. Of their five children living, Charles W. is 
the oldest. He was married in 1854 to Louisa J. Durfee, of Sylvania, 
Ohio, who was born in 1S32, and died in this city, in 1880, leaving six 
children: Lucy, George, Mary, Edward Ada and Charles. In 1S83 
Mr. Buck married Calista A. Waite, a native of Ohio. Mr. Buck 
is a member of Bluffton lodge, No. 145, F. & A. M., and I. O. O. F. 
lodge No. 44, at Indianapolis. 

Solon K. Blair, trainmaster on the " Nickel Plate " railroad, is a na- 
tive of Union county, Ohio, born January 21, 1852. He is the son of 
Jabez S. and Elizabeth A. Blair, both natives of Logan county, Ohio. 
While he was a mere child his parents removed to Hardin county, Ohio, 
and he was reared to manhood at the village of Mount Victory. His 
father is a physician by profession and is also a minister in the Methodist 
Episcopal church. In 1868 the family removed to Belief ontaine, and 
thence to Sidney, Ohio, in 1S70. There Mr. Blair began the study of 
telegraphy, January 2, 1871. He was engaged as an operator until 
December, 1874, wnen ne was made train dispatcher, and continued in 
that capacity until June, 1888, a period of fourteen }-ears. He accepted 
the position of train dispatcher on the New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
railroad in 1882. In 1883 he was promoted to chief dispatcher, and 
June 1, 1888, he was promoted trainmaster. Mr. Blair was married 
December 16, 1S79, to Dora F. Mitchell, by whom he is the father of 
two children : Kenton L. and Mamie E. Mr. Blair is a Royal Arch 
Mason, and is a member of the Association of Superintendents of Tele- 
graph, and of the National Union. In politics he is an ardent repub- 
lican. 

The position of car inspector on the New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
railroad has been held during the past seven years by Frederick R. 
Bierbaum. He is a native of Germany, born April 19, 1S47, son of 
Henry and Elizabeth Bierbaum. He was reared to manhood on a 
farm and then served in the Franco-Prusian war three years. In 1872 
he^came to America and located at Fort Wayne. Here he learned the 
carpenter's trade, and followed it about five years. Since 1877 he has 
followed the occupation of car repairer and car inspector. He was 
married in 1873, to Louisa Niemeyer, a native of Germany, who came 
to America in 1873. They have had seven children: Louisa, Katie, 
Emma, Clara, Nettie, Albert and Ed wig; of whom only Katie, Emma 
and Edwig are living. Mr. and Mrs. Bierbaum are members of the 
German Reformed church, and politically he is a republican. 

Crawford Griswold, foreman of the bridge gang, on the western 
division of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, is a native 
of New York, born at Chatham, Columbus county, July 27, 1842. His 
parents took him to Michigan in 1844, but in 1857 they returned to 
New York, where they remained. The father died in 1S72. Mr. 
Griswold was engaged in mechanical pursuits until the outbreak of the 
war, and in 1862 he enlisted in the First New York Mounted Rifles, 
with headquarters at 600 Broadway, New York. He joined the regi- 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 75 

merit at Suffolk, Va., was promoted to sergeant from time of enlistment 
and served in that position until the close of the war. He was contin- 
ually engaged in active service. He was the first to discover the 
advance of Longstreet upon Suffolk, which place he besieged for two 
weeks. After the withdrawal of Longstreet's army his regiment joined 
in the pursuit to the line of the Blackwater river, and Mr. Griswold par- 
ticipated in all the engagements of the army of the James river, and 
numerous raids as an independent organization. He, with two cor- 
porals and ten men, occupied an advanced picket position on the ioth 
of December, 1864, when Lee made a reconnoissance in force on the 
right of the army of the James, and held his post until the entire left 
had fallen back, from early dawn to 3 o'clock P. M., when he* was rein- 
forced. At the capture of Richmond his regiment occupied the city as 
provost guard, for two weeks, and thence went to Petersburg and held 
that place as provost guard while Sherman's army was marching to the 
grand review. He was mustered out in front of Libby prison, at Rich- 
mond, June 13, 1S65. Going to Ohio in the same year, he entered the 
employment of the Pennsylvania company at Lima, Ohio, March 8, 
1868, and came to Fort Wayne in 1880 in the employment of the same 
company. He was first appointed foreman of the bridge gang in 1875. 
He is a member of Hope lodge, 114, F. & A. M., at Delphos, Ohio, 
and of George Humphrey post, 530, G. A. R., at Fort Wayne, of 
which he was a charter member, and is now junior vice commander. 
He is a member of Wayne street Methodist Episcopal church. He was 
married in 187 1 to Louisa Kessler, of Middlepoint, Ohio, and they have 
had five children, three of whom survive: William H., Lena B. and 
Ethel L. 

George P. Gordon, baggage agent of the P., Ft. W. & C, G. R. & 
I., and C. R. & Ft. W. R. R. companies, and member of the common 
council of Fort Wayne, was born in Greene county, Penn., June 24, 1833. 
His father, William D. Gordon, was born in Greene county, Penn., in 
181 2, and was the son of George Gordon, who was born and reared in 
Pennsylvania- and died in 1832. William D. Gordon removed to Ohio 
in 1835, where he followed farming until his death, December 28, 187S. 
His wife was Catherine Keenan, who was born in Ireland in about 181 2, 
and came to America when thirteen years of age. Her death occurred 
in Ohio in 1879. To them three sons and nine daughters were born, 
who are living with the exception of four daughters. George P. was 
reared in Ohio until the spring of 1856, when he went to Madison, Wis., 
where he remained until 1869, being engaged in traveling for a whole- 
sale establishment. In the latter year he came to Fort Wayne, but 
remained here only a short time, going next to Lancaster, Ohio. In 
1862 he returned to Fort Wayne and engaged in farming in Pleasant 
township, until the fall of 1S65. He next went to Woodburn, Ind., with 
J. K. Edgerton, and remained one year. Returning to Fort Wayne he 
took a position on the city police force, and held the same for one year. 
August 1, 1869, he entered the railroad business as night baggage agent, 



7 6 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

and six years later was promoted to his present position. Mr. Gordon 
was married in 1857 at Madison, Wis., to Catherine Ring, who was born 
in Perry county, Ohio, September 28, 1834. To their union ten children 
have been born, six sons and two daughters of whom survive. Mr. 
Gordon was elected to the common council of Fort Wayne in the spring 
of 1889. 

Charles P. Fletcher, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, is a native 
of Nashua, N. H., born June 13, 1827. He is the son of Paschal and 
Rebecca (Boutwell) Fletcher, the former a native of Lowell, Mass., and 
the latter of Amherst, N. H. The branch of the Fletcher family to 
which Charles P. belongs sprang from Robert Fletcher who immigrated 
in 1630, and settled at Concord, Mass. It is believed he came from 
Yorkshire, England. The family is of the old English Puritan stock. 
During his early life Mr. Fletcher was employed in cotton factories at 
Nashua and Manchester, New Hampshire, and Lowell, Mass. In early 
manhood he sought the life of a railroad builder, and was occupied for 
several years, first as common laborer, then roadmaster, and finally as 
contractor. In 1854 ne ^ a ^ the track of the Pittsburgh railway from 
Crestline, Ohio, to the Fort Wayne depot, it being the first in the city. 
In the following year he laid the track of the Wabash railway from be- 
yond Defiance, Ohio, to the Fort Wayne depot. In 1858 he estab- 
lished the first restaurant in the city. In 1859 ne erected the Summit 
City hotel, now the Harmon house. From 1864 to 1878 he was oc- 
cupied as proprietor of an omnibus line. For several years past he has 
been the owner of the Academy of Music, having purchased it November 
2, 1878. Mr. Fletcher was married to Hannah C. Cline, September 16, 
1854. She died November 26, 1856, leaving one child, Luella, who 
died in 1872, aged sixteen. October 9, 1858, he was married to Jennie 
Heath. She is a native of Connecticut, but was reared at Rochester, 
N. Y. Her parents were Schuyler and Sarah (Minton) Heath. By 
the latter marriage two children were born, Willie Minnie, and a daugh- 
ter unnamed, both deceased. Mr. Fletcher and wife have also had the 
misfortune to lose three adopted children. In politics he is a staunch 
republican. During the war he served between one and two years as 
deputy provost marshal. 

Sylvester McMahan, the oldest passenger conductor running out of 
Fort Wayne, on the P., Ft. W. & C, was born in Lake township, Allen 
county, November 24, 1842, son of Jackson McMahon, a native of 
Maryland, born in 1818, who came to Lake township in 1836, with his 
parents. In about 1839 he went t0 Licking county, Ohio, and married 
Elizabeth Larmore, then nineteen years of age, and returning, made his 
home on the farm in Lake township, where he resided the balance of 
his life, following farming. He died in 1868, and his widow in 187S. 
To their union eleven children were born, eight of whom survive. 
Sylvester McMahon remained on the farm until his twentieth year, and 
attended the common schools. In 1862 he went to work on the section 
force of the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R'y, laying track. He was so engaged 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 77 

seven or eight months, and subsequently came to Fort Wayne and was 
employed as a brakeman on a freight train of the western division of 
the Pittsburgh road. He continued at this about three years, and was 
then promoted freight conductor. In 1872 he was promoted passenger 
conductor, and was given a run between Fort Wayne and Chicago. He 
now has the run known as Nos. 1 and 4, which is the through mail train. 
Mr. McMahan is a member of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 19, F. & A. M., 
and of Fort Wayne chapter, No. 19, and also of Wayne lodge No. 19, 
A. O. U. W. He and family are members of the First Baptist church, 
of which he is one of the trustees. He was married September 26, 
1867, to Mary A., daughter of Peter and Catherine Miller, old settlers 
of Allen county, who were natives of Pennsylvania. To the union of 
Mr. and Mrs. McMahan two daughters have been born, Ella and Dora. 

An old and well-known passenger conductor on the western division 
of the P. Ft. W. & C, railroad, A. W. Adkins, was born near Toronto, 
Canada, June 16, 1835. He came to Fort Wayne about 1843, and was 
reared in and near the city. He began railroading July 20, 1859, as 
brakeman on the P. Ft. W. & C. road. After about three years of 
this occupation, he was promoted to a freight conductorship, and in 
December, 1870, he was promoted passenger conductor, and he now 
drives the express and mail between Fort Wayne and Crestline. In 
politics he is a staunch republican.. He was married in 1861, to Mary 
E. Garrison, who was born in New York, and is the daughter of Albert 
Garrison, one of the pioneer citizens of Fort Wayne, died about June 1, 
1889. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Adkins five children have been 
born, one of whom is deceased. Laura, wife of Harry Shafer, Clara, 
wife of William Holbrock, Albert C, and Jessie E., wife of Fred 
Gardner. 

Lyman Blakesley, a well-known citizen of Fort Wayne, and one of 
the veteran passenger conductors on the western division of the P., Ft. 
W. & C. railroad, was born in Putnam county, Ohio, March 14, 1842. 
He is the son of J. B. Blakesley, who was a native of New York, but 
resided during. the most of his life in Ohio, being employed as a railroad 
bridge contractor. He died in 18S1 or 18S2. Lyman was reared in 
Sandusky City, but when ten years of age left home and for five seasons 
was a sailor on the lakes, attending school during the winter months. 
At about the age of seventeen years he began railroading as a brake- 
man with the old Sandusky, Dayton & Cincinnati railroad. In June, 
1 861, he enlisted in Company E, Seventh Ohio regiment, and served 
three years. At Cross Lane, W. V., he was taken prisoner August 26, 
1861, and for nine months was in prison at Richmond, New Orleans and 
Salisbury, N. C. He was honorably discharged at Cleveland in June, 
1864, and returned to railroading on the S. D. & C. R. R., where he 
remained until 1867, and then came to Fort Wayne and entered the ser- 
vice of the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R., as brakeman. One year later was 
promoted to freight conductor, and in 1872 he was promoted to passen- 
ger conductor, and has since been on the run between Fort Waj T ne and 



78 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Chicago. The time covered by Mr. Blakesley's service in the P., Ft. 
W. & C. R. R., amounts to twenty-two years, and he is one of the oldest 
passenger conductors running out of Fort Wayne. He was married 
September 8, 1864, to Miss Mary J. St. John, who was born near Tiffin, 
Ohio, July 21, 1844; she died December 4, 1888. To their union three 
children were born: Harry A., Laura D. and Ralph. The latter died 
in infancy, and Laura D. died March 15, 1889. For fifteen years Mr. 
Blakesley has been a member of the Order of Railway Conductors, and 
he is the oldest ex-chief conductor in Indiana. He is a member of the 
Third Presbyterian church of which Mrs. Blakesley was also a member, 
and he is one of the executive committee of the railroad department of 
the Y. M. C. A. 

Among those who have held honorable positions in the railway ser- 
vice should be included James P. Gray, who is also well-known in busi- 
ness circles as a member of the hardware firm of Gruber & Gray. He 
was born at Wheeler, Steuben county, N. Y., April 22, 1850, son of 
Daniel Gray and his wife Lydia Myrtle, who were both natives of the 
Empire state, and born in the same year, 181 2. Daniel Gray, now a 
resident of Goodland, Ind., whither the family removed in 1868, is a 
prominent republican, and in i860 and 1862, was elected to represent 
Steuben county in the general assembly of New York. He took an 
active part in the Harrison campaign of 1888. He had ten children. 
James P., our subject, received a common school education in his native 
state, and after farming with his father two years, came to Indiana, and 
in 1S70, made his home at Fort Wayne, and entered the employment of 
the Pennsylvania railroad company as brakeman. A year later he was 
promoted to freight train conductor, and after three years' experience in 
that capacity, was given the position of passenger conductor in 1875, 
having charge of fast trains. In this capacity he is a faithful and popu- 
lar officer. In 1883, he formed a partnership with Joseph L. Gruber, in 
the hardware business at 364 south Calhoun street, and they are doing 
a prosperous business. He is a worthy citizen and prominent in busi- 
ness circles. Mr. Gray was married in 1871, to Jane Blackburn, of 
Goodland, who was born in 1853, at Decatur, Ind. They have one 
child: Ada L. Mr. Gray was made a Mason in 1879, at Wayne lodge, 
No. 25, thirty-second degree and commandery in 1888, being member 
of the Indianapolis consistory and Fort Wayne commandry, No. 4. 

A. Johnson, an engineer on the western division of the P., Ft. W. 
& C, railroad company, holding the position of trial engineer, was born 
in East Wallingsford, Rutland county, Vt., April 26, 1831. He is the 
son of James and Nancy (Sweetland) Johnson, the father being a native 
of New Hampshire, and the mother of Vermont. The parents located 
in Lexington, Ohio, in 1839, and resided there until 1846, and then 
removed to Republic, Seneca county, Ohio. They next removed 
to Leasville, Crawford county, Ohio, and three years later removed 
to Sandusky City. In about 1850, they removed to Springfield 
Ohio, and subsequently resided at Dayton, Patterson, Hardin county, 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 79 

Ohio, and next at Lima, Ohio. In about 1875 they removed to 
Chicago, where the father died ; the mother then came to Fort Wayne, 
where she died. Mr. Johnson began railroading in 1848,. on the Mad 
River & Erie railway, and in 1851, was promoted engineer on the same 
road. He next spent a year on the Dayton & Greenville railroad, and 
in 1856, went into the service of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad on the 
eastern division, running between Pittsburgh and Crestline, Ohio. In 
185S, he went on the Central Ohio railroad, running between Columbus 
and Bellaire, where he remained until 1863, and then went on the Penn- 
sylvania Central railroad. Ten years later in 1873, he came to Fort 
Wayne, and took an engine on the west division. He ran an engine 
until about 1883, when he was given the position of trial engineer. His 
duties are to take in charge new engines and get them in running order, 
when they are turned over. Mr. Johnson has been railroading forty- 
one years. He is a member of Harmony lodge No. 19, I. O. O. F. Mr. 
Johnson was married on January 1, 1857, to Margaret Letts, who 
was born in Mecklinburg, N. Y. To their union six children have 
been born, three of whom survive, Flora Bell, Carrie A., wife of Seward 
Morgan, of New York city, and Lizzie E., now the wife of Thomas C. 
Warner. Mrs. Johnson and two daughters are members of the First 
Baptist church, and one daughter is a Presbyterian. 

Anthony Kelker, a trustworthy and popular engineer of the Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, was born at Lebanon, Penn., 
March 1, 1835. His father, David Kelker, of an old Pennsylvania 
German family, moved when "Tony" was a year old, to Waynesboro, 
Penn., and five years later to Butler, Penn. Three years later the fam- 
ily moved into Ohio and resided successively at Alliance, New Lisbon, 
Damascus Bank and Lucas. At Damascus Bank the father became a 
contractor and graded four miles of the road between Pittsburgh and 
Alliance. At this place Tony Kelker also began railroading as the boss 
of a gang of graders. Removing from Lucas to Crestline the father 
graded two miles more of the road, and between the latter place and 
VanWert, the son helped to lay the track. In 1854 Mr. Kelker began 
work as a brakeman on the Ohio & Indiana road, and a year later 
became fireman of a construction train. From this position he became 
fireman on the locomotive "Pioneer," the first owned by the Fort Wayne 
& Chicago road, now divisions D and E. In the spring of 1856 he was 
promoted engineer by D. B. Strope, master mechanic. He had made 
his home at Fort Wayne on the 18th of the preceding August. In 1858 
he took charge of a passenger engine, and has ever since been entrusted 
with this responsible position. His assignment at this time is the running 
of trains Nos. 2 and 9, between Fort Wayne and Crestline. His pet 
locomotive is No. 199, built in Fort Wayne, after the best pattern of the 
Boone engines. - With this powerful machine, Mr. Kelker in 1870, made 
a trip from Fort Wayne to Chicago which is memorable in the railroad 
annals of the world. Photographs of the engine and its gallant driver, 
and a statement of the record were hung in the offices of the railroad 



SO VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

magnates of the land, and pointed to with pride as an example of the 
mechanical perfection and physical nerve of the great west. On Sep- 
tember 14, 1870, Mr. Kelker pulled passenger train No. 1, with one 
baggage car and three coaches, from Fort Wayne to Chicago, 146^ 
miles, with eleven stops, in two hours and forty-seven and one-half 
minutes. Making allowance for three minutes at each stop, the speed 
made by Mr. Kelker was seventy-five and twelve nineteenths miles per 
hour. Other fast runs he has made are from Plymouth to Chicago, 
October 2, 1879, with four cars, over eighty-two miles in one hour and 
thirty -three minutes; seven days later with four cars-from Van Wert to 
Chicago, 179 miles, in three hours and thirty minutes; and several 
shorter runs at the rate of a mile a minute or faster. In spite of seem- 
ingly dangerous speed Mr. Kelker has never had a collision, and the 
only accident he has encountered was caused by the breaking of, a wheel 
on the forward truck. He escaped unhurt, but his brother-in-law, who 
was firing, was killed. Mr. Kelker's private life is interesting and 
happy. Strictly temperate, abstaining entirely from tobacco, he is always 
clear in mind and ready for prompt action in any emergency. His home 
is a beautiful one, and he is known as one of the finest amateur florists 
in the state. He was married March 8, 1857, to Lydia A., daughter of 
John Arnold, ex-councilman, and a pioneer of the city, having settled 
here about 1837. They have had three children: Francis A., died June 
2, 1869, at the age of twelve; Nannie D., wife of H. S. Rodeheaver, 
and Harry O., an engineer on the Pittsburgh road. Mr. Kelker is an 
active republican, and in 1885, running as an independent candidate in 
the fourth ward, was elected councilman in that democratic stronghold, 
and re-elected in 1887. He is a Master Mason of Sol D. Bayless lodge, 
and a worthy member of the Wayne Street Methodist church. His 
unfailing kindness, uniform courtesy and manly character have made 
him hosts of friends wherever he is known. 

William M. Glenn, a brave soldier of the republic and one of the 
most prominent locomotive engineers of the west, began his railroad 
career near Alleghany City, his boyhood home. At nine years he en- 
gaged as water carrier on section twelve of the Alleghany valley rail- 
road, one of the oldest in the country. Afterward at Lima, Ohio, he 
carried water for a construction gang on the Ohio & Indiana, now 
P., Ft. W. & C. railroad. In 1S57 he rose to the rank of brakeman on 
a gravel train of the latter road, at Lima, and in the following year he 
went to Upper Sandusky, and held similar positions as well as conductor 
on extra gravel trains. May 2, 1S59, ^ e arrived at Fort Wayne and 
took the position of fireman on the " Shanghai " engine, " Fort Wayne," 
a single driver machine of the Richard Norris build. He was thus 
engaged mostly with passenger trains until August 8, 1862, when he 
enlisted in the Eleventh Indiana battery, and went to the scene of war. 
His battery was stationed at Nashville, in the army of the Cumberland, 
but owing to a blockade, he, with other recruits, was stationed for three 
months at West Point, Ky., guarding the Ohio river. Joining the bat- 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 8 1 

tery at Nashville in December, 1862, they remained there until the early 
part of January, 1863, when they moved to the field of Stone river, but 
arrived too late to take part in the action. They were then assigned to 
Ly tie's brigade, Sheridan's Third division, Twentieth army corps, and 
took part in all the engagements of the army of the Cumberland, about 
Chattanooga, including Chickamauga. He was in the siege of Chatta- 
nooga, and during the winter of 1863, was one of a party of twenty-five 
men, who started from the town with three days rations, consisting of a 
little hardtack, bacon and coffee, to take 125 horses over the mountains 
to Bridgeport, a distance of 104 miles by that route. The hardships of 
the trip may be judged from the fact that all but fifty horses died on the 
road from starvation. A week later the party returned to Bridgeport 
on foot. He and his battery shelled the enemy on Moccasin point, in 
the battle above the clouds, and shelled them also from Fort Wood. He 
was next at Tunnel Hill, Buzzard Roost, Resaca, Cartersville, the Chat- 
tahooche river, and for thirty-two days and nights, threw a shell every 
two minutes into Atlanta. They accompanied Sherman as far as Jones- 
boro, and then returned to Gen. Thomas at Nashville. Thence they 
did scouting duty and subsequently the battery was discharged, but Mr. 
Glenn and others were assigned to the Eighteenth Indiana battery, being 
discharged at Indianapolis, July 3, 1865, he again became a fireman on 
the Pittsburgh road in September. In the following March, he was pro- 
moted freight engineer (No. 155), between Fort Wayne and Valparaiso, 
was transferred to engine 113 in 1869, and April 7, 1871, was given a 
passenger engine on division C. For twelve years he ran the Lima 
accommodation train, and in 1883, entered the through passenger service, 
running between Fort Wayne and Crestline. He began running the 
limited express in 1885, ar >d now runs the limited west and the fast mail 
west of Fort Wayne. His best time was made from Crestline to Fort 
Wayne, 131 miles, in two hours and thirty-two minutes. Mr. Glenn 
was born in Morgan county, Ohio, May 2, 1842. His parents, Robert and 
Ann Smyth Glenn, natives of Ireland, of Scotch descent, immigrated in 
1835, and settled at Pittsburgh. They resided afterward successively in 
Morgan county, Ohio, Alleghany city, Lima, Ohio and in 1862, removed 
to VanWert, where the father died in 1877 and the mother in 1884. Mr. 
Glenn was married February 22, 1872, to Mary E. Curtis, who was born 
August 23, 1854, and died October 2, 1883, leaving four children out of 
six born, Grtice C, Robert Burr, Carrie A. and Eliza F. He was mar- 
ried November 28, 1888, to Frances Wright, of Fort Wayne, and they 
reside at the handsome residence at No. 26, Dewald street. Mr. Glenn 
is a prominent Mason, being a member of Summit city lodge, 170, 
F. & A. M., life member of Fort Wayne chapter, No. 19, Wayne coun- 
cil, No. 4, Fort Wayne commandery, No. 4, K. T., Grand lodge of Per- 
fection, Sariah council, Prince of Jerusalem, Indianapolis chapter Rose 
Croix, and Indiana consistory, 32nd degree. 

William T. Jackson, a veteran passenger engineer on the western 
division of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad, was born in Detroit, Mich., 

VI 



82 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

July 30, 1832. His parents removed to Erie, Perm., when their son was 
quite young, and it was in that city he spent his boyhood and attended 
the common schools. He began railroading in 1853, as firemen on the 
Erie & Northeast R. R., a road running nineteen miles from Erie to the 
New York state line, having only three locomotive engines. He was in 
the railroad war, in about 1854, between the roads in and about Erie, 
which was caused by the citizens of that city attempting to prevent the 
consolidation of the Buffalo & Erie and Cleveland & Erie roads, by tear- 
ing up the tracks of the Erie & Northeast road. Mr. Jackson was next 
engaged on the Chicago & Rock Island road, and in about 1855 was 
promoted to a switch and construction engine on that road. About one 
year later he was promoted to a freight train, and continued in that 
capacity for about two years. He then came to Fort Wayne and run 
a freight engine on the Wabash railway about twenty-two months. He 
was next on the Terre Haute & Alton railway about four months, and 
on the Burlington & Quincy railway, between Chicago & Galesburg, 
about ten months, and then returned to Fort Wayne, where his family 
were residing. On March 1, 1862, he entered the service of the P., Ft. 
W. & C. R'y Co., as freight engineer, and has remained with that com- 
pany up to the present time. In 1865 he was made passenger engineer 
and ran passenger trains on both divisions until about 1870. In that year 
the fast trains were put on between Chicago and New York, and he was 
given an engine on the fast run between Crestline and Fort Wayne. 
His was the second engine to be equipped with the Westinghouse air 
brakes on the western division, in July, 1870. On June 11, 1870, while 
braking by hand, he made the run between Crestline and Fort Wayne, 
a distance of 131 miles, in two hours and forty-seven minutes. The run 
was phenomenal at that time, as the track was not so level as now, the 
Westinghouse brakes were not in use, and wood instead of coal was 
used for fuel. The record made then was unbroken for a number of 
years, but recently, with more favorable conditions, it has been beaten, 
Mr. Jackson himself making the same run in two hours and thirty-six 
minutes. Even that has been beaten by William M. Glenn, who has 
made the run in two hours and thirty-two minutes. In 187 1 Mr. Jack- 
son was taken sick and for about eight and one-half months was off 
duty. Upon his recovery he took charge of the round-house as fore- 
man for about twenty-two months. In 1881 he was given the engine on 
the limited express, between Chicago and Crestline, and has been on 
that run ever since. Mr. Jackson is a member of Wayne lodge, No. 
25, F. & A. M., which he joined in 1869. He was married December 
5, 1852, at Westfield, N. Y., to Mary A. Groat, and they have had six 
children, four of whom survive: Ada R., wife of George Burger, 
engineer on the P., Ft. W. & C; Alice, now Mrs. Albert Cattingham, 
of Iona, Mich.; Lillie M. and Edwin T., bookkeeper. Mr. Jackson's 
family are members of the Congregational church. 

Frank P. Higgins, one of the oldest passenger engineers in the 
service of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad, was born in Ireland, January 14, 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 83 

1837. He is the eldest son of John Higgins, who removed with his 
family to America about 1845, and settled in Massachusetts. Frank P. 
was left with his grand-parents in Ireland, and did not come to Amer- 
ica until 1850. His first work was on a farm in Massachusetts, where 
he put in three years, and then learned the trade of a shoemaker. Upon 
coming to Fort Wayne, in the winter of i860, Mr. Higgins entered the 
service of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad, as a fireman on freight and 
passenger engines. Two years later he entered the machine shops and 
worked about one year, and was then given an engine in the summer of 
1864. He ran a freight engine about six years, and in 1870 he was 
promoted to passenger engineer. The period of Mr. Higgins' service 
with the Pennsylvania company is twenty-nine years, about nineteen of 
which has been as a passenger engineer. In 1881 he was assigned the 
engine drawing the limited express between Fort Wayne and Chicago. 
Mr. Higgins was married at Webster, Mass., in 1861, to Margaret A. 
Carney, who was born in Ireland. To their union a son and daughter 
have been born. The family are members of the Catholic Cathedral. 
In 1880 Mr. Higgins erected a handsome two-story brick residence at 
No. 143 East Jefferson street, where he and family reside. 

A worthy gentleman now retired from active business, who has faith- 
fully occupied posts of danger, both as soldier and locomotive engineer, 
is Andrew McClure of Fort Wayne. He was born in Blair county, 
Penn., November 12, 1841, the son of Joseph and Martha Ann (^Am- 
brose) McClure, natives of Pennsylvania. At the opening of the civil 
war he entered Company D, Fourteenth Pennsylvania regiment, and 
served three months, first as private and then as first lieutenant. In 
February, 1862, he re-enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and Thir- 
teenth Pennsylvania regiment, and served with it two years as private 
and as second lieutenant. He was appointed captain, but, for some rea- 
son, his commission failed to reach him. In the second battle of Bull 
Run he was taken prisoner, but escaped about eighteen hours later. He 
was also in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. He was dis- 
charged at Winchester, Va., in June, 1864. Returning to Pennsyl- 
vania, he soon became engaged as locomotive engineer, and remained in 
that capacity with the Pennsylvania company until 1872, when he re- 
moved to Fort Wayne. Here he was employed as engineer for the 
Wabash company. In 1877, on account of exposure during the war, he 
had the misfortune to lose his eyesight, and he has ever since been 
totally blind. From 1877 to 1886 his attention was given to hotel keep- 
ing. Mr. McClure was married in November, 1861, to Eliza Zeth, a 
native of Blair county, Penn., the daughter of Jacob and Sophia Zeth. 
They have one child, Mary E. McClure. Mr. McClure is a member 
of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the G. A. R. In 
politics he has been a lifelong republican. 

Michael F. Shea, railway engineer, is a native of County Cork, Ire- 
land, born September 29, 1S51. His parents, Patrick and Mary (Lynch) 
Shea, came to America when he was but a year old leaving him in Ire- 



84 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

land, fearing, on account of poor health, he would not then stand the 
trip. His parents located in New Haven, where the)'' still reside. After 
having been here about nine years they sent for their son, who came to 
this country in company with Daniel Shannahan, whose passage was 
paid bv the parents of Mr. Shea. Michael joined his parents at New 
Haven and remained with them until he was fifteen, when he was ap- 
prenticed to a shoemaker in Fort Wayne, and spent two years learning 
the trade. Not being satisfied, he returned home and spent one year 
on a farm to which his parents had removed. In May, 1869, he secured 
a position as brakeman on the Pittsburgh road, and held it two years 
and nine months. He then obtained a similar place on the Wabash road 
and at the expiration of three months was promoted to freight conductor, 
and held that position one year. Returning to the Pittsburgh road he 
was employed for a time as switchman, and for five years as fireman. 
In 187S he was promoted to engineer, a position he has held ever since. 
He was married June 22, 1875, t0 Bridget Broderick, who was born in 
Jefferson township, August 31, 1851. She is the daughter of John and 
Ellen (Meehan) Broderick, natives of Ireland, who were married at 
Fort Wayne. Mr. and Mrs. Shea have had eight children: Joseph P., 
John S., Dennis (deceased), Helen C, Mamie L., Michael F., Anna A. 
f deceased), and another that died in infancy. He and wife are mem- 
bers of the Roman Catholic church, and he is a member of the Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers. 

A trustworthy passenger engineer, residing at Fort Wayne, J. R. 
Anderson, is engaged on the southern division of the Grand Rapids & 
Indiana railroad, and runs between Fort Wayne and Richmond. Mr. 
Anderson was born on East Wayne street, November 23, 1852, the son of 
Alexander M. Aderson, who came to Fort Wayne from Ohio, his native 
state, about 1830. He made his home about six miles west of the city on 
the Yellow river road, the Indians still being numerous, and began the 
work of clearing a farm. Subsequently he was employed in the shops of 
the Pittsburgh company. The son, J. R. Anderson, was reared to youth on 
the farm, and at the age of seventeen entered the employment of the 
Pittsburgh railroad company in the shops, at machine work. This occu- 
pation he exchanged four years later for that of fireman, on the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana road. In 1879 he was promoted to freight engineer, 
and in 1888, to passenger engineer. He is a member of the Third Pres- 
byterian church; of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and of 
the republican party. He was married September 6, i88i,to Elizabeth 
Lopshire, who was born in Lafayette township, a daughter of William 
Lopshire, who was one of the earliest settlers of that township. 

Fred N. Kollock, a popular citizen of Fort Wayne, is prominent in 
railroad circles as agent of the Union line at Fort Wayne, and traveling 
agent for the Pennsylvania railroad company, and the C, St. L. 
& P. railroad. Mr. Kollock was born at Burlington, N. J., 
April 27, 1845, and two years later was taken by his parents to 
Philadelphia, where he grew to the age of sixteen years. In August, 



RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 85, 

1862, determined to enlist in the army, he attained his purpose by leav- 
ing home secretly, and joining company B, Twenty-ninth regiment, 
Pennsylvania infantry. He was with the Twelfth army corps in the 
army of the Potomac, participating in the battles of Antietam, Chancell- 
orsville and Gettysburg, and was then with the Twentieth corps under Gen. 
Joe Hooker, at the battle of Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain, and 
Atlanta, and in Sherhian's campaign through Georgia. After nearly 
three year's service he was mustered out as sergeant in July, 1865. Two- 
older brothers were in the service, one as assistant surgeon in the 
navy, and the other as surgeon of the One Hundred and Eighteenth 
Pennsylvania. In 1865, Mr. Kollock went to Milwaukee, and was 
connected with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad until 1873,. 
when he engaged in the oil busines in the same city. He 
returned to the service of the railroad company in 1875, ar, d 
remained with them until 1880, when in December, he came to Fort 
Wayne to accept the position of soliciting agent of the Union line. In 
1885 he was promoted agent. Mr. Kollock is at present junior vice- 
commander of Antony Wayne post, No. 271, G. A. R., and chancellor 
commander of Phoenix lodge, No. ior, K. of P.; of the uniform rank of 
the later fraternity he is an enthusiastic champion, and on June 4, 1884, 
he was elected colonel of the Second regiment, Indiana brigade, for a 
term of four years* Mr. Kollock was married January 13, 1870, to 
Mary A. Green, of Philadelphia, and they have three children : John 
K., born November 3, 1871, a graduate of Fort Wayne college, 1886, 
and now a member of the class of 92, Amherst college; Fred N., Jr., 
born October 25, 1876, and Lester R., born January 9, 1882. 

One of the early manufacturers at the city of Fort Wayne was D. S. 
Beaver, born in Franklin county, Pa., May 3, 1820, who came to this 
city in 1839, and took a position in the mill of Samuel Freeman, and 
made his home with that gentleman. He was foreman for six years, 
and in 1845 rented the mill, and subsequently purchased the property 
which he operated until 1876. He then sold out, and had charge of the 
Fort Wayne -poultry yards until his death, December 9, 1888. He was 
married at Mexico, Oswego county, N. Y., to Sarah J. Lamb, who died 
April 3, 1849, leaving one child, Charles B. Beaver, born February 17, 
1848, now a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne. October 17, 1850, he 
again married, to Mrs. A. M. Nichols, of Brockport, N. Y., who died 
October 16, 1851. His third, marriage was to Mrs. Agnes E. Hamil- 
ton, at West Stockbridge, Mass., April 3, 1854. She died March 20, 
1877, leaving two children: Edwin L., born October 6, 1855, and Minnie 
A., born August 8, 1863. Another child, Frank M., died in 1876. Mr. 
Beaver united with the Presbyterian church in 1845, was made an elder 
in 1853, and held that office until death. Charles B. Beaver was 
engaged with his father until his twenty-first year, when he began an 
engagement of eighteen months as clerk for a wholesale house in Fort 
Wayne. After a year spent in railroading, he entered the service of 
the United States Express company, and has risen through the various 



86 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

positions of driver of a wagon, manager of the business at the depot, 
messenger between Fort Wayne and Cincinnati, to agent at Fort Wayne, 
to which responsible position he was appointed July 28, 1880. He has 
also been agent of the Pacific Express company since it came into the 
city about 1878. Mr. Beaver is a member of the Presbyterian church. 
He was married February 17, 1869, to Mary A. Markley, of this city, 
born in February 27, 1847, and the)'' have had six children, of whom the 
following are living: Minnie May, Hugh M., Harry C. and Frank M. 
The agency of the Adams express company at Fort Wayne is in the 
hands of Charles O. Essig, a competent and popular young business 
man. Mr. Essig was born in Williamsport, Allen county, Ind., October 
15, 1859, the son of Adam P. Essig, one of the worthy early settlers, 
who came to this county about 1840, and purchasing land, was occupied 
in farming until 1871, when he removed to Fort Wayne. He now 
resides in the city. For ten years after coming here he was in the hotel 
business. His wife's maiden name was Susannah Mahnensmith. Their 
son Charles was reared in the city and educated at both the public 
schools and at the Brothers' schools. In 1878 he became a clerk in the 
office of the city treasurer, and remained in that position until 1881, after 
which he was engaged for eight months as general clerk for tracklayers 
of a railroad. He entered the employment of the Adams express com- 
pany at Fort Wayne, February 23, 1882, with general duties. In July, 
1883, he was promoted to bill clerk, in December, 1887, made acting 
agent, and in June, 1888, was appointed agent and manager. During 
this period he also had charge of the business of the American express 
company which was with the Adams. Mr. Essig is a member of the 
National Union, and is secretary of the local lodge. He is also a mem- 
ber of the First Baptist church, of which he was treasurer for some 
time. He was married June 16, 1886, to Ella Brooks, of the city. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

From its situation as an inland city, Fort Wayne is dependent to an 
unusual degree for its prosperity upon the extent of its manufactories. 
Fortunately i^s location on the the great avenues of travel between New 
York and the great cities of the west, has made its shipping facilities of 
inestimable value, has cheapened its freight rates, and made travel to the 
great commercial centers easy and pleasurable. More than this its 
location has been fortunate in being in the center of the great hard wood 
timber district, which Lieut. Maury once aptly described as the "Steppes 
of America." 

Fort Wayne has never felt the injurious effects of a boom, but has 
made such regular and substantial additions to its wealth, year by year, 
which few American cities can boast of. In 1828 the population was 
but 500; in 1840, 1,200; in i860, 10,319; in 1880, 25,700; and in 1889, 
a population of over 75,000 people is shown by the canvass of R. L. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 87 

Polk & Co., publishers of the new directory. Eight hundred dwelling 
houses will be erected this year, and architects estimate that $3,000,000 
will not cover the building contracts. So great has been the demand 
for brick that the yards have been taxed to their utmost capacity, and 
many thousands have been shipped in from other places. 

These observations are preliminary to a sketch of the manufacturing 
industries of this city. Some of them, it will be noted, are of surprising 
extent, wide-spread reputation and of financial solidity equal to any in 
the land. 

Let us begin with the great shops of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago railway company, of which the Pennsylvania company is the 
lessee. Over 1,100 names are now on the labor rolls, and the company 
paymaster makes a monthly -disbursement in Fort Wayne of over $100,- 
000 per month. Considerably more than half of this great volume of 
money is charged to the account of the shops proper, and the salaries of 
the superintendent and other officials is not included. The 1,100 em- 
ployes referred to, it should be understood, include the men who work 
in the yards, but not the engineers, firemen, conductors, brakemen, 
switchmen, sectionmen, freight handlers and clerks in all departments 
who constitute a distinct regiment of their own. 

In order that the magnitude of the company's plant may be better 
understood the following figures, representing the ground plan areas of 
buildings, furnished to the writer by superintendent of motive power 
and machinery, F. D. Cassanave, are here presented: Station and 
hotel, two stories, 230x35; freight house, 300x35; office building, 55 X .S55 
brass foundry, 60x25; machine shops, 320x110; boiler shops, 145x70; 
engine or round-house with stalls, 39; blacksmith shops, 320x80; plan- 
ing-mill, 217x75, with two wings, each 187x63; oil house, 35x22. 

These great buildings cover a space of four blocks from west to 
east and two blocks from north to south, nearly every foot of space being 
made available. They are not, however, the whole of the company's 
shop plant. Vast as is their extent, splendid as is their equipment, and 
although the army of men work ten hours a day and often a night force 
labors until morning, there was a demand for additional manufacturing 
facilities that must be met with enlarged accommodations. Accordingly, 
just beyond the eastern limits of the city the company, two years ago, 
laid out a magnificent yard with ten miles of side track and there erected 
a vast car shop, built in the segment of a circle, like a big round-house, 
for the storage of locomotives. This structure has seventeen stalls, 
reached from a turn table and each capable of holding two freight cars, 
when in process of construction. When this shop shall have been com- 
pleted the turn table will be in the center of a mammoth car establish- 
ment containing forty stalls and capable of holding eighty cars. The 
surprising growth of the business of the company promises to make the 
completion of this great shop necessary within the near future. A large 
planing-mill is another of the improvements at the east yards. The old 
and new shops of the Pennsylvania company at Fort Wayne cover a 



88 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

tract of fifty acres. In them will be built this year forty new locomotives 
of the Class S, or Big Mogul pattern, each capable of drawing forty 
loaded freight cars at a speed of eighteen miles an hour. Two thousand 
dairy, refrigerator, box and gondola cars will be turned out; besides an 
immense amount of repair work to the rolling stock of the entire west- 
ern division of 279 miles. The performances of the passenger engines 
manufactured at these shops have so often been referred to in the public 
press that it were idle to state more here than that they have made the 
very best of records for speed, power and economy in the use of coal. 
Not unfrequently the limited express, or vestibule train, as it is variously 
called, is carried over the western division at an average rate of speed 
of fifty miles an hour, the train attaining, where there are few railway 
crossings to stop at, the surprising velocity of seventy miles an hour. 
Exact records of these performances are kept by the company which 
claims with its well-constructed track, its perfect system of train dis- 
patching, its unexcelled motive power and equipment to be able to run 
its trains faster and with less risk to life and property than is done on 
any road in the country. Mr. G. L. Potter is the general superintendent 
of the shops, and his corps of assistants are all men of many years' faith- 
ful and intelligent service. 

The main car shops of the Wabash road are at Toledo, Ohio, and 
at Springfield, Ills., but the principal erecting shops of the eastern di- 
vision of the main line, extending from Toledo, Ohio, to Danville, Ills., 
are located at Fort Wayne, and here, until recently, J. B. Barnes, the 
superintendent of the motive power and machinery, had his headquar- 
ters. The building, rebuilding and repair of all the locomotives is done 
at the Fort Wayne shops. This work is under the supervision of 
master mechanic, Frank Morse, and Frank Tyrrell, general foreman. 
The dismemberment of the Wabash property by Judge Gresham's 
famous decree has had the effect of removing the mechanical work on 
what were the Peru branch and the Eel River branch and of reducing 
the number of men on the company's labor rolls at this point. How- 
ever, 225 men are yet given employment and for their benefit and the 
benefit of the train men, freight house men and others, the company's 
paymaster makes a monthly disbursement of $20,000. The Wabash 
plant at Fort Wayne consists, in buildings, of two round-houses of forty 
stalls capacity, an erecting shop 100x160 feet, fully equipped with the 
latest and best machinery, a blacksmish shop 40x160 feet, a wood shop 
30x200 feet, a paint shop 30x100 feet, a tin and coppersmith shop 30x40 
feet, an oil house 20x30 feet, besides a large freight house, passenger 
depot, coal sheds, and other smaller structures. The number of loco- 
motives turned out every month, either new or generally overhauled, 
will average fourteen. 

The Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville railway, the " Muncie " 
route, has never been as prosperous as some of the east and west trunk 
lines, and although its management has been generally wise and eco- 
nomical, it has never been able to erect extensive shops anywhere. How- 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 89 

ever, the headquarters for the mechanical department are in Fort Wayne. 
The principal shop is a large brick structure excellently equipped and 
carefully managed by master mechanic, Theodore Habenkorn. Fifty 
skilled men are employed under his direction. The business on the 
"Muncie" has of late years had a most satisfactory increase, and $4,000 
is a fair estimate of the disbursements for all kinds of labor the company 
makes at Fort Wayne. 

The Lake Shore railway, which reaches this city from the north is 
a branch of the main line leading from Auburn Junction, has no shops 
at Fort Wayne, although the liberal grant of land made to the com- 
pany's predecessor, the Fort Wayne, Jackson & Saginaw railway was 
predicted upon their establishment here. 

The Nickel Plate makes Fort Wayne a division point for engine and 
freight service, and has at Fort Wayne a round-house and repair shop, 
but the disposition of the management is toward increasing this little 
beginning, it being well understood that the location of the principal 
shop plant at Fort Wayne would be most advantageous. 

First among the private enterprises that give solidity to the city may 
be mentioned the Bass foundry and machine works, an establishment so 
vast as to easily rival the mammoth shops operated by the Pennsylvania 
company. 

It is no easy matter to comprehend, let alone describe, an industry 
which covers twenty acres, gives employment to 1,100 men and dis- 
burses $35,000 per month in wages, besides paying out many times that 
amount for the pig iron which goes into the blazing cupolas, and for the 
other material which make up the varied output of this mammoth hive 
of industry. The manufactured product finds its way either as station- 
ary engines, machinery, saw-mills, etc., to every city in the land, and on 
nearly all the trunk lines the car wheels used will be found, upon inspec- 
tion, to be marked with the name of this great corporation. It is a fact, 
beyond any dispute, that at Fort Wayne, Ind., more car wheels are cast 
than in any city in the world. 

The Bass works were established in 1853, and the company was in- 
corporated twenty years later. The president and principal owner is 
John H. Bass, the secretary, John I. White, and the treasurer, Robert- 
son J. Fisher. Mr. Bass is president of the First National bank, is an 
officer in two other national banks, is president of the Star Iron Tower 
company, of the street railway company, and is identified with many 
other industries besides. His wealth is estimated at nearly $4,000,000. 
He is still in the prime of life and the great institution which his energy 
has built up is ever expanding. Many of the employes have been 
twenty-five years in his service, and of them, it may generally be said, 
that there are^ but few traveling journeymen and that nearly all are of the 
better class of thrifty American mechanics, whp strive to save from 
their earnings enough to provide well for their families, to educate their 
children to traits of industries and frugality, to own a comfortable home 
and to secure themselves from want in their old age. In the thirty-six 



* 



9° 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



years of operation the establishment has never known a strike or even 
any serious labor trouble. This results from the remarkable degree of 
confidence existing between the corporation and its employes. Large 
branches of this establishment are those of the St. Louis Car Wheel 
company and of J. H. Bass, Chicago. 

Everywhere in America where vehicle wheels are bought and sold, 
the name of H. G. Olds, of Fort Wayne, Ind., is a familiar one, for he 
is president of a corporation which manufactures more wheels for 
wagons, carriages and other vehicles than any other. The record shows 
that in this business as in the business of manufacturing car wheels, a Fort 
Wayne manufactory excels all others in the extent of its outputs. Think of 
90,000 sets of wheels made and shipped in the last twelve months! It 
would seem that hereafter not only the rich can ride in chaises, but the poor 
will not always be compelled to walk. Upward of 7,000,000 spokes 
will be manufactured this year, 1,500,000 strips for felloes will be used, 
and about 500,000 hub blocks. Vast amounts of timber are annually 
unloaded from wagon at the works, besides over 2,500 cars, each with 
an average load of 30,000 pounds. The works are located at the south- 
east corner of Lafayette street and the Wabash railway, and cover five 
acres of ground. In the various departments nearly 500 men and boys 
are employed, and over $16,000 a month is disbursed in wages. The 
concern retains the name under which business was conducted in the 
lifetime of Noble G. Olds, and is called N. G. Olds & Sons. 

The marvel of the manufacturing establishments in Fort Wayne is 
that of the Fort Wayne Jenney Electric Light company, its wonderful 
growth emphasizing the prediction that the electric spark with the 
vaporized drop of water would revolutionize the world. The company 
was incorporated in 1881, with a capital stock of $100,000. The five 
original incorporators were O. A. Simons, now deceased, J. H. Bass, 
H. G. Olds, P. A. Randall and R. T. McDonald. The business started 
in a small way in two rooms, in one of the buildings connected with the 
Fort Wayne Iron Works, on Superior street, and was afterward removed 
to Mr. Randall's building on East Columbia street. The patents used 
were at first chiefly those of James A. Jenney, and his son Charles D. 
Jenney. Mr. McDonald was elected general manager, and he soon 
began to attract for the new company and its light a reputation that was 
as surprising as it was gratifying to his friends. In 1887, the capital 
stock was increased to $500,000, the company by that time had occupied 
new and enlarged shops at the intersection of Broadway and the 
P., Ft. W. & C, railway track, gave employment to 500 people, and 
had won a famous lawsuit in which the Alder Brush company of Cleve- 
land, had sought to cripple the company by suing an Indianapolis firm, 
which used the Jenney light, for damages for infringement. About'this 
time general manager McDonald secured the services of the 'distinguished 
electrician, M. M M. Slattery, whose ingenius system of producing 
light by alternating currents of electricity has revolutionized the business 
of electrical illumination. The works were burned down on the night 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 9 1 

of November 23, 1888, and have since then been rebuilt on a scale of 
double the size of the destroyed buildings. The majority of the stock 
has lately passed into the hands of a Boston syndicate, which controls 
the Thomas-Houston company. Mr. J. H. Bass predicts that within a 
few years the shops of the Fort Wayne Jenney Electric Light company, 
will exceed the Bass foundry and machine works in extent. The 
Jenney light illuminates a large portion of New York cit}^, and is found 
in nearly every city in the land and on every navigable lake and river. 

The Olds wagon works were established with a capital stock of 
$200,000, and its plant, including a four-story brick building, 60x412 
feet, with a blacksmith shop 75x150 feet, occupies an entire square, in 
which are extensive drying houses, side-tracks, etc. Its wagons are 
turned out at the rate of forty and fifty a day and are sold all over 
America. The company employs 200 men and has a monthly pay roll 
ot $10,000. 

The Kerr Murray Manufacturing company is engaged in building gas 
apparatus and has put up some of the largest works in the country. 
The business was established in 1862, the general foundry and machine 
business being then the principal feature. Mr. Murray had scarce 
begun the building of gas works when he died and the business has 
since been prosecuted with wonderful success by a stock company of 
which his son-in-law, Mr. A. D. Cressler, is president and manager. 
Large buildings have been erected and are splendidly equipped. The 
capital stock is $100,000. 

Among the gentlemen to newly enter the manufacturing business.in 
Fort Wayne are the Messrs. D. N. and S. M. Foster. The former is 
at the head of the Fort Wayne Furniture company, whose large works 
lie at the north end of Lafayette street, to the north of the Nickel Plate 
track. Two hundred men are employed chiefly in the manufacturing 
of a patent folding bed, the most valuable and salable in the market. 
The establishment has been doubled in capacity in the single year of 
its existence and further large additions must soon be made. 

Mr. S. M. Foster is the proprietor of an institution that gives steady 
employment to over 300 operatives, mostly girls. The business is that 
of manufacturing shirt waists for children, an industry entirely new 
hereabouts. An immense building is occupied near the furniture 
company's establishment. 

The Clark & Rhinesmith Lumber company is one of the solid and 
thrifty industries of Fort Wayne. Their extensive works are situated 
at the intersection of the Wabash track and Lafayette street, and employ 
150 men. Here are manufactured the Anthony Wayne washing 
machines, which are sold all over the world. The principal products, 
however, are building materials of all kinds, • such as doors, sash, 
blinds, etc. 

The Fort Wayne Organ company is said to pay the handsomest 
dividends of any manufacturing investment in the city. The company 
now owns large shops on South Fairfield avenue, and sends around the 



9 2 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



Globe organs for the church, the concert hall and the parlor, of surpass- 
ing excellence for correctness of pitch, durability of workmanship, and 
beautv of design. Of late years an immense foreign trade has grown up. 

Directly opposite the Fort Wayne Jenney Electric Light works is 
located the large establishment of Louis Rastetter. The business is the 
converting of ash timber into buggy bows and other articles of bent 
wood work, known to the trade. Many thousand dollars are paid to 
Mr. Rastetter annually by A. G. Spaulding & Bros., of Chicago, for 
racquet bats, base ball bats and other sporting goods. One hundred men 
are employed. 

A particularly thrify industry is that of the Fleming Manufacturing 
company in the Ninth ward. The company owns valuable patents for 
the manufacture of road scrapers and leveling machines which are sold 
in great numbers from ocean to ocean. The buildings have 40,000 
square feet of floorage. Mr. Charles Pfeiffer is the manager. 

In the extreme west end of the city are located the works of the 
Horton Manufacturing company. The large buildings with the lumber 
yard cover over an acre of ground, and over 100 men are employed. 
Here are manufactured the Horton washing machine and four styles of 
corn planters. Mr. John C. Peters is the principal proprietor. 

Near to the Horton works the Indiana machine works have built 
new and large buildings which are devoted to the manufacture of wood 
working machinery of various kinds, pulleys, etc. An immense business 
has been built up. 

• One of the oldest and strongest of the wood manufacturing enter- 
prises in, the city is that of the Peters Box and Lumber company, situ- 
ated in the Ninth ward. The company was founded by Mr. John C. 
Peters, and its principal industry was long the manufacture of boxes, but 
the concern is now chiefly occupied with the manufacture of furniture 
of a high grade, and competes successfully with the big institutions at 
Grand Rapids, Mich., and other furniture -making centers. Charles 
Pape, William Fleming and Wilson McQuiston are the proprietors. 
They have recently added the manufacture of wooden pulleys to their 
business. 

In the extreme east end of the city Winch & Sons have established a 
hub factory, which gives employment to eighty men. 

The White wheel works were organized in 1872. The business is 
now owned by Capt. James B. White, ex-member of congress, and his 
son, John W. White. The latter has the management and gives to it 
his entire time and attention. The works have a paid up capital of 
$100,000, and the value of the annual output is $150,000. One hundred 
and thirty hands are employed the year round and the pay roll is $4,000 
per month. Fifty thousand dollars is annually expended for material, 
and nearly all of this large sum is distributed in the near vicinity of Fort 
Wayne, to find its way again in the local channels of trade. 

Made up as Fort Wayne's population is, largely of Germans, and 
people of German extraction, it is not strange that the business of brew- 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 93 

ing beer has grown to mammoth proportious. There are two great 
breweries here. The oldest is that of C. L. Centlivre, an enterprising 
Alsacian, and it is, perhaps, best known as the French brewery. The 
situation is a charming one on the bank of the St. Joseph river, a mile 
north of the city. The brewery bottling works and boat house were 
entirely destroyed by fire on the night of July 16, 18S9, and are to be 
rebuilt upon a magnificent scale. What, with the brewery, the hand- 
some residences of C. L. Centlivre and his sons, the bottling works, 
and the fleet of pleasure boats on the river, over $300,000 will be 
represented. 

The Herman Berghoff Brewing company began business in 1888 
and erected a magnificent brewer)'-, equipped with the very latest 
appliances for the manufacture of pure and wholesome beer. The 
brewery was burned down on August 22, 1S88, before it had well begun 
operation. It was immediately restored and does a business so large 
that a new malt house is to be erected within a few months. The brew- 
ery proper is 120 by 160 feet in dimensions and is six stories high. It 
has a capacity of 100,000 barrels a year and represents an investment 
of $175,000. The Berghoffs belong to a noted family of brewers at 
Dortmunder, Germany, and Dortmunder beer is the name of a principal 
product of the establishment. 

It was not the purpose of this article to describe all of the manu- 
facturing interests of Fort Wayne. Accordingly only a few of the 
larger ones have been mentioned and these at no great length. There 
might be added extended notices of an hundred other hives of industry, 
woolen mills, soap factories, vast pork-packing establishments, tress 
hoop factories, mattress factories, cigar manufactories, boiler shops, 
planing-mills, sash, door and blind factories, stave and heading works, 
harness factories, marble and stone works and so on. But this general 
description, with such further particulars as are embodied in the follow- 
ing pages devoted to the gentlemen connected with these industries, is 
all the scope of this work will permit. 

John H. Bass, the most distinguished of the men who have built up 
great manufacturing interests in northern Indiana, is of Kentucky nativ- 
ity, born at Salem, Livingston county, November 9th, 1835. His father, 
Sion Bass, was born in North Carolina, November 7th, 1802, and at 
three years of age removed with his parents to Kentucky. He was a 
man of great worth, and by occupation a merchant and farmer. After 
residing in Kentucky until 1866, he came to Fort Wayne, where he died 
August 7th, 1888. He married Jane Dodd, daughter of John. She 
was born in Charleston, S. C, June 19th, 1802, and died in Fort 
Wayne, August 26, 1874. Sion Bass was a son of Jordan Bass, who 
was born in Virginia in 1764, and died in Christian county, Ky., at 
eighty-nine years of age. After receiving a thorough academic and 
business education in Kentucky, John H. Bass removed to Fort Wayne, 
in 1852, and entered the employment of the firm of Jones, Bass & Co., 
in 1854, with which he remained until it discontinued business in 1858- 



94 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

His brother, Sion S. Bass, who came to Fort Wayne in 184S, was a 
member of this firm and one of the leading business men of this city. 
At the outbreak of the rebellion, he left his business and assisted in the 
organization of the famous Thirteenth regiment, which was mustered in 
September 24th, 1861. Of this regiment, Sion S. Bass was commis- 
sioned colonel, and he led the regiment through preliminary movements 
up to the battle of Shiloh. Arriving on that bloody field the second day 
of the fight he led his men forward in the face of a terribly destructive 
fire. In this movement he fell mortally wounded. A more gallant 
soldier or devoted pariot never lived. John H. Bass, having mastered 
the manufacturing business at which he had been engaged, became, in 
1859, interested in the Fort Wayne machine works, which succeeded 
the firm with which he had been employed. The stock of this compan} r 
coming into the hands of Samuel Hanna and Mr. Bass, the partnership 
of Bass & Hanna became controllers of the business in 1863, the in- 
terest of Judge Hanna being transferred to H. H. Hanna. In 1S69, 
through the death of the junior partner, Mr. Bass purchased the entire 
business, which, under his management has had a wonderful develop- 
ment, and furnishes employment to thousands of men, as well as aiding 
greatly in the upbuilding of the city. In the same year in which he be- 
came sole owner of the plant here, he founded the St. Louis car wheel 
company, at St. Louis, Mo., of which he has been president and owned 
a controlling interest since its organization. With confidence that is 
perhaps unparalleled, he established an extensive foundry in Chicago in 
addition to his other large investments, in the midst of the panic of 1873, 
when many were deterred from any new ventures. These latter 
works are also for the manufacture of car wheels and general rail- 
road work, and have prospered equally with all his other enterprises. 
The works at Fort Wayne, which are prominent among the manufac- 
turing institutions of this city, are described elsewhere in this work. In 
1880 Mr. Bass established a plant for the manufacture of iron in north- 
eastern Alabama, whence iron is shipped to his establishments at Fort 
Wayne, St. Louis and Chicago. In addition to his manufactories, Mr. 
Bass has invested heavily in enterprises for the advancement of Fort 
Wayne. He and Stephen Bond were mainly instrumental in the build- 
ing of the street railway, and own a controlling interest. He has been 
for many years a stockholder and director in the First National and Old 
National banks, and for the past three years has been president of the 
first named. The famous Brookside farm, adjoining the city limits, is 
also an outgrowth of his wide-spread enterprise. It is devoted to the 
importing and breeding of Clydesdale horses and Galloway cattle, and 
has attained a national reputation. Of the company which manages this, 
farm he is president. The farm embraces more than 300 acres, the 
property of Mr. Bass, who cultivates about 1,500 acres in Allen county, 
and owning other large tracts in this county, and many thousand acres 
in this and other states; notably about 18,000 acres of valuable mineral 
land in Alabama. Mr. Bass was married in 1865, to Laura, daughter of 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 95 

Judge Lightfoot, of Falmouth, Ky. They have two children, viz. : 
Laura Grace and John H., jr. Mr. Bass is, in politics, in favor of tariff 
reform and has affiliated with the democratic party, to the national con- 
vention of which, in 1888, he was a delegate at large. He was nominated 
as one of the presidential electors in that year. But politics is necessar- 
ily subordinated with him, to the tremendous demands of his business. 
In the splendid development of this he has displayed the rarest executive 
ability and a brilliant genius for affairs. The fame he has attained how- 
ever, rests upon him lightly, and he is still a courteous, companionable 
gentleman to all, and thoroughly occupied with the immediate super- 
vision of his business. The work he has done for his city in promoting 
its growth will long be remembered. His life work ranks him among 
those who are the creators of cities. 

R. J. Fisher, treasurer of the Bass foundry and machine works, came 
to Fort Wayne in the spring "of 1861, and for about one year was 
engaged with William H. Brooks, book dealer, and then for two years 
with Reed & Wall, druggists. He entered the employment of J. H. 
Bass in 1864, and has ever since remained with him. He was assigned 
the responsible position of treasurer in 1873, an d his fidelity and ability 
are unquestioned. In politics he is a democrat; is a member of the 
Masonic order; socially, is highly esteemed, and as a business man 
occupies a leading position. His father, James R. Fisher, was born in 
New Jersey in 1802, and was by occupation a furniture dealer. He was 
married to Henrietta Burnett, and in 1852 removed to Chicago, where 
his wife died the same year, and he passed away three years later. 
They had six children, of whom R. J. is the fifth, born at Little Falls, 
N. Y., September 24, 1845. Mr. Fisher was married October 30, 1866, 
to Julia M. Holton, a native of Covington, Ky., and they have one child, 
Laura M. B., now the wife of L. E. Walker, of Los Angeles, Cal. 

One of Fort Wayne's enterprising and progressive citizens, Henry 
William Meyer, has since August, 1886, occupied the responsible posi- 
tion of general foreman of the machine department of the Bass foundry and 
machine works. He first became engaged in these works in 1866, has 
become a thoroughly posted, practical and ingenious machinist. After serv- 
ing as assistant foreman he was promoted to his present place. Mr. Meyer 
was born in Sylvania, Ohio, October 6, 1850, the son of John M. and 
Anna M. (Loeffler) Meyer, natives of Bavaria. The father was born 
July 3, 1823, and died February 11, 1871, in this city, whither he re- 
moved with his family in 1858. The mother is living here in her seven- 
tieth year. For fourteen years the senior Meyer held the position of 
section foreman. October 17, 1875, Henry William Meyer married 
Amelia Buhr. She was born in Fort Wayne, May 5, 1852, and they 
have three children living: Mamie, Henry and William. A fourth child, 
Frederick, died November 29, 1886. The family are members of the 
St. Paul's German Lutheran church, of which Mr. Meyer is one of the 
trustees. Politically, Mr. Meyer is a pronounced republican. 

The foremanship of the core room at the Bass foundry and machine 



q6 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

works is intrusted to Diedrich Brandt, a skillful artisan, who though not 
a native of this country, and having his own way to make in life, has 
acquired a comfortable home, and become a deservedly popular citizen. 
He was born in Prussia, September 6, 1850, son of Conrad and Chris- 
tina (Humke) Brandt. His father, born in the old country, died in 1862, 
aged sixty-one, and the mother, who was born in 1810, died in her native 
land in 1855. They had six children, of whom Mr. Brandt was the 
youngest. He came to Fort Wayne in June, 1867, and having been 
employed on the farm at home, followed the same occupation in this 
country for ten months. He then worked two years for Freeman & 
Rudisill, and entered the employment of J. H. Bass in 1870, where he 
has since remained, having held the foremanship of the core room for 
twelve years. He was married in 1879 to Bertha Lohrmann, born in 
Germany in i860, and they have four children: Henry, Theodore, 
Diedrich and Edward. Mr. Brandt and wife are members of the 
Lutheran church, and he is in politics an active republican. 

The foremanship of the cleaning room of the Bass foundry and 
machine works is held by J. Christopher Matsch, who was born at Kusey, 
Province Saxony, May 27, 1844. His parents, John Christopher and 
Dora (Lenz) Matsch, came to the United States in 1854, anc ^ settled at 
Cicero, Ind., afterward coming to Fort Wayne, where the father died 
in 1874, at the age of sixty-two, and the mother died in 1885. They 
had three children, now living, of whom the second is Christopher. In 
the spring of 1858, he entered Concordia college, but after a year and 
a half study was compelled, by failing sight, to leave school. He then 
remained upon the farm until 1861, when he entered the employment of 
A. D. Brandriff, of this city, and afterward that of T. K. Breckenridge 
in the grocery business, and subsequently was engaged with Conner & 
Co., merchants. He took a trip during three and a half years, through 
the west, and upon his return in 1870, served two years as fireman on 
the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad. Afterward he was 
with Gillett & Co., and in 1878 became engaged with J. H. Bass, and 
has since been connected with the works. He was married in 1873, to 
Sophia Woebbeking, born in Adams county in 1849, and they have 
three children: Dora, Anna and Emma. They are members of the 
Zion's Lutheran church. 

For ten years the important foremanship of the car wheel depart- 
ment of the Bass foundry and machine works has been in the competent 
hands of Robert Cran, who is distinguished as an artisan and esteemed 
as a citizen. He was born in the old city of Quebec, February 14, 
1840, the son of Charles and Anna (Madison) Cran. His father was 
born in England in 181 1, the mother in Scotland in 1813. They came 
to Quebec about 1830. The father now resides at Sandusky, Ohio. 
Robert Cran was educated in Canada, and at seventeen years of age 
began at the moulder's trade in Bissel's iron foundry at Quebec. He 
remained in Canada until i860, when he came to Fort Wayne. In 1861 
he entered the employment of Murry & Benningin, and in 1862, began 




////>/ /Ms- 



'-u/C/ 




MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 97 

work for J. H. Bass, with whom he has since remained. Mr. Cran was 
for twenty-two years a member of the Fort Wayne volunteer fire depart- 
ment, and for six years was first assistant chief under Frank Vogel. In 
May, 1889, the regard and confidence of the community in his worth as a 
citizen was manifested by his election to the city council from the sixth 
ward. He is a member of the Presbyterian church. Mrs. Cran, who 
is a member of the Catholic church, bore the maiden name of Mary 
Ward. They were married in 1882, and have three children, Anna B., 
Charles, and Charlotte. 

Driving a canal boat on the Wabash & Erie seems to be an occupa- 
tion belonging to a generation past and gone, but such was the first 
employment of Jacob J. Stier, who was a boy of twelve years when he 
began that work, and is now one of the foremen of the Bass foundry 
and machine works. At fourteen years of age he began learning the 
moulder's trade with Murray & Bennigan, and in 1866 entered the 
employment of J. H. Bass, and in the same works has since remained, 
having been for ten years foreman of the moulding department, and 
having supervision of eighty men. He was born in this country April 
27, 1847, son of Henry and Charlotte (Meyers) Stier, who came to the 
county at a very early day. He was married in 1876, to Carrie Weaver, 
who was born in Knox county, Penn., May 16, 1849, and they have six 
children: Frederick G., Edward, Frank, Joseph, Mary and Anna. Mr. 
Stier and family are membecs of St. Mary's Catholic church, and he is 
a Catholic Knight, of branch No. 103. In politics he is* a democrat. 
Mr. Stier is of thorough attainments in his trade, and is esteemed as a 
citizen. 

In 1862 Frank H. Fink entered the employment of J. H. Bass, and 
has ever since been engaged in the works, ample evidence of his effi- 
ciency and value as a skilled mechanic. He has had through life to 
depend upon his own acquirements, but he has advanced steadily, and is 
now completing his eighth year as foreman of the moulding department 
of the Bass foundry and machine works. He was born at Fort 
Wayne, July 27, 1847, the son of Anthony and Mary (Dahmann) Fink, 
natives of Germany, who came to this city about 1837. His father 
died about 1856, and the mother August 4, 1889. This was the second 
marriage of the mother, and by it she had two children, of whom 
Frank H. is the youngest. He attended St. Mary's school and commer- 
cial college, and obtained a good education. He was married in 1S70, 
to Elizabeth Kartholl, a native of Germany, born in 1848, who was 
brought to this country in an early day by her father, Joseph Kartholl, 
who died on the canal boat on the Wabash & Erie canal, this side of 
Defiance, Ohio, while coming to this city. His body was brought here 
for burial. Mr. and Mrs. Fink have six children: Caroline, Nora, 
Mary, Frank, Anthony and Joseph. The family are members of the 
Catholic church, and Mr. Fink is a Catholic Knight. In politics he is 
a democrat. 

VII 



n8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

For over thirty years Rudolph Bensman, foreman of the boiler 
department of the Bass works, has followed the trade of boiler-maker, 
and in his branch of mechanics and construction, he has few equals in 
thorough knowledge and practical ability. Mr. Bensman began his 
trade in 1857, with one McLauchlin, of this city. In 1S65 he removed 
to Norwalk, Ohio, and was there employed ten years in the Lake Shore 
railroad shops. Upon his return to Fort Wayne in 1875 he entered the 
employment of the Wabash railroad company, and there remained until 
1886, when, in October, he accepted his present position. He was born 
in Hanover, Germany, November 16, 1843, son of Rudolph Bensman, 
born in Hanover, in 1804, who married Elizabeth Quint, born in Prussia, 
in 1807, and removed to Fort Wayne with his family in 1844. He died 
here in 1867, but his widow survives. They had five children, of whom 
Rudolph is the youngest but one. He was -married in 1865 to Cather- 
ine Loran, who was born in France in 1848, and they have five children: 
William, born in August, 1870; Alice, November, 1880; Mamie May, 
1883; Florence, December, 1885, and Gertrude, October, 1888. Mr. 
Bensman and family are members of the Catholic church, and politically 
he is a democrat. 

In the year 1875 Frederick C. Meyers first became employed at the 
J. H. Bass works, and has since been one of the trusted men in that 
great establishment. During the past two years he has been one of the 
foremen of the moulding department. Mr. Meyers was born in Prussia, 
May 22, 1857, the son of Frederick and Louis (Dammier) Meyers, both 
natives of Germany, who now reside in Fort Wayne. They came here 
with their family in 1872. Frederick was the second born of their five 
living children, and received his education in the old country. In 1877 
he was married to Mary Kirkel, who was born in this city in 1853, and 
died in 1883, leaving three children: Katie, Charles and Minnie. In 
1884 Mr. Meyers was married to Cassie Beierline, who was born in 
Germany and came to this country when five years old. They have 
one child, Frederick. Mr. Meyers and wife are members of the Luth- 
eran church, and he is politically, of the democratic faith. He is a 
worthy and highly esteemed young man, and in his line of activity has 
a bright future. 

JV. G. Olds & Sons. — This famous manufacturing establishment was 
founded in 1861 by Noble G. Olds, who began that year his residence 
in Fort Wayne, which continued until his death in April, 1876. He was 
born at Bedford Springs, Penn., in January, 1818, son ©f Daniel Olds, a 
native of Pennsylvania, who died in New York at about the eightieth 
year of his age. The boy, Noble, having removed to the latter state 
with his parents, began work in a saw-mill, and then turned his atten- 
tion successively to carpentry and cabinet-making and machine pattern 
making. In 1848 he removed to Sandusky, Ohio, and the next year 
became master mechanic of an agricultural establishment. Afterward 
he established machine works, but sold out, and in 1853 went to Buffalo, 
N. Y., where he was for one year master mechanic of the Eagle Iron 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 99 

* 

works. His next enterprise was at Sandusky, Ohio, where in 1854 ne 
established the.N. G. Olds machine works. In 1859 and i860 the firm 
of Olds & Occobach & Co. was formed, to conduct the Sandusky wheel 
works, but he remained in that city only until 1861. Mr. Olds was in 
politics a whig and subsequently a republican; was a member of the 
Baptist church. As an artisan and designer he had remarkable talent, 
to which were added an executive and business ability of a rare order. 
In 1838 Mr. Olds was married to Elizabeth Woolsey, who was born in 
New York in 181 5, and died in 1872. They had five children: Henry 
G., born in 1839; Charles V., 1841, who was drowned accidentally in 
the winter of 1849-50; John D., born September 5, 1843; Jay V., 1849, 
and Charles L., 1855. After the death of Mr. Olds, sr., the business 
was conducted as a partnership until 1882, when the firm was incorpo- 
rated as N. G. Olds & Sons, with a capital stock of $400,000, the officers 
being Henry G. Olds, president; John D. Olds, vice president; Joseph 
Henry Wilder, secretary; Thomas C. Rogers, treasurer, and so con- 
tinues. The establishment covers an area of ten acres, is composed of 
a series of brick and wooden buildings and sheds of large capacity, is 
supplied with steam power aggregating 600 horse-power, and gives 
employment to a large force of skillful workmen. It is probably the 
most complete establishment of the kind in the world, and its output is 
unrivaled in quantity, and of such excellence that it is in great demand 
not only throughout this continent, but is also exported to South Amer- 
ica, Europe and Australia. John D. Olds, vice president, was born at 
Syracuse, N. Y., and has been a member of the manufacturing organ- 
ization since the formation of the old firm in 1873. In 1863 he enlisted 
in Company C, Seventy-fourth Indiana volunteers, and served three 
months. He was married in 1866 to Allie C. McLaine, who was born 
in Knox county, Ohio, in 1843, and they have three children: Egbert C, 
born 1868; Charles M., August, 1870, and Hugh B., 1878. He and 
wife are members of the Presbyterian church. In politics he is a repub- 
lican. In 1868 he became a Mason, of Home lodge, No. 342, and in 
1888 became a member of the Scottish Rite, Mystic Shrine and a 
Knight Templar. He has added to the value of the product of the com- 
pany by the invention of the Olds compound band hub. 

Joseph H. Wilder, above named as secretary of N. G. Olds & Sons, 
is a native of Holliston, Mass., born in the year 1844, son °f J ose P n an d 
Sarah (Bruce) Wilder, both natives of that state. Ebenezer Wilder, 
father of Joseph, lived at Lancaster, Mass., to a great age, and the latter 
is still living at Holliston, having been a citizen of that place for seventy- 
five years. His wife died at their home about 1852, when their son 
Joseph was eight years old. The family is of English descent, the 
American ancestor having immigrated in the last century. Joseph H. 
Wilder is the only living descendant of his parents. He received a good 
common school education and was for three years a student at the 
Phillips academy at Exeter, N. H. In i860 he came to Fort Wayne, 
and in 1863, entered the employment of N. G. Olds & Sons. Upon 



IOO VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

the incorporation he became a member of the company, and his career 
in this connection has made him conspicuous as a business man. In 
politics he is an ardent republican. Mr. Wilder was married in 1867 
to Jennie Leland, a native of Massachusetts, born at Holliston, daughter 
of Aklen Leland, and they have one child, Constance. 

Ferdinand F. Boltz was born at Saarbruck, Rhenish Prussia, Octo- 
ber 26, 1839. His father was a prosperous hotel keeper, of a family 
which had been in Saarbruck for four generations, though of Bohemian 
origin. His father's mother was Savnia Lucas, of St. Avoid, Lorraine. 
His mother was Louise Best, daughter of Henry Best, a native of the 
Palatinate, and a baker, whose failure in business involved the father of 
Mr. Boltz. Her mother's maiden name was Neizer, and she was a 
native of Saarbruck. Immediately after this misfortune the father, in 
the spring of 1848, emigrated, and reaching Fort Wayne in the fall of 
that year, found employment at his trade of cabinet-maker, and sent for 
his family* In October, 1849, Ferdinand F. Boltz, and his mother, sisters, 
Louise, Caroline and Amelia, and brothers, Gus. J., and Fred. C, reached 
Fort Wavne. Here the family became prosperous and highly esteemed. 
The father was born November 9, 1809, and is still living, but the 
mother died in 1874. Ferdinand F. attended school, to learn the lan- 
guage, and then for several years found employment at the home of 
Thomas Hamilton. At the age of fourteen he became clerk at the store of 
William Jacobs, and until 1857, was in his employ or in that of John Hamil- 
ton, and in the latter year became engaged with James H. Robinson, 
then manufacturing boots and shoes. At the first call for volunteers for 
the defense of the Union, Mr. Boltz was ready to serve his country, and 
his name was the first on the roll of a company raised for three months' 
service, but which was accepted by Gov. Morton as Company G, 
Twelfth regiment, and mustered into service, May 11, 1861, with Will- 
iam H. Link as captain. Mr. Boltz was mustered in as first sergeant. 
The regiment served first in southern Indiana, and after the first battle 
of Bull Run, in July, 1861, the command joined the division of Banks at 
Harper's Ferry. Mr. Boltz soon proved himself a soldier of rare merit, 
and when the time of enlistment of the regiment expired, he was mus- 
tered out in May 1862, as sergeant-major of the regiment, a rank to 
which he had been promoted in the previous August. In August, 1862, 
under President Lincoln's call for " 300,000 more," the Eighty-eighth 
regiment Indiana volunteers was organized, and Mr. Boltz, who had been 
out of the service but a short time, enlisted in this regiment as second 
lieutenant of Company F, under Capt. Lefevre. As a part of Gen. 
Ly tie's brigade, the regiment had its first battle at Perry ville, Ky., Octo- 
ber 8, 1862, and lost heavily, though somewhat sheltered by its position. 
The soldierly conduct of Lieut. Boltz led to his promotion in January, 
1862, to first lieuteuant, and in December, 1862, he became acting adju- 
tant of the regiment, a position he filled during the battle of Stone 
River. His regiment was engaged here on December 31, 1S62, and 
January 1, 2 and 3, 1863, and made the last charge, and fired the first 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. IOI 

volley from the Union lines on that bloody field. Lieut. Boltz com- 
manded his company during the Tullahoma campaign, and in August, 
1863, again assumed the adjutantcy of the regiment, serving in that 
position during the Chickamauga campaign and siege of Chattanooga. 
Lieut. Boltz was injured at the battle of Stone River by the falling of 
his horse, and after being promoted captain of his company to succeed 
Isaac Lefevre, killed at Chickamauga, he was not able to assume com- 
mand until the Atlanta campaign. In this he served bravely until 
wounded August 7, 1864, at the battle of Eutaw Springs. Rejoining his 
command October 1, 1864, he participated in the pursuit of Hood as far 
as the Tennessee line, and then returned to Atlanta, whence he moved 
with his regiment with Sherman to the sea, and from Savannah to Golds- 
boro, N. C. The regiment took a prominent part in the battles of 
Averysboro and Bentonville. The latter engagement, it was the for- 
tune of Capt. Boltz to open, and being unexpectedly thrown into a situa- 
tion of great responsibility, he displayed qualities of the best soldiership. 
On the morning of the battle he had been specially detailed by orders 
from division headquarters to select a picked detail and take the advance, 
and go to Goldsboro if he could, Gen. Sherman not believing that Gen. 
Johnston was near. Capt. Boltz had no hopes of getting through, but 
declaring that he would try, he moved out on the morning of March 19, 
with seventy good men. Six miles out they found several hundred fora- 
gers gathered, who revealed the presence of the "Johnnies." Deploy- 
ing as skirmishers, Capt. Boltz's men advanced and were immediately 
under fire ; but drove back the enemy's advance and discovered heavy 
columns moving up to attack the army of Sherman. Boltz fell back to 
a narrow belt of timber, and continuing firing, sent a messenger back to 
warn Gen. Hobart to prepare for battle. In a short time the first divi- 
sion came up, and the battle was begun. Capt. Boltz's courage and 
promptness in attacking the enemy, gave the Fourteenth corps time to 
prepare for action, and he received the personal thanks of Gen. Hobart 
for saving the corps. The military career of Capt. Boltz, so full of 
honorable deeds, came to a close June 7, 1865, when he was honorably 
mustered out. He then engaged in the retail grocery business, at Fort 
Wayne, in which, however, he did not succed, and in April, 1875, he 
became cashier of the Empire line. Since February, 1880, he has been 
timber purchasing agent of the firm of N. G. Olds & Sons. Capt. 
Boltz is a past commander of Sion S. Bass post, G. A. R. He was 
made a Mason in Perseverance military lodge, No. 1, at Sharpsburg, 
Va., in 1862, and is now pastmaster of Home lodge, 342, is a member of 
Fort Wayne chapter, No. 19, is past eminent commander of Fort Wayne 
commandery No. 4, K. T., is a member of Fort Wayne council, No. 4, 
lodge of Perfection, No. 2, and Indiana consistory, and of the Murat 
Temple, No. 1, Indianapolis. He was married September 4, 1864, to 
Cornelia A. Sowers, daughter of Samuel and Mercy J. Sowers. Mr. 
Sowers was one of the pioneers of this county in 1834. Capt. Boltz is 
a republican in politics, and a leading citizen of the city. 



102 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

For twenty-three years Charles Cartvvright has held the position of 
lumber agent for N. G. Olds & Sons. He was born in Miami county, 
Ohio, April 24, 1825, the son of Charles and Elizabeth (Paxton) Cart- 
wright, who were born and married in Rockbridge county, Va. About 
1 8 19 they emigrated to Greene county, Ohio, and later to Miami 
county, where the father who was a farmer lived until 1832; his wife 
survived him until 1846, when she died in Mercer county, Ohio. At 
sixteen Mr. Cartwright began to learn the tailor's trade, which he fol- 
lowed about twenty-six years, excepting from June 2, to August 7, 
1846, during which time he served in the Mexican war, in Company B, 
First Ohio regiment. His service was cut short by sickness. Prior to 
this he had worked at Piqua, Dayton, Union, Ohio, Maiden, W. Va., 
and then in Xenia, Ohio. From the war he returned to Ohio, and until 
1S53 resided at Union and Covington, and in March, 1866, he came to 
Fort Wayne, and has ever since been employed as lumber agent with 
the firm of N. G. Olds & Sons. His long engagement is evidence of 
his steadiness of character and of the value of his services to the prom- 
inent firm which he represents. Mr. Cartwright was married Novem- 
ber 10, 1848, to Mary, daughter of John Sinks, then of Union, Ohio. 
Mrs. Cartwright was born in Miami county, Ohio, May 22, 1831. They 
have had seven children: John C, Jeremiah L., Frank P., Edward A., 
Burty E., Maud M. and Charles, all of whom are living except John C, 
who was a conductor on the Pittsburgh railway and was killed on duty, 
July 12, 1876, at the age of nearly twenty-seven years. Politically Mr. 
Cartwright has been a life long democrat. He has led a strictly tem- 
perate life, having entirely abstained from intoxicants and tobacco. 

The superintendency of the N. G. Olds & Sons' wheel works has 
been entrusted since 1884 with Victor A. Sallot, a careful and accurate 
business man, who thoroughly fills that position. He was born in 
France, August 27, 1844. His father, born in France, in 1809, married 
Josephine Julian, who was born" in 181 1, and in 1841 they came direct 
to this city. The father is by occupation a carpenter and cooper, and he 
purchased the first lots in what is now known as " Frenchtown." Vic- 
tor A. is the youngest of two children. In 1868 he engaged in the 
manufacture of sash and doors, and in 1870 the factory was converted 
to the manufacture of furniture. This business was continued until 
1872, when the factory was destroyed by fire. In 1873 Mr. Sallot 
became associated with Barney O'Connor in cutting out dimensions stuff 
and shipping the same, which business Mr. Sallot subsequently became 
sole proprietor of and continued until 1878. He then entered the 
employment of Boseker & White, in their wheel works, and remained 
with that firm nearly six years, three years of the time as superintend- 
ent, until January, 1884. Mr. Sallot is in politics a democrat, and is a 
member of the Catholic church. He was married in 1881 to Agnes 
Baker, who was born in Fort Wayne in 1854, and they have five sons: 
Remedius, Joachim, Hubert, Stephen and Barnard. 

The foreman of the rimming department of the Olds wheel works, 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. - IO3 

Hiram B. Woolsey, was born in Jordan, N. Y., December 25, 1840. 
His father, Luther L. Woolsey, born in New York in 1799, the son of 
Luther L. Woolsey, who lived in New York to the age of ninety-nine 
years. Luther L. Woolsey died in his native state in 1841, and his wife, 
whose maiden name was Keturah Bloomer, died in Fort Wayne in 1882, 
at the age of eighty. Ten of their childeen are living, Hiram being the 
youngest. When he was twelve years old he went to Sandusky, Ohio, 
and lived there some time with his brother John, receiving his education 
at that city. When seventeen years old he returned to New York and 
enlisted at Syracuse, in Company G, One Hundred and Twenty-second 
New York regiment. He served for three years, was wounded at 
Gettysburg and Petersburg, and was honoralby discharged in July, 1864. 
In the following month he came to Fort Wayne, and began his engage- 
ment with N. G. Olds & Sons, which has ever since continued, with the 
exception of three years he has served during that long period as fore- 
man, a fact which speaks eloquently of his faithfulness and worth as a 
man and as a mechanic. He was married in 1873, to Ella A. Dresser, 
who was born at Hillsdale, Mich., in 1849. They h ave two children, 
Jay and May. In politics Mr. Woolsey is a republican ; he is a Mason, 
a comrade of the G. A. R., and a member of the Baptist church. 

In the month of February, 1865, Washington McNamara, now a 
popular and worthy citizen of Fort Wayne, entered the employment of 
N. G. Olds & Sons, and with the exception of two years, he has been 
connected with the wheel works ever since. For eleven years he has 
been a foreman, now having in charge the yards and drying department, 
and he has the good will of all with whom he is associated. Mr. Mc- 
Namara was born at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 12, 1849. ^is parents, 
William and Susan (Porter) McNamara, were born in Maryland, the 
father in 1805, the mother in 181 1. The family removed to Indiana in 
1855? settled first in Huntington county, and came to Fort Wayne in 
1864. The father died in this city in 1868. Seven of their children 
are living, Washington McNamara being the fifth born of these. He 
was married October 28, 1885, to Laura Lindsley, who was born Sep- 
tember 28, 1 864, at Attica, Ind. Mr. McNamara is a member of the 
I. O. O. F., Fort Wayne lodge, and politically is a democrat. 

The foreman of the polishing department at the establishment of 
N. G. Olds & Sons is Matthias Cramer. He was born in Germany, 
December 4, 1844, son of Matthias and Barbara (Doppen) Cramer, 
natives of Germany. The mother died in her native land in 1846, and 
the father died in Fort Wayne in 1869. Their son Matthias came to 
Fort Wayne from Germany in 1856. When the war broke out, though 
only a boy in years, he gallantly enlisted in the cause of his adopted coun- 
try, August 18, 1861, in Company E., Thirtieth regiment Indiana volun- 
teers, and participated in the battle of Shiloh where he was shot through 
the head, and on account of his injury was discharged in July, 1862. 
But he re-enlisted in the following September in Company K, One 
Hundredth Indiana and served until the close of the war, being commis- 



104 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



sioned first lieutenant. He was honorably discharged June 29, 1865. 
During his second enlistment he participated in the battles of Vicksburg, 
Black River, Jackson, Chattanooga, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mount, 
Atlanta, and others, and was with Sherman in his march to the sea. 
On his return to Fort Wayne he entered the employment of Olds & 
Sons, and has been with them ever since excepting nine years spent 
in slate roofing. He is a member of the G. A. R., George Humphrey 
post, of the Catholic church, and is highly esteemed. Mr. Cramer was 
married in 1868 to Augusta Miller, a native of France, and they have 
eight children: Mary, Maggie, Rosa, Elizabeth, Anna, Tracy, Mathia 
and Cecilia. 

One of the boy soldiers of the war of the rebellion, Robert G. 
Renfrew, enlisted at the age of fifteen, in Company B, Twenty-first 
Pennsylvania cavalry, and served faithfully during the various severe 
battles of the army of the Potomac which followed until the close of the 
war, receiving an honorable discharge, July 17, 1865. In the same 
month he came to Fort Wayne, and for two years engaged in farming. 
In 1868 he entered, the employment of N. G. Olds & Sons, and has been 
connected with the works of that firm until the present, with the excep- 
tion of one year. Twelve years ago he was appointed foreman of the 
fitting department, the position he now holds. Mr. Renfrew was born 
at Fayetteville, Penn., March 9, 1848, son of Rea K. and Maria (Bohn) 
Renfrew, of whose children three others are living. He was married 
in 1S72 to Sarah A. Fox, who was born in Lancaster, Penn., in 1847. 
She is a member of the Baptist church. Mr. Renfrew is a republican 
in politics, is a member of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 14, I. O. O. F., a 
comrade of George Humphrey post, No. 530, and is honored and 
esteemed as a citizen. 

Since 1880 Frank W. Dunham has filled with credit to his skilfulness 
and business ability, the active and important place of foreman of the 
spoke turning department of the N. G. Olds & Sons wheel works. He 
was born at Lucas, Richland county, Ohio, January 28, 1856, the son 
of James and Frances Dunham. His father, a native of Delaware, was 
a soldier in the One Hundred and Twentieth Ohio regiment, and died in 
hospital at St. Louis in 1863. Seven children of these parents are liv- 
ing, of whom Frank W. was the fourth born. A few years after the 
death of his father his mother died. Mr. Dunham remained on the farm 
for five years afterward, and then, in 1873, came to Fort Wayne, and 
found employment in White's wheel works, where he remained four 
years. He entered the employment of the Olds company in 1879, an< ^ 
his marked ability soon caused his promotion to the foremanship he now 
holds. Mr. Dunham is well known and popular in the community. He 
and wife are members of the Berry Street Methodist Episcopal church; 
he is a member of Phoenix lodge, No. 101, K. of P., and politically he 
ranks with the republican party. Mr. Dunham was married in 1880, to 
Jennie Dunfee, who was born at Columbia City, in 1862. They have 
three children: Charles H., Albert E., and an infant child unnamed. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. IO5 

James A. Graham, general foreman of the car shops of the western di- 
vision of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad, at Fort Wayne, was born in 
Alleghany count}'-, Perm., December 25, 1856. His father, John Gra- 
ham, was born in the north of Ireland in 1825; emigrated to the United 
States in 1847, and settled in Alleghany county, where he died Febru- 
ary 3, 1889. By occupation he was an engineer in the P., Ft. W. & C. 
shops, at Alleghany City. The mother of Mr. Graham was Martha 
(McAleer) Graham, who was born in Ireland in 1827; immigrated in 
1S47, and now lives in Alleghany city. James A. was reared in Alle- 
ghany City, and received his education at the public schools of that 
place. At thirteen years of age he extered the employ of Elliott & 
Burges, nurserymen of Alleghany City, where he remained about two 
years, and then entered the employ of James Calwell; becoming an er- 
rand boy, he was promoted to a clerkship. But he became dissatisfied 
with the life and prospects of dry goods salesman, and determined to 
learn a trade, and accordingly he entered the car shops of the P., Ft. 
W. & C. railway at Alleghany City as an apprentice, April 2, 1872. He 
attended drawing-school during evenings, and faithfully applying him- 
self, advanced until 1884, he was given charge of all passenger car re- 
pairs in the Alleghany City shops, and continued in that capacity until 
September, 1886, when he was transferred to Fort Wayne and given 
the general foremanship of the car shops in this city. All the different 
departments, including the east yard shops, are under Mr. Graham's 
supervision, and the extent of his responsibility and the scope of his du- 
ties, will be readily understood when it is known that he has under him 
no less than half a dozen assistant foremen. In the spring of 1888 
Mr. Graham realized the necessity of his company having a different 
draw gear or draft rigging for freight cars, and at once began experi- 
menting in that direction. In July following he succeeded in inventing 
a device, of which he made a full-size model, and submitted it to Messrs. 
J. Wood, then superintendent of motive power, F. D. Cassanave, then 
master mechanic, and G. L. Potter, then assistant master mechanic, 
who examined the invention, approved it, and gave Mr. Graham permis- 
sion to equip ten new freight cars with his draw rigging, and the 
same proving successful, it was adapted for all cars on the Pennsylvania 
lines. On September 8, 1888, Mr. Graham filed an application for a 
patent of his device, and on May 7, 1889, was awarded a patent for the 
same in the United States. It is no doubt the most valuable draw gear 
ever invented for durability and cheapness. Mr. Graham is a member 
of the Fort Wayne lodge, No. 25, F. & A. M., and of the royal arcanum. 
He was married in November, 1875, at Alleghany City, Penn., to Miss 
Ella McNurtney, of Little Washington, Penn., and to them two daugh- 
ters have been born : Martha B. and Minnie A. Mr. and Mrs. Graham 
are members of the Methodist church. 

Bernard Fitzpatrick, general foreman of the machine and erecting 
shops of the western division of the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. company, 
was born at Lancaster City, Penn., August 7, 1850, the son of Bernard 



106 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

and Margaret (Dougherty) Fitzpatrick, the former of whom was born 
in Ireland and the latter at Philadelphia. The parents removed to Lan- 
caster City in 1845, where they resided the rest of their lives. The 
father became a prominent citizen and held numerous municipal posi- 
tions, including that of alderman, for several years. His death occurred 
in 1872, at the age of fifty-five years, his wife having died in 1857 at 
the age of thirty-rive years. They were both members of the Catholic 
church. Four sons and one daughter were born, four of whom survive. 
Bernard Fitzpatrick was reared in Lancaster City and educated in the 
common schools. In 1867 he began an apprenticeship as machinist in 
E. S. Norris & Co.'s locomotive works, and after serving four years, in 
187 1 he entered the Baldwin locomotive works in Philadelphia, where 
he remained one year, and then went to Altoona. After working at the 
latter place, he returned to Lancaster on account of the illness of his 
father, and remained there until after his father's death. In 1872 he 
worked at Scranton in the D., L. & W. R'y shops. Six months later 
at Wilksbarre, in the Lehigh & Susquehanna R. R. shops, where he was 
promoted to gang boss in the above shops under L. C. Braston, master 
mechanic. He was next with the Lehigh Valley company as machinist, 
then returned to Altoona, and next went to Zelinople, Penn., on the 
Pittsburgh & Western, being foreman of the shops at that point for one 
year. In January, 1882, Mr. Fitzpatrick came to Fort Wayne and 
entered the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. shops as a machinist, but a month 
later was appointed assistant foreman of the round-house, in which capa- 
city he served five months, and on June 1, 1882, he was promoted to his 
present position. Mr. Fitzpatrick is a member of the Catholic Cathe- 
dral and of St. John's Commandery Catholic Legion. Mr. Fitzpatrick 
was married December 23, 1873, to Louisa Miller, of Baltimore, Md., 
who was born in that city in 1853. To this union three children have 
been born : Harry, Willie and May. 

Abel Fisher, lumber inspector and foreman of the lumber yards of 
the P., Ft. W. & C. Ry. at Fort Wayne, was born in Lawrence county, 
Penn., on March 29, 1844. He i s trie son °^ Abel Fisher, born in the 
same county, whose father was John Fisher, an officer in the war of 181 2, 
and one of the pioneers of Lawrence county, Penn. His wife was a 
sister to Bishop Roberts, the pioneer Methodist who was bishop of what 
was then known as the Erie conference, numbering all the Methodist 
Episcopal churches west of the Alleghany mountains. The mother of 
the subject of this mention was Polly Gibson, whose father was a native 
of Pennsylvania and a pioneer of Lawrence county. Abel Fisher, sr., 
now over seventy years of age, is a resident of Iola, Kan., where he 
owns and manages a hotel. He also conducts a hotel at Victoria, Kan. 
His wife died in 1858. Abel Fisher, jr., was reared on a farm in Law- 
rence county, Penn., and after obtaining a common school education, he 
learned the miller's trade, and worked at the same until at the age of 
seventeen years and three months. In July, 1861, he enlisted in Com- 
pany G, of the Sixty-second Pennsylvania regiment of volunteer infantry, 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. IO7 

as a private. He served three years, and was discharged at the expira- 
tion of his time at Pittsburgh, July 4, 1864. He was wounded in the 
right wrist at the battle of Gaines' Mill on the Peninsula. Returning to 
Pennsylvania, he finished his trade and worked at it in Lawrence county 
until 1869, when he came to Fort Wayne. He was engaged with the 
railroad company as foreman of the lumber yards, and three months 
later was made inspector. Mr. Fisher was married in 1869 to Jennie 
Waddington, of Fort Wayne, who was born in Crestline, Ohio. To 
them three children have been born: Maude M., wife of E. J. Pirson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, Walter B. and William. 

Andrew Weber, a well-known and valued citizen of Fort Wayne, 
has been chief pattern maker on the western division of the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company, since May 2, i860. He was 
born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, July 23, 1828, and in his native land 
learned cabinet and pattern making. In May, 1851, he left his native 
country and came to New York city, where he worked four years, and 
then came to Fort Wayne, where he was engaged by Bowser & Story 
as pattern maker. He began his engagement with the Pittsburgh rail- 
road company as above stated, as foreman of the pattern department, 
and is the second oldest foreman in the Fort Wayne shops. While at 
New York Mr. Weber learned mechanical drawing with Commissioner 
Albert Fink, who is also a native of Hesse-Darmstadt. Mr. Weber was 
married August 2, 1853, to Anna Guentzer, who was born on the river 
Rhine, Germany, in 1835. To them one son has been born, Carl 
Weber, druggist, of Fort Wayne. Mr. Weber is a member of the Cath- 
olic church, and for thirty-four years has been the leader of the Cathe- 
dral choir. His voice is one of rare compass, two and a fourth octaves, 
and there are few voices of that range in the country. 

William Stephan, chief draftsman of the Pennsylvania company, 
was born at Saxonia town, Mittweida, Germany, August 4, 1848. He 
was educated in his native town and attended the Technicum, learning 
mechanical engineering, in which he graduated in 1868. He followed 
his profession for one year, and then entered the army and served in 
the infantry from 1869 to the fall of 187 1, participating in the Franco- 
Prussian campaigns. July 20, 1872, he reached the United States, and 
coming directly to Fort Wayne, entered Bass foundry as pattern maker, 
where he remained a year and a half. He then spent about one year 
at New Haven, and afterward returned to Fort Wayne and entered the 
employment of the Kerr Murray manufacturing company, in the pattern 
department, where he remained four years. In 1878 he was engaged 
by the Pennsylvania company as mechanical draftsman, and worked in 
that capacity for six years. In 1883 he was appointed chief draftsman 
for the Pennsylvania company. Mr. Stephan is a member of Home 
lodge, F. & A. M. He was married in Germany in 1871, to Emeline 
Baatz, and six children have been born, of whom five are living: 
Emeline, William, Lina, Charles and Adolph. 

Robert H. Harrison, a well known citizen of Fort Wayne, and fore- 



IOS VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

man of the car machine shops of the P., Ft. W. & Chicago railway, was 
born in Ireland, January i, 1834. He * s tne son °f Richard Harrison, 
a native of Ireland, who was the son of John Harrison, who was born in 
, Lancashire, England, but removed to Ireland and spent the remainder 
of his life. He was an extensive manufacturer of linen and was pos- 
sessed of large capital. Richard Harrison married Eliza Hamilton, 
who was the daughter of Glover Hamilton, a titled Scotchman, and her 
mother was the daughter of George Laird, also a member of the Scotch 
nobility. These parents immigrated to Toronto, Canada, where they 
lived until death. Their son, Robert H., was given a good education in 
the public schools of Toronto, and at the age of seventeen years, he set 
in to become a machinest in the Toronto locomotive works. In 1854 
he removed to Philadelphia, Penn., and about 1858, to Pittsburgh, coming 
in 1S59 to Fort Wayne. He was in the employment of the Pennsylvania 
railroad company, at Pittsburgh, and he came here in that service. 
In April, 1861, Mr. Harrison answered the call for ninety days volunteers, 
and enlisted in Company E, of the Ninth regiment Indiana volunteer 
infantry, as first sergeant. He also served one year in an Illinois regi- 
ment, and was then forced to leave the service by sickness. Returning 
to Fort Wayne he re-entered the Pennsylvania machine shops, where 
he has since continued. He was made foreman of the car machine 
shops in 1872. Mr. Harrison is a member, and has been for twenty 
years, of Harmony lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and is also a member of 
Home lodge, F. & A. M. He is a member of the Episcopal church. 
Mr. Harrison was married in 1865 to Louisa Wittie, of Fort Wayne, 
who was born in Boston, Mass., in 1839, of German parents. To their 
union six children have been born: Grace Hamilton, Glover Benjamin, 
Viola Louisa, George Arthur, Ida May, and Bertha Eliza. In March, 
1888, Mr. Harrison received a handsome legacy from the estate of his 
brother, who died at Toronto. 

William Knight, foreman of the east yard car shops of the west di- 
vision of the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. company, at Fort Wayne, was born 
at Croydon, Surry county, England, November 4, 1832, and came to 
America in April, 1854. Landing at New York city, he remained in 
that state for a while, and in 1856 came west and located in Fort Wayne. 
He learned the trade of cabinet making in England, but on coming to 
Fort Wayne he spent six months in bridge building on P., Ft. W. & C. 
road. In the winter of 1856 he entered the employ of Jones, Bass & 
Co. as car builder, and in 1857 he entered the service of the P., Ft. W. 
& C. R. R. Co., in the same capacity. In 1879 he went to work in the 
shops of the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville R. R. Co., as fore- 
man, and remained there nearly five years. Returning to the P., Ft. W. 
& C. R. R. Co., on July 1, 1885, ne was appointed foreman of the east 
yard car shops, a position he has since held. He was married in Feb- 
ruary, 1854, to Eliza Jenner, of Leatherhead, England, and to their 
union eight children have been born, five of whom survive, and four of 
whom are married. Mr. Knight is a Mason, member of Summit City 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. IO9 

lodge, No. 70, chapter No. 19, council No. 4, commandery No. 4, K. T., 
and consistory S. R. He and family are members of the Episcopal 
church. 

James C. Hewes, foreman of the boiler shops of the Pittsburgh 
railroad company, was born in Delaware county, Penn., January 26, 
1822, the son of Samuel and Margaret (McCullogh) Hewes, both 
natives of Pennsylvania. The father died about i860, and the mother 
four years later. James C. Hewes removed with his parents to Phila- 
delphia when he was about fifteen years old, and after receiving a good 
education he was taught the trade of boiler-making in that city. Sub- 
sequently he removed to Reading, and there remained eleven years. In 
1855 he entered the employment of the Pennsylvania company at Al- 
toona, as assistant foreman and was sent to Pittsburgh in 1861 to take 
charge of the boiler shops of the company there. Coming to Fort 
Wayne in September, 1864, he took charge of the boiler shops of the 
company here, a position he has since held, creditably filling a place of 
much importance. His engagement with the Pennsylvania company has 
existed now for thirty-five years. Mr. Hewes married at Reading in 
1848, to Julia John, a native of that city, born in 1826. To their union 
three children have been born. A son is deceased and there survive, 
Ella, wife of William Cherry, of this city; Jennie, wife of John Piper, 
of Altoona. Mr. Hewes is a member of the Presbyterian church, is a 
republican, and is a member of Summit City lodge, F. & A. M., and 
for forty years has been a member of the I. O. O. F., now of 
Montgomery lodge, No. 59, Reading. 

G. H. Judy, foreman of the blacksmith shop of the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago railroad company, was born at Point of Rocks, 
Frederick county, Md., February 11, 1847. He is the son of Thomas 
L. and Susan (Garrott) Judy, both natives of Maryland. The father, 
who was a blacksmith by trade, having been retired from service, came 
to Fort Wayne in June, 1888, and died here in the following January, 
at the age of seventy years. His widow survives at the age of sixty 
years. Their- son, G. H., was reared at Cumberland City, Md., and in 
1865 entered the employment of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad com- 
pany at that place. Two years he was engaged with the Cumberland 
& Pennsylvania company at Mount Savage, Md., and remained there 
until 1870, when he returned to the B. & O., and was foreman of the 
blacksmith shops of that company, at the rolling mill department, until 
1877, when he again entered the employment of the Pennsylvania com- 
pany at Altoona, Penn., working until 1880 as forger. In 1880 he 
removed to Huntingdon, Penn., and took charge of the blacksmith shops 
of the Huntingdon car and car-wheel works until 1883, when he came to 
Fort Wayne. He was at first engaged in the Pittsburgh shops here as 
forger, and received his appointment as foreman in September, 1884. This 
he has since held to the entire satisfaction of the company and is popular 
with all. He is a member of the Kekionga council, No. 93, National 
Union, is a republican in politics, and he and wife are members of the 



HO VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

United Brethren church. He was married in 1868 to Emma Myers, of 
Cumberland City, Md., who died in 18S0, at Altoona, Penn., at the age 
of twenty-nine years, leaving two sons, David L. and L. W., who are 
now in the Pittsburgh railroad shops, one in the blacksmith and one in 
the car department. 

Thomas J. Rodabaugh, foreman of the paint shop of the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company, is one of the veteran railroad 
men of the city, having been first connected with the work of the rail- 
road with which he is now employed, in 1850, grading the road bed in 
Ohio. After the track was laid he was engaged in repair work on the 
section between Louisville and Canton, Ohio, until the spring of 1855. 
Mr. Rodabaugh was born in Summit county, Ohio, October 9, 1835. 
He is the son of Adam Rodabaugh, born near Harrisburg, Penn., who 
was a miller by trade and in early life removed to Lorain count)', Ohio, 
and thence to Summit county, and finally to Stark county, where he died 
in 1887 at the age of eighty years and over. His wife, Mary Heath, 
was born in New Hampshire, and died in 1843, at the age of thirty-five 
years. Their son, Thomas J., was reared on a farm to his twelfth year 
and was then in a store with his father until he began work at railroad- 
ing. On June 5, 1855, he came to Fort Wayne in a stock car, and then 
went to New Haven and engaged in tracklaying on the Wabash railroad 
between that place and Defiance. In the following August he returned 
to Fort Wayne and was engaged with J. J. Kammer in learning the 
painter's trade. Eight months later he found employment at his trade 
in the Wabash shops, where he remained until June 20, i860, when he 
entered the employment in the same capacity of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago company, with which corporation he has since remained. 
March 11, 1S68, he was made foreman of the paint shops, a position he 
has held for over twenty years. Mr. Rodabaugh was a volunteer fire- 
man in Fort Wayne for sixteen }^ears and eight months, and was in 
active duty during all that time. He was foreman of Vigilant company, 
No. 2, for eight years, first assistant of Mechanic company, the first 
company, for three years, and was acting chief engineer for a short 
time. In politics he was a democrat and voted for James Buchanan first, 
but in i860 became a republican. He became an Odd Fellow in 1858, 
and has since been a member of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 14, and has 
since 1864 been a member of Wayne lodge, No. 25, F. & A. M. Of 
both of these fraternities he has acted as deputy to the grand lodges of 
the state. He was married in 1857 to Elizabeth J. Snyder, of Fort 
Wayne, who was born at Canal Dover, Ohio, in 1841. They are 
members of the Congregational church. 

In 1879 Alonzo L. Woodworth came to Fort Wayne and took a po- 
sition as tool dresser in the blacksmith department of the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad shops, and in the fall of 1884 he was 
promoted assistant foreman of the department. Mr. Woodworth was 
born near Boston, Mass., July 16, 1847, the son of John Woodworth and 
wife, whose maiden name was Stearns. They came to Indiana in 1852 



MANUFACTURING INDTSTRIES. Ill 

and settled near Kendallville, where the mother died in 1861. The 
father came to this city in 1879, and is now living, in his eighty-first 
year, with his son Alonzo. The latter had hardly reached his fourteenth 
birthday when he enlisted (1861) in Company C, Forty-fourth regiment 
Indiana volunteers, as a private. He served bravely throughout the 
war, being wounded at Chickamauga in the lower jaw, a hurt which 
disabled him for nine month. He was honorably discharged at Chatta- ■ 
nooga in September, 1865, and then came to Fort Wayne and learned 
the blacksmith's trade at the shops of Murray & Bennigan, remaining 
there three years. For four years he was employed at Bass's foundry, 
and then went to Logansport, where he attended Hall's commercial col- 
lege. After five years at Logansport and one at Terre Haute, he spent 
a year in travel through the west, before engaging with the railroad 
company as above stated. Mr. Woodworth is a member of Summit 
City lodge, No. 170, F. & A. M.; of Kekionga lodge, No. 93, National 
Union; he is a Baptist, and in politics, republican. Mr. Woodworth was 
married to Annie Holmes, of Maples, Ind., who died in 1872 at the age 
of twenty-four, leaving one son. In 1875 he was married to Rosa Bennett 
of this city. Mr. Woodworth is the father of these children: John, 
born in 1872; Margery, 1877; Frank, 1886; Newton, 1888. 

An esteemed and worthy citizen of Fort Wayne, Louis Buckwalter, 
is a native of the city of Philadelphia, born October 18, 183 1. He is 
the son of Jacob and Mary (Thomas) Buckwalter, the former of whom 
was born near Phoenixville, Penn., where his ancestors settled on emi- 
grating to this country from Switzerland, in' 1749. At sixteen Louis 
began the trade of a machinist and served an apprenticeship of five 
years in the Baldwin locomotive works of Philadelphia, where he re- 
mained until i860. In that year he came to Fort Wayne, and he has 
ever since been employed as a machinist in the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago railway shops. At no time during this long period has he 
been off duty more than a month at a time. For several years past he 
has been an assistant foreman. Mr. Buckwalter was married February 
21, 1866, to Mary E. Houenstein, a native of Fort Wayne, and they 
have had four children: Mary E., Charles H., Clara H. and Mathilde A., 
of whom the second died in infancy. In politics Mr. Buckwalter has 
been a republican since 1856. He is a skillful mechanic, and a first class 
citizen. 

One of the skillful machinists who find occupation in the shops of 
the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company, is John R. 
Bitner, who first engaged in that employment in March, 1869. He is 
the son of Andrew J. Bitner, who was born in Center county, Penn., 
December 18, 1816, and at the age of ten was taken by his widowed 
mother to Holmes county, Ohio. June 8, 1846, Andrew Bitner was 
married to Eliza Nabe, who was born in Franklin county, Penn., July 8, 
1827, and had removed to Holmes county with her grandparents in 1836. 
At Gallion, Ohio, November 23, 1850, John R. Bitner was born to these 
parents. Three years later the family removed to Roanoke, Ind., where 



112 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

they resided until the fall of 1863, when they returned to Holmes county. 
Six months later they made their home on the Bluffton road, twelve miles 
south of Fort Wayne. In 1865 the family came to this city, where the 
father died November 7, 1887. Mr. Bitner has been one of the trusted 
men in the Pittsburgh shops ever since engaging there twenty years 
ago. He was married November 14, 1877, to Emma Helfrich, a native 
of Crestline, Ohio, and they have five children: Lula M., Andrew C, 
Charlotte F., Charles L. and Irving E. Mr. Bitner is a member of 
Wayne lodge, F. & A. M. 

Andrew Heimroth, a well-known citizen of Fort Wayne, engaged in 
the tool room of the Pennsylvania shops, was born in "Prussia, January 
16, 1819. Coming to America in 1847, he reached New York 
at four o'clock p. m., August 18. Having learned thoroughly the trade 
of a machinist in the old country he soon found employment at the 
West Point foundry, at Cold Springs, N. Y., beginning on the 26th of 
the same month. In June, 1848, he lost his right eye through an acci- 
dent in the shops in which he was engaged. In 1852, he went to New 
York city, and was there engaged until 1855, when he entered the shops 
of the Camden & Amboy railroad at Bordentown, N. J. After an 
engagement there of several years he started to Fort Wayne, and on 
March 9, 1865, took a position in the Pennsylvania shops. For twenty 
years he was a faithful and valued assistant in the machine shop, 
and after the close of that period in 1885, he went into the tool shop. 
Mr. Heimroth is in politics a republican, and he is a member of the 
Summit City lodge, No. 170, F. & A. M. He was married October 
20, 1848, to Catherine Shelton, who was born in Oxfordshire England, 
November 24, 1830. To them three children were born, of whom two 
survive; Matilda, now Mrs. Joseph Ellsner, of Chicago; and Sarah, now 
Mrs. William Hattersley, of Fort Wayne. 

A representative of one of the pioneer families of Fort Wayne, Alex- 
ander M. Tower, an esteemed citizen, for several years connected with 
the machine shops of the western division of the P., Ft. W. & C. rail- 
road, was born in Fort Wayne, January 6, 1855. His father, Benjamin 
H. Tower, a native of Michigan, who came to Fort Wayne during the 
thirties, resided here until his death in 1872. He was a lumber and 
furniture manufacturer, and was a prominent citizen. During the days 
of the old Wabash & Erie canal he was connected with that enterprise, 
and for some time was paymaster. He was a member of the city coun- 
cil for a considerable period. He married Kate Paul, who died w : hen 
her son, Alexander, was but three }^ears of age. The latter was reared 
in Fort Wayne and attended the public schools, receiving a first-class 
education. He entered the machine shops above named in June, 1872, 
as an apprentice, and serving out his apprenticeship, he continued as a 
foreman. In 1884 he went to Scott, Ohio, where for two years he was 
engaged in the manufacture of patent barrel hoops, but in 1886 he 
returned to the shops. He is a member of the Third Presbyterian 
church. Mr. Tower was married September 15, 1880, to Anna A. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 113 

Kinnaird, who was born in New York city, June 6, 1855, the daughter 
of Robert Kinnaird. Mrs. Tower died May 13, 1889, leaving two 
daughters, Mary W. and A. Louise. 

During the past seventeen years, Daniel Campbell, a well-known 
railroad man of this city, has acted as foreman of the blacksmith de- 
partment of the Wabash railroad shops. He began working at his 
trade in Buffalo, and in 1859 came to Fort Wayne, and then entered the 
employment of the Wabash company, in the department of which he 
has since served so long and efficient as foreman. He is a skillful work- 
man and a good citizen, and his acquirements in life include those prime 
factors of happiness, an attractive family and a pleasant and comfortable 
home. Mr. Campbell was born in Edinburg, Scotland, December 6, 
1835, son of Daniel and Ellen (Clapin) Campbell, both natives of Scot- 
land, who spent their lives in that country. He came to the United 
States in 1853, and at first spent seven years at Buffalo, N. Y. He 
was married in 1862, to Jeanette Muirhead, and they have three chil- 
dren, Daniel A., Nellie and Jennie. Mr. Campbell is a prominent re- 
publican, and is a member of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 14, 1. O. O. F. 

The foreman of the boiler shops of the Wabash railroad company, 
Ernst Rehling, has been a resident of Fort Wayne for forty-one years, 
and has gained during that extended period the good-will and esteem of 
the community, and a high standing among the leading artisans of the 
city. Mr. Rehling is a native of Prussia, born March 24, 1841, the son 
of Frederick and Dora(Tegtmeier) Rehling. The parents emigrated 
to this country and came to Fort Wayne by the Wabash & Erie canal 
in 1848. Here the father, who was born in i79 2 > died in 1861, and the 
mather passed away in 1872, at the age of seventy years. They had 
eight children, of whom seven are living, Ernst being the youngest. 
Mr. Rehling, after receiving his education in the Lutheran schools, 
began work at the trade of boiler making, in 1857, which has been his 
life occupation. He served his time with Bass, Jones & Co., and sub- 
sequently was engaged by the Pennsylvania railroad company and 
remained with them until 1871. In 1872, he entered the employment of 
the Wabash railroad company, and his thorough knowledge of his craft, 
and trustworthiness as a man, led to his promotion in 1882, to the 
important position he now holds. He was married in April, 1864, to 
Sophia Starke, a native of Prussia, born January 3, 1842, who came to 
this city in 1854. They have four children: Fred. H. E., born 
December, 1864; Lizzie, born 1867; Ernst C. E., born 1870; and 
Charles, born 1873. Mr. Rehling and family are members of the German 
Lutheran church. He is in politics a republican, having cast his first 
presidential vote for U. S. Grant. 

The foremanship of the Wabash railroad paint shop is ably filled by 
H. F. Banta, who has been a resident of this city since 1853. During 
his first two years here, he was engaged in the furniture business. In 
1858, he entered the employment of the Wabash company, and for twenty- 
five years has occupied his present position. He is a skillful and com- 

VIII 



IIzJ. VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

petent man and his services are highly valued by the company. Mr. 
Banta was born in Hanover, Germany, August 12, 1836, the son of 
Henry and Anna (Oclgeschleger) Banta, both natives of Hanover, 
where they passed their lives. Mr. Banta, the youngest of their children, 
was educated in his native land, and there learned the business of a gar- 
dener, a more important occupation there than here. He was married 
in 1863, to Catherine Schmidt, who was born in Germany in 1838, and 
came to this country in early childhood. Mr. Banta and wife are members 
of the Lutheran church, and he is in politics a republican, having first 
voted, in a presidential contest, for Abraham Lincoln. 

One of the responsible men connected with the Wabash railway 
company is William J. Bensman, a valued citizen of Fort Wayne, who 
follows the trade of boiler maker. He was born Hanover, Germany, 
July 24, 1840. His parents, Rudolph and Elizabeth Bensman, were 
born in Germany, the father in 1807, the mother in 1805, and came to 
Fort Wayne in 1845, where the father died in 1886, and where the 
mother is now living. Of their three surviving children the eldest is 
William J., who being only five years old on his arrival here, received 
his education in the German Lutheran schools of this city. At eighteen 
years of age he began the learning of his trade, and since 1873 he has 
been in the employment of the Wabash railway. He is one of the best 
qualified in his occupation, and has prospered, having a handsome home, 
which he built in 1867. On December 5 of the following year he took 
to his home as wife, Frederica Boseker, who was born in Saxony, June 
1, 1844, and they now have two children: Mary, born in 1869, and 
Delia, born in 18S3. They are faithful members of the Lutheran 
church. 

Olds Wagon Works. — The famous Olds wagon works were estab- 
lished in 1881 by Henry G. Olds, who was succeeded in 1882 by the 
present corporation. The works were built by the Hamilton estate, and 
the buildings are supplied with machinery, operated by a 150 horse 
power engine. The trade extends to every state and territory in the 
union. Farm wagons, freight wagons, lumber and cotton wagons are 
all manufactured, and every piece of material used in their construction 
is of the best quality. H. G. Olds, the president, is also interested in 
N. G. Olds & Sons' wheel works. A. H. Hamilton is vice-president, 
William Johnston, jr., secretary, Charles McCulloch, treasurer. 

William Johnston, jr., a popular and capable business man, occupying 
the position of secretary of the Olds wagon works, was born in New 
York city, October 10, 1845, to William and Sarah (Pollock) Johnston. 
The parents were born in Ireland, the father in 1798, and the mother in 
1801, and came to this country in 1828. The father died at Foster's 
Meadow, Long Island, in 1876, and his widow eight years later. Will- 
iam is the youngest of seven children, three of whom are now living. 
He obtained a common school education in New York, and in 1862 
came to Fort Wayne, reaching here March 21. He entered the employ- 
ment of McDougal & Co., afterward Root & Co., as book-keeper, and 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 115 

held that position for six years, after which he was for ten years in the 
employment of Coombs & Co. He became connected with the Olds 
wagon works in 1881, and has acted as secretary since the incorporation 
in 1882. Mr. Johnston was married January 21, 1878, to Ada B. Fuller, 
a native of Michigan, daughter of John and Lois Fuller, and they have 
one child, Grace L. Mr. and Mrs. Johnston are members of the First 
Presbyterian church; he is a prominent republican; a Mason of the, 
thirty-second degree, and Knight Templar. 

Peter Andersen, a skillful mechanic, occupying the responsible posi- 
tion of foreman at the Olds Wagon works, began learning the trade of 
wagon maker in his native land, Denmark, at the age of fourteen, and 
in 1870 came to the United States, settling at Racine, Wis., where he 
lived twelve years, carrying on his business and also doing general car- 
pentry and contracting. He came to Fort Wayne in 18S1, and has ever 
since been connected with the Olds wagon works. He is a practical 
mechanic and skilled workman. Mr. Andersen was born in Denmark, 
June 10, 1845, of John and Mary (Henrickson) Andersen, who were 
born in that country, the father in 1796, the mother in 1811; and died 
there, the father in 1855, and the mother in 1885. In 1874 Mr. Ander- 
sen married Matine Rasmussen, a native of Denmark, born January 17, 
1849, w ^° came t° the United States in 1874, and both are members of 
the Lutheran church. They have four children: Matilda C, Thorwald 
A., Olga R. and Herman A. Mr. Andersen is a republican in politics. 

Kerr Murray Manufacturing Co. — Hugh Bennigan, who came to 
Fort Wayne in 1859, * n tnat y ear with Jones & McLaughlin, established 
the Fort Wayne machine works. In 1862, he and Kerr Murray built 
the foundry near the south depot, which was the beginning of the Kerr 
Murray works. Kerr Murray became the sole owner in 1868, and in 
1 88 1 the concern was incorporated, with a paid up stock of $100,000, 
and in the same year was built the present brick shops. In 1868 the 
company commenced to manufacture gas works machinery and holders, 
to which has been added grain elevator machinery and general foundry 
and machine work. Their foundry is a one-story building with a cupola, 
its area is 110x115 feet, and the average melting is thirty tons per day; 
the machine shop is a three-story building, 60x150 feet, and its machines 
are run by a 100 horse-power engine; the wrought iron and smith shop 
is a two-story building, 75x175 feet, having seven forges and one steam 
hammer, pattern houses, yards, etc., to accommodate their stock, and a 
railroad track running through their works to facilitate their receiving 
and shipping departments. Employment is given to about 300 men, and 
the trade extends to all parts of the United States and Canada. Gas 
works have been erected by this company all over the continent, a few 
cities in the list being Pittsburgh, Mobile, El Paso, Dallas, Kansas City, 
Los Angeles, Davenport, Minneapolis, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Indian- 
apolis, Cleveland, and London, Canada. 

Alfred D. Cressler, president and general manager of the Kerr Mur- 
ray manufacturing company, was born at Lucas, Richland county, Ohio, 



Il6 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

July 7, 1852. His parents, George H. and Nancy (Miller) Cressler, 
were natives of Pennsylvania, the father born in Franklin county in 181 1, 
and the mother in Cumberland county in 1813. The father was a rail- 
road contractor and took part in the construction of the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago railroad. He survived his wife, who'died in 1868, 
until August, 1875. Alfred D. Cressler spent his early life upon a farm, 
.and from 1867 till 1869 worked at carriage making. His uncle, D. M. 
Miller, of the Aveline House, being a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, 
Mr. Cressler came here in April, 1870, and found employment as a cash 
boy for Foster Brothers. In a few months he had risen from that posi- 
tion to have charge of the dress goods department, and he then entered 
Eastman's business college at Poughkeepsie, where he spent four months. 
Returning to the employment of Foster Brothers, he was stationed at 
Grand Rapids until October, 1874. He was next engaged one year in 
the dry goods business at Wooster, Ohio, and then returned to Fort 
Wayne, where he took the position of time clerk for the Kerr Murray 
manufacturing company. In 1877-8 he traveled for the company and 
acted as bookkeeper in 1S79. On the death of Mr. Murray, May 6, 
1 880, Mr. Cressler took charge of the business for the heirs, and con- 
ducted it during the remainder of the year. In 1881 he organized and 
incorporated the present company for the manufacture of gas works 
machinery, and was elected to his present position. He is one of the 
most prominent and energetic of the young manufacturers of the city. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having attained the thirty- 
second degree and the Mystic Shrine. Mr. Cressler was married Octo- 
ber 13, 1874, to Eliza E. Murray, daughter of Kerr Murray. 

Since September, 1888, G. Adolph Schust has held the position of 
secretary of the Kerr Murray manufacturing company. He was born 
in this city November 1, 1862, the son of J. M. and E. M. (Hoffman) 
Schust, both natives of Germany, who emigrated to this city in 1849. 
The family removed to Wheeling, W. Va., in 1864, but returned to this 
city in 1874, where the parents are still living. The father is now 
employed in the pattern making department of the Wabash railroad 
shops. Their son, the subject of this sketch, attended school at Wheel- 
ing and Fort Wayne, and in 1877 entered the law office of Jenison & 
Alden. A year later he became a student at Addison seminary, near 
-Chicago, and remained there until 1882. He then returned to this city 
-and took a commercial course in the business college, afterward taking 
a position as bill clerk and assistant ticket agent in the Wabash railroad 
freight office. In 1883 he entered the employment of the Kerr Murray 
manufacturing company as shipping clerk, and has since been promin- 
ently connected with that company. He is a member of the Lutheran 
church. 

Since January 1, 1885, Gustave L. Hackius has occupied a position 
with the Kerr Murray manufacturing company, and on January 1, 1888, 
he was promoted treasurer and head bookkeeper of that establishment, 
a responsible position which he at present fills to the entire satisfaction of 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 117 

the company. He was born in this city February 19, 1867, and was 
educated in the Lutheran schools, attending also the commercial college, 
taking a night course during the fall, winter and spring of 1882-3. He 
was engaged with A. Kalbacher, in the flour and feed trade, as book- 
keeper and clerk, in 1881-2, and then became a clerk in the shop-clerk's 
office of the Pennsylvania company from 1883 to 1885. He is the son 
of Andrew and Mary Hackius, natives of Germany, who came to Fort 
Wayne in 1854. T" ne father being a copper and tinsmith by trade, was 
engaged at his trade with the Pennsylvania company at Fort Wayne. 
He died December 28, 1885, but his widow survives and is living in the 
city. To them eight children were born, of whom Gustave is the fifth, 
and all but two are living. 

Herman J. Remmert, prominent in the manufacturing interests of 
the city of Fort Wayne, was born in Prussia, August 5, 1841. When 
fifteen years of age, in September, 1857, he landed at New Orleans, and 
after a few months' stay at St. Louis, he reached Fort Wayne in Febru- 
ary, 1858. Here he learned the trade of a carpenter and joiner, which 
he followed for a year and a half. In the fail of 1S61 he made a visit 
to his native country and was absent six months. Upon his return he 
became engaged with the Bass foundry and machine works, and re- 
mained there until the fall of 1863, when he entered the employment of 
Murray & Bennigan, in their machine shops. In the fall of 1864 he en- 
gaged in the retail grocery trade, and though out of the shops not more 
than three months, continued that business for three years. He has been 
connected with the same works ever since, through its various changes 
of proprietorship, a period of twenty-six years. Previous to the or- 
ganization of the Kerr Murray manufacturing company he acted as gen- 
eral foreman for four or five years, and since the organization of that 
company in which he is a stockholder, he has been superintendent of the 
works. Mr. Remmert was married on June 26, 1866, to Mary C, 
daughter of John J. Koester, of this city, and to their union ten children 
have been born, six of whom survive. He and wife are members of the 
St. Paul's Catholic church. 

Among the popular foremen of the Kerr Murray establishment should 
be named Carl Bohne, a skillful pattern-maker. He was born in Han- 
over, Germany, May 13, 1857, the son of Henry and Engel (Meyer) 
Bohne. They emigrated to America in 1857, and came directly to Fort 
Wayne, making their home five miles south of Fort Wayne, where the 
father followed farming until his death in 1866. The widow then removed 
to the city, where she still resides. Carl Bohne was educated in the 
German Lutheran schools, and at the age of thirteen years entered the 
drug house of his uncle, William Meyer, where he remained two } r ears, 
and then began an apprenticeship of four years with J. C. Boser & Co., 
at the trade of pattern-maker. He remained with the above house 
twelve years altogether, and then entered the employ of the Kerr Mur- 
ray manufacturing company in 1885. In 1886 was engaged at Kendal- 
ville, Ind., with the Flint & Walling manufacturing company, as pattern- 



Il8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

maker, for nine months. He then returned to the Kerr Murray manu- 
facturing company as foreman of the pattern department of that 
establishment, and has continued, in that position. Mr. Bohne was mar- 
ried at Kendall vill.e in 1887 to Dora Wehmeyer, who was born at that 
place in 1865. Mr. and Mrs. Bohne are members of Emanuel Lutheran 
church. 

The foremanship of the boiler and blacksmith department of the 
Kerr Murray works is in the hands of Adolph F. Schulz, who came to 
this city in 18S3, and having learned the trade of blacksmith and boiler- 
maker in his native land, immediately engaged with this company. He 
was made foreman in 1884, but in 18S5 removed to Decatur, and was 
for a short time engaged with a machine shop and foundry at that place, 
going then to Alleghany, Penn., taking charge of a depaitment in a 
machine factory. In 1886 he returned to this city, and again took the 
foremanship he now holds. Mr. Schulz was born in Germany, February 
28, 1854, an d immigrated in 1882, having previously been married, 1877, 
to Sophia Seidensticker, by whom he has three sons and one daughter. 
Mr. Schulz is a member of the Reform church, and a worthy citizen. 

Fort Wayne Organ Company. — ■ Of this prominent industry, of 
which mention has already been made, Stephen B. Bond is president, 
Charles E. Bond, secretary, and A. S. Bond, treasurer and superin- 
tendent. 

The position of designer and superintendent of case manufacturing 
in the Fort Wayne organ factory, is held by Thomas Hill, a native of 
Halifax, Yorkshire, England. He was born January 9, 1839, tne son 
of Richard and Ann (Lockwood) Hill. At thirteen he began to learn 
the cabinet-maker's trade and after a seven years' apprenticeship, 
followed his trade at various places in England until 1872. In that year 
he emigrated to America, locating in Boston; he remained there two 
years and then had charge of a cabinet shop at Worchester, Mass., 
three years and a half. After a few months at Boston, he went to 
Appleton, Wis., and took charge of a factory in which chairs and bed 
room suits were made. There he was occupied as designer five years 
and a half. He then went to Chicago, and was with the firm of Story & 
Clark, organ manufacturers, as designer, five or six years. Prior to 
this he had spent one year with the firm of A. H. Andrews & Co. 
In February, 1888, he came to Fort Wayne and accepted his present 
position. Mr. Hill was married July 9, 1S61, to Ellen Stott, a native of 
Hebden Bridge, England. They have one son, Richard, born July 4, 
1871. Mr. Hill is a member of the A. O. U. W., and the White Rose 
lodge, Sons of St. George. 

Brooks French is a native of Wilton, N. H., born November 1, 1845, 
son of Samuel and Elvira (Grey) French, both natives of the same town. 
He lived until eighteen on a farm and then removed to Michigan, and 
became employed in a furniture factory at Battle Creek. Eater he held 
the position of foreman in a table factory, and subsequently worked two 
years in an organ factory which had developed out of the table factory. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. II9 

In the fall of 1871, he accepted a position in the Burdett organ factory 
at Chicago, but the establishment was destroyed by the great fire before 
he took his situation. He spent the winter of 187 1-2 in Gratiot county, 
Mich., with relatives and afterward came to Fort Wayne, and has 
ever since been employed in the factory of the Fort Wayne organ com- 
pany. He has aided in the construction of every organ that has been 
turned out by the institution, and since June, 1872, has been foreman of 
the stop action department. During the summer of 1878, he served four 
months as acting superintendent. He is the inventor of French's stop 
action, upon which he received a patent March 14, 1882, and of French's 
grand organ action, patented June 12, 1883. Both patents have been 
assigned to the Fort Wayne organ company. From 1876 to 1884, 
in connection with his other duties, he had charge of the fly finishing 
department, and since 1884 has managed the pedal base double bank 
department, all the mechanism of which is of his own invention, as well 
as the labor of draughting and manufacture. Mr. French was married 
September 14, 1873, to Miss Roberta C. Kent, who was born in DeKalb 
county, Ind., but was reared at Coldwater, Mich. Mrs. French is a tele- 
graph operator and had worked at her profession two years prior to her 
marriage. Mr. and Mrs. French have both completed the Chautauqua 
course, graduating in 1886, and since then Mrs. French has completed a 
course in the Hailman kindergarten school of La Porte, Ind. She is the 
founder of the Froebel kindergarten school of Fort Wayne, established 
in 1886. She is a member of the Episcopal church. Mr. French is a 
member of the Apollo club and the Morton club. In politics he is an 
ardent republican. 

The foremanship of the finishing department of the Fort Wayne 
organ company has been for seventeen years in the hands of Capt. 
John H. Rohan. He was born in County Clare, Ireland, June 24, 1839, 
son of John and Bridget Rohan, with whom he came to America in 
1845. The family first located at Burlington, Vt., but three years later, 
removed to Milwaukee, Wis. In early manhood Capt. Rohan learned 
the trade of a finisher of wood, and followed it in Milwaukee until 1859, 
and afterward at Buffalo, N. Y. In July, 1862, he enlisted in Company 
D, One Hundred and Sixteenth New York volunteer infantry and served 
until the close of the war. He was successively promoted from 
private to sergeant, first sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant, 
and in April, 1864, he was promoted captain and served as such 
with company G, of the same regiment, until the close of the war. He 
commanded his company in the battles of Port Hudson, Pleasant Hill, 
Sabine Cross Roads, Cedar Creek, Fisher's Hill and numerous skir- 
mishes of less importance. He received a flesh wound in the left side 
at the battle of Pleasant Hill, and a scalp wound in the battle of Cedar 
Creek, but fortunately neither proved serious. He was mustered out 
at Washington, D. C, June 25, 1865. Returning to Milwaukee he 
engaged in the grocery business. Two years later he removed to Chi- 
cago and until the great fire in 1871 worked at his trade in the factory 



120 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

of the Burdett organ company. After the fire he came to Fort Wayne 
and has ever since held his present position. Captain Rohan was mar- 
ried May 28, 1868, to Miss Mary Ann Theresa O'Brien, a native of 
Rochester, N. Y., and daughter of Lawrence and Mary O'Brien. They 
have had nine children, of whom Lottie J., William H., John F., Edwin 
G. and Agnes are living, and Mida, Theresa, Maggie and Walter are 
deceased. Mr. Rohan and wife are members of the Catholic church. 
He is a member of the uniformed rank of the Catholic Legion, the 
National Union, and G. A. R. In politics he is a democrat. Captain 
Rohan was formerly captain of the Veteran organization of the state 
militia and was promoted to the rank of major and finally lieutenant- 
colonel, and still serves in the latter rank. 

Fort Wayne Jenney Electric Light Company. — Of this very im- 
portant corporation Henry G. Olds is president, P. A. Randall, vice 
president, R. T. McDonald, treasurer and general manager, and M. W. 
Simons, secretary. Ronald T. McDonald, general manager and treas- 
urer of the Fort Wayne Jenney electric light company, is a native of 
Pennsylvania, born June 24, 1849, at Alleghany City, the eldest of four 
children now living of James B. and Margaret (Morrison) McDonald. 
The father was a native of Pennsylvania and died at Fort Wayne in 
1886 at the age of seventy-six years. The subject of this mention 
came to Fort Wayne in i860, and here has since resided. In 1864 he 
enlisted in company C, One Hundred and Fifty-second Indiana in- 
fantry, and served until the close of the war, when he was honorably 
discharged as sergeant major. On his return to this city he was en- 
gaged first in the dry goods business as a clerk, afterward as a member 
of the firm of Evans, McDonald & Co., leaving that business in 1881 to 
engage in the electric light industry. To that he brought all the energy 
and enterprise which had already distinguished him as a business man, 
and he has greatly advanced the interests of the company of which he 
was one of the incorporators in 1882, and which promises to become one 
of the leading industries of the city. During the few years he has 
been identified with this industry he has gained a wide repute as one 
of the prominent men of the country in the electric light manufacture. 
Mr. McDonald was married in 1876 to Lillie Morse, of Angola, Ind., 
daughter of Marquis and Elizabeth Morse, and they have one child, 
Esther. He is a member of Sol D. Bayless lodge, No. 129, 1870, of 
Fort Wayne commander}', 1872, and of the Indianapolis consistory, 
1S82. In politics he is an ardent republican. 

The master mechanic, with his scientific knowledge of the forces and 
materials of nature, with careful training and natural ingenuity, is one of 
the prime movers in the prosperity of Fort Wayne. Such a man is the 
master mechanic of the Fort Wayne Jenney electric light company, 
Charles S. Hilton. He began work as a machinist in the employ of the 
Franklin machine company at Lewiston, Me., in the fall of 1865. He 
remained there three years, and was then for nine years employed by 
the manufacturers of the Cottrell & Babcock printing presses in Rhode 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 121 

Island. During five years of the latter period he held the position of 
foreman. Removing to Kentucky, he- acted two years as master me- 
chanic of the Bowling Green woolen company. In 1882 he came to Fort 
Wayne, and was in the employment of the Wabash railroad company in 
their shops, after which he entered the service of the electric light com- 
pany, first as superintendent of the arc department, and then for two 
years past as master mechanic. Mr. Hilton was born at South Boston, 
Mass., July 28,1 846, son of Leonard Hilton and his wife Susan Farnsworth, 
both natives of Massachusetts, who passed their lives there. Leonard 
was the son of Daniel Hilton, who was born at Fitchburg, Mass., about 
1790, was a soldier in the war of 181 2, and died in his native state at 
about seventy-six years of age. His wife was Julia Sautell, who died in 
Massachusetts at about eighty-six years of age. Charles S. enlisted in 
1863, in Company B, Fifty-sixth Massachusetts infantry, and served in 
all the engagements of the army of the Potomac after the battle of 
Gettysburg until the close of the war, being wounded at the battle of 
Petersburg. He was married in 1882, to Mrs. Mary E. Sands, of Wa- 
bash,, and have two children, Donna M. and Charles W. He has one 
child, Hattie, by a former marriage, and his wife one child, May Sands, 
by her previous marriage. Mr. Hilton is a republican, a comrade of the 
G. A. R., and a Scottish Rite Mason. 

The assistant master mechanic of the Fort Wayne electric light 
company, Charles F. Knothe, is a native of this city, born February 11, 
1851, to J. A. and Louisa (Krochman) Knothe, natives of Germany, who 
immigrated in 1846, and made their residence in this city in 1848. The 
mother passed away in 1882, but the father is still living, and engaged 
in business as a member of the lumber firm of Beaver, Miller & Co. 
Charles F. Knothe was educated in the public and Lutheran schools of the 
city, and in 1869 began an apprenticeship as machinist with Louis Rastet- 
ter, at which he continued three years. He then worked at various 
places, and in 1874 became engaged in the railroad shops at East Sag- 
inaw, Mich. In 1883 he returned to Fort Wayne, and entered the em- 
ployment of the Jenne}^ electric light company, as a machinist, and in 
1886 was appointed assistant master mechanic. Mr. Knothe was mar- 
ried in 1874 t0 Elizabeth Billing, who died in 1878, leaving two chil- 
dren, and in 1884 he was united to Polly Frohmuth, by whom he has 
had two children. 

The position of purchasing agent and superintendent of shipping of 
the Fort Wayne Jenney electric light company is efficiently filled by 
Charles B. Fitch, one of the most popular young men in the city. He 
possesses winning social qualities as well as business acumen, and is 
prominent in Masonry, being a Knight Templar of Fort Wayne com- 
mander}', and high in the Scottish Rite. Mr. Fitch was born at Medina, 
Ohio, May 23, 1859, the youngest of seven children (six now living), of 
William and Aurelia (Brintnall) Fitch. The father was born in Con- 
necticut in 1817, was a farmer by occupation, and owned one of the best 
farms in the Western Reserve. He died in 1867, at Medina, and his 



j 22 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

widow, who was born in 1819, in New York, died at Fort Wayne in 
1 881. Her family were pioneers in New York and Vermont. The 
father of William W. Fitch, who had the same name, was born in Con- 
necticut in 1780, settled in Ohio with his family as early as 1825, and 
died about 1865. His ancestors came from England prior to 1660, and 
were pioneers in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Mr. Fitch received a 
good education in the schools at Medina and Fort Wayne high school. 
He came to this city in 1872, and in 1875 began teaching, at which he 
was engaged in this county for several terms. From 1879 t0 T ^ 2 con " 
ducted a mercantile and grain business at Avilla, but in the latter year 
returned to Fort Wayne, and became engaged with the electric light 
company, with which he has since been prominently connected. He 
was married in 1881 to Elizabeth Fryer, of Noble county, daughter of 
Henry Fryer, a prominent farmer. 

John C. Peters/ as a prominent manufacturer and owner of the 
famous Wayne hotel, has by his various enterprises contributed in a large 
measure to "the advancement of the city. Mr. Peters was born in this 
city June n, 1848, son of Claus and Caroline (Eberlein) Peters, who 
came to Fort Wayne in 1841, from Germany, their native land. The 
father, who was born in 181 3, followed in this city the occupation of 
builder and contractor until his death in 1849. His widow still survives. 
John C. Peters received his early education in this city, and then, in 
1862, began learning the trade of piano and cabinet-maker at which he 
was occupied for four years, from 1865 to 1869, in New York city. In 
1873 he was married to Mary Myers, of Fort Wayne, who was born 
in 1853, the daughter of Frederick Myers. To this union has been 
born seven children: Frederick, William, Otto, Arthur, Paul, Flora 
and Bertha. Mr. Peters is a member of the Emanuel Lutheran church; 
and in politics he takes an active interest in the welfare of the demo- 
cratic party. He has risen to an honorable place among the foremost 
citizens of Fort Wayne, by his character as a man, his unfailing reliabil- 
ity as a business man, and his energy and enterprise as a manufacturer. 
He conducts an extensive business solely his own in hardwood lumber, 
which he established in 1872. The large building devoted to this man- 
ufacture, on Osage and Main streets, is equipped with one band-saw 
mill, operated by steam, with an average capacity of 7,000 feet per day. 
Ash, oak and whitewood lumber are principal features of the product, 
which is to some extent disposed of to local manufactories using a line 
grade of lumber, but mainly to eastern factories. Dealing only in per- 
fect stock, the house is popular and the business is constantly increasing. 
Mr. Peters is also manager of the Horton manufacturing company, in- 
corporated in 1883, with a capital stock of $30,000, whose works give 
employment to seventy skilled workmen. This establishment manufac- 
tures the improved Western washer, hand corn planters, and various 
wooden novelties, and has a heavy trade throughout Ohio, Indiana and 
Michigan, throughout the union, and even to Australia. Mr. Peters 
was also a partner prior to 1873 with Charles Pape and Joseph Schaf- 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 1 23 

fer in the Peters' box and lumber company, another extensive enterprise 
elsewhere mentioned. He is also president of the Indiana machine 
works, a company organized and incorporated in 1887, with a capital of 
$75,000. This establishment manufactures patented specialties in wood- 
working machinery, etc. Mr. Peters built in 1887, the Wayne hotel, 
described elsewhere, which is already widely known as one of the finest 
places of accommodation in the country. This brief mention of the en- 
terprises in which Mr. Peters is engaged is sufficient, though but a 
meagre outline, to give an idea of the activity of his busy life, devoted 
to the upbuilding of the city of his birth. 

The Peters box and lumber company, manufacturers of furniture 
and hand-sawed lumber, was established and incorporated in 1871, by 
J. C. Peters, Charles Pape and Joseph Schaffer, with a capital stock of 
$55,000. The factory is situated at Nos. 79 and 102 High street, and 
the salesrooms at Nos. 15 and 17 Court streeet. The factory occupies 
four floors, 50x100, two floors, 40x70, one 50x80, and one 40x60, and 
the best productions of modern invention are employed in the manufac- 
ture. From sixty to seventy-five men here find employment. This 
product is also shipped extensively over the state and into Ohio, and 
the hardwood lumber produced is shipped to the cities of the east and 
to London. A special feature is quartered oak, of which the finest 
grades are handled. Two band-saws are run with a capacity of 20,000 
feet per day, and one venner saw, with a capacity of 10,000 feet per 
day. Of this institution Charles Pape is president, and Wilson 
McQuiston secretary. 

Charles Pape, prominent among the enterprising men who have 
established the greatness of the city of Fort Wayne, by establishing 
manufactories that employ hundreds of men and carry the fame of the 
city wherever their products are sold, first saw this city in 1850, then 
being a German lad of thirteen years, fresh from his native land. He worked 
for several months at such labor as he could find. He then went to 
Elkhart and remained there two years. Returning to Fort Wayne 
in 1861, he engaged in contracting, and continued to be thus employed 
until 1873, when he became connected with the Peters' box factory. In 
187S he purchased a controlling interest in the Peters' box and lumber 
company, and has since then been president of the company. In 1882 
he purchased an interest in the Jonathan Fleming road machine, and 
established a business which has since become known as the Fleming 
manufacturing company, of which he is sole owner and one of the 
most extensive producers of road machines and snow scrapers in the 
United States. His career has been a remarkable one, and his success 
is all the more notable as he has been wholly dependent upon his energy 
and talent for affairs, being entirely without assistance at the outset. 
Mr. Pape was born at Minden, Germany, December 18, 1837, son of 
William and Wilhelmina Pape, who emigrated to the United States in 
1850, and settled at Fort Wayne, where they both died. He is the 
eldest of their five children. He was married in 1859, to Wilhelmina 



124 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Bierman, a native of Germany. She died in 1871, and in 1872 Mr. 
Pape was married to Caroline Schroeder. He has eight children. He 
is a democrat in politics, and was for two terms a member of the city 
council. He is a member of St. Paul's Lutheran church. 

The responsible position of secretary of the Peters box and lumber 
company is in charge of Wilson McQuiston, who has a thorough knowl- 
edge of the business, and performs his portion of it in a way that leaves 
nothing to be desired. Though a native of this count};-, his first essay 
in business was as bookkeeper in the bank of Sigourney, Iowa, in May, 
1868. His efficiency won for him in the course of a year, the position 
of cashier. After six years of experience in that function he turned his 
attention to newspaper management, and removing to the national capital, 
became one of the publishers of the Washington Daily Chronicle. For 
four years he held the position of secretary and treasurer of the 
Chronicle publishing company. In 1878 he returned to Fort Wayne, 
and has since that year, been associated with the lumber manufacturing 
of the city. He became secretary of the Peters box and lumber com- 
pany in 1884. Mr. McQuiston was born in Allen countv, March 21, 
1844, the son of John and Eliza McQuiston, residents of the county, and 
he received his education in the schools of the city. In the fall of 1870 
he was married to Lydia A. Bean, of Delaware, Ohio. He has been a 
member of Summit City lodge, F. & A. M., since 1865, and is in politics 
a republican. 

The Anthony Wayne manufacturing company, of which John 
Rhinesmith is president, and Albert C. F. Wichman superintendent, is 
one of the prosperous concerns of the city. Its product is the improved 
Anthony Wayne washing machine, the invention of Mr. Wichman, which 
is one of the most popular contrivances of that kind. Mr. Wichman was 
born in Prussia in 1835, and came to America in 1849. He ^ rst rnade his 
home at Cincinnati, but in 185 1 came to Fort Wayne, where he resided 
until 1864. ^ e ^ en removed to Kendallville, and during his residence 
there served as city clerk from 1869 to 1873. Returning to Fort Wayne 
in 1880, he for several years held the position of bookkeeper for 
William Moellering, contractor and buiider. In 1886 he entered the 
Anthony Wayne manufacturing company, and became the superinten- 
dent of the works in June, 1887. Mr. Wichman was married in 1857, 
to Elizabeth Eberlein, who is a native of Bavaria, though reared in 
Fort Wayne. They have nine children. 

The first president of the company named was that well-known and 
enterprising citizen, Fred. C. Boltz. In the year 1849, being at that 
time one year old, Mr. Boltz was brought here by his parents from his 
native town of Saarbruken, Prussia. He was brought up in this city, 
and enjoyed the advantages of the public schools. He engaged in busi- 
ness in 1864 at the age of sixteen years, and has been identified with 
different business interests ever since. In 1864 he engaged in the manu- 
facture of cigars, and at present is one of the prosperous men in that 
branch of business, operating factory No. 201, which produces several 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 125 

brands of fine cigars, the most popular being the " B. & O.," and ' : Fuss." 
In 1886 Mr. Boltz became a stockholder in the Anthony Wayne manu- 
facturing company, being one of the organizers, and served as president 
until 1887, when he resigned, but still holds a directorship. He is also 
a member of the contracting firm of Boltz & Dehrheimer. From May, 
1881, until 18S5, he served as a member of the city council. He 
has been a member of the Masonic fraternity since 1869. Mr. Boltz 
was married October 8, 187 1, to Miss Catherine Best, of New York 
city. Mr. Boltz's father is yet a resident of this city, but his mother 
died in 1S76. 

The Hoosier manufacturing company, A. S. Evans, president, is a 
well-known establishment. The superintendency of the factory of this 
company is in the hands of William A. Thomas, a capable business man. 
He began mercantile life in 1873, in the retail clothing trade- at Addison, 
Ohio. This he sold out in 1880, and in 1881 he came to Fort Wayne, 
and here was first engaged as assistant bookkeeper for Evans, McDon- 
ald & Co., wholesale dry goods merchants. Soon after the incorpora- 
tion of the Hoosier manufacturing company he was intrusted with the 
position of bookkeeper, and since January, 1887, has occupied his pres- 
ent position. Mr. Thomas was born in Champaign county, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 2, 1 85 1, son of John H. and Elizabeth Thomas. The mother 
was a native of that county, the father of Rockbridge county, Va. Mr. 
Thomas attended the district school, and at sixteen entered Denison 
University at Granville, Ohio, whence he graduated in 1872. He was 
married June 24, 1874, to Mary F., daughter of Capt. Nathan McCon- 
key, late of Springfield, Ohio. She was born in Clark county of that 
state. They are the parents of two children, Ross and Stella, both liv- 
ing. Mr. Thomas and wife are devoted members of the First Baptist 
church. He has been a Mason since the night of his twenty-first birth- 
day, and has attained the rank of thirty-second degree; he is also a 
member of the Knights of Pythias. 

John Rhinesmith, senior member of the well-known lumber firm of 
Rhinesmith &' Simonson, was born in Trumbull county, Ohio, in 1832. 
His father, George Rhinesmith, was born in Pennsylvania, moved to Ohio 
when a young man, and after working as a farm laborer about six 
months, bought land and began its cultivation, continuing as a farmer 
until his death in 1859. His wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth 
Earle, is a native of Ohio. She removed to Fort Wayne in 1862, and 
now resides at the home of her son John, in her eighty-second year. 
John Rhinesmith, after leaving school, clerked for a few years, and in 
1885 came to Fort Wayne and entered the employment of a produce 
dealer. Subsequent to 1861 he was a messenger for a few years for 
the American Express company, and in 1865 he engaged in the lumber 
business in partnership with John H. Clark. The firm was incorporated 
as the Clark & Rhinesmith lumber company in 1872, and was suc- 
ceeded in 1877 by the firm of Rhinesmith & Simonson, J. H. Simonson 
being the partner. The business of this concern has become very exten- 



126 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

sive and successful, having increased from a capital of about $33,000 to 
over $60,000, and the average annual business is now $200,000. The 
product is sash, doors and blinds, and they do all kinds of factory work, 
employing between fifty and sixty-five men, and also deal in lumber. 
Mr. Rhinesmith is also president of the Anthony Wayne manufacturing 
company, in which he owns a one-fourth interest, and is one of the prom- 
inent men of the city. 

James H. Simonson, member of the firm of Rhinesmith & Simonson, 
and secretary and treasurer of the Anthony Wayne manufacturing com- 
pany, was born at Peeksville, N. Y., in 1838, the son of Isaac and Abby 
J. (Mosher) Simonson. The father was a contractor of considerable 
note, and with others built the palace of General Bolivar, at Bogota, 
S. A. He was one of an old Dutch family whose ancestors came to 
New York in 1643. He died in 1857, and the mother, who is a descend- 
ant of an English family that landed on Block Island in 1736, is now a 
resident of New York. In that city James H. was raised and educated 
in the city schools. He was holding a position as bookkeeper in a 
machine shop at New York, at the outbreak of the civil war, when, 
being a member of the famous seventh regiment, he went with that 
regiment to the capital at the call of President Lincoln. As soon as 
relieved from guard duty Mr. Simonson returned to New York, and in 
1862 removed to Pittsburgh and entered the empk^ment of the Penn- 
sylvania company. In 1864 he removed to Fort Wayne, where, until 
1867, ne was cashier in the freight depot of the Pittsburgh railroad. 
Resigning his position he entered the employment of Clark & Rhine- 
smith, and upon the organization of the Clark & Rhinesmith lumber 
company, in 1872, he became a stockholder and director. Subsequently 
he and Mr. Rhinesmith succeeded to the business. He is also a fourth 
owner in the Anthony Wayne manufacturing company. Mr. Simonson 
was one of the projectors of the Masonic temple, and upon the com- 
pletion of the opera-house portion in 1885 he was appointed manager of 
the same, a position he still holds. Mr. Simonson's genial and happy 
nature has gained him many warm friends, and he is one of the popular 
men of city. In 1887 he was the republican candidate for mayor, but 
though making a gallant contest was unable to overcome the adverse 
majority. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, of the rank of 
Knight Templar. 

Among the careful and trustworthy foreman of the manufactories of 
the city, William C. Pape, of the Rhinesmith & Simonson factory, should 
be creditably named. Though a young man, he was given in 1885, a 
foremanship at the Peters box and lumber company's works, which he 
held until 1887, when he accepted his present position with one of the 
leading firms in wooden manufacture. Mr. Pape was born at this city, 
May 2, 1863, son of Charles and Minnie (Bearman) Pape. He was 
educated at the German Lutheran schools, and August 31, 1884, was 
married to Carrie Paul, a native of Ohio. They have one child, Roy. 
Mr. Pape is a member of one of the prominent families of the city, and 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 127 

is highly esteemed. He and wife are members of the Lutheran church, 
and he is politically a democrat. 

Louis Diether, senior membr of the firm of Louis Diether & Bro., 
manufacturers of sash, doors and blinds and mouldings, and dealers in 
lumber, is one of the notably successful manufacturers of the city of 
Fort Wayne. His parents, Charles F. and Barbara Diether, natives of 
Germany, were married in New York city and came to Indiana in 1850 
to seek a place to plant their home in the new land. They located in 
this city in 1850, and here in the same year, their son Louis was born. 
The mother died at Fort Wayne in 1885. Louis was educated in the 
city schools, and at the age of twenty years, engaged in the hardware 
business at Mendon, Mich. He returned to Fort Wayne, however, in 
July of the same year, and took a position as book-keeper for the firm 
of Cochrane & Humphrey, one of the oldest lumber firms of the city. 
He was subsequently with Nuttman & Taylor three years, and was book- 
keeper for Meyer Bros., wholesale druggists, five years. Afterward he 
embarked in the lumber business, succeeding the firm of Cochrane & 
Humphrey. In May, 1887, and on January 1, 1888, the firm of Diether 
& Bro. was formed by the admission of his brother John to a partner- 
ship. The firm ranks with those which do the largest business in the 
city, and employ an average of thirty-eight men. In addition to their 
manufactures, which include all kinds of factory work, they deal exten- 
sively in rough and dressed lumber and shingles. Their factory, at 100 
Pearl street, is one of the prominent concerns of the city, and their lum- 
ber yards are located on Superior street. 

John H. Diether, junior member of the firm of Louis Diether & Bro., 
above referred to, was born in this city, January 3, 1852, the son of 
Charles F. and Barbara Diether. At'the age of eighteen years he set 
out to learn the trade of harness making, and two years later, became a 
member of the firm of F. Hilt & Co., manufacturers and dealers in sad- 
dles and harness, and was so engaged for twelve years, selling out his 
interest at the end of that period. In January, 1888, he formed the 
present partnership with his brother Louis. For a time he took charge 
of the lumber yards of the firm on Superior street, but at present has the 
management of the manufactory on Pearl street. Mr. Diether was mar- 
ried April 27, 1882, to Malana Mcllvaine, of Fort Wayne, who was born 
in New York city in 1862. They have three children. 

John B. Monning, the eldest of five children of the late Hon. Henry 
Monning, an account of whose life appears in another portion of this 
work, was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, May 2, 1852. In the fall of the same 
year his parents began their residence at Fort Wayne, so that the life of 
the subject of this mention has been almost entirely spent in this city. 
In the Catholic schools of the city, as he grew in years, he received 
a good and comprehensive education. When sixteen years old he 
became deputy county treasurer, serving under his father, then 
county treasurer, and after his father's retirement from office, for 
one year with his successor. During this period his father and A. 



128 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

C. Trentman had established a coffee and spice mill, and John B. 
Monning engaged in this in 1S74, and in 1881, under the firm name 
of J. B. Monning & Co., began the business of flour milling, at which 
he is still engaged. His business sagacity and enterprise, joined with 
that honor and integrity which characterizes his undertakings in all chan- 
nels of activity, have made him a highly successful man, and one who 
ranks among the leading citizens of Fort Wayne. He is prominent in 
the affairs of the city, and being a leader among those who delight in 
advancing the interests of the whole community, has been secretary of 
the business men's association since its organization. Mr. Monning was 
married in 1876, to Mary Luhn, who was born in Cincinnati, March 2, 
1852, and their union has been blessed with four children: Mary, Agnes, 
Anna and John. Mr. Monning and wife are members of the Catholic 
church, and he is active in the interests of the order known as the Catho- 
lic Knights of America. In politics Mr. Monning is a democrat. 

John Ferguson, prominent among the leading manufacturers and 
lumbermen of Fort Wayne, was born near Quebec, June 24, 1834. His 
father, John Ferguson, a native of Scotland, was born at Westfield, near 
Alloa, in 1795, and in 1816 went to sea, and for sixteen years continued 
the life of a sailor. About 1830 emigrated and settled in Canada. 
Mary Orr, who became his wife, was born in County Armaugh, Ireland, 
in 1805, and had come to Canada, about 1829. She and her husband 
settled on a farm and they were occupied in its cultivation until their 
death. She died March 19, 1879, anc ^ his death followed, February 20, 
1883. He was a man of great energy and careful habits, and his rugged 
constitution knew no suffering until just before his life went out at four 
score and eight years. To these parents were born eleven children, of 
whom seven survive. Their son, .John Ferguson, remained on the farm 
near Quebec until his twentieth year, when, in 1855, he came to Fort 
Wayne, which has since been his home. He engaged in the lumber 
business in 1861, and has ever since been successfully prosecuting that 
industry, having two large mills on the Fort Wayne & Muncie railroad, 
the product of which finds market principally in Chicago. His enter- 
prising spirit has led him into other investments for the advancement of 
the city, and he is a director of the Wayne natural gas company, and 
for twelve years has been president of the Bluffton gravel road company. 
Mr. Ferguson's interest in this city, is property valued at $30,000. He 
owns about 1,000 acres of mostly improved land in Allen, Huntington, 
Wells and Marshall counties, and also $11,000 worth of property in 
Lucas county, Ohio. Mr. Ferguson was married November 19, 1861, 
to Eliza King, a native of Canada, born in 1837, and they have five 
children as follows: Cora M., Fannie, now Mrs. Palmer, wife of Earl 
Palmer, who is now engaged in the lumber business with Mr. Ferguson, 
Eliza K., John K., and Minnie E. He is a prominent republican in 
politics, a member of Harmony lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and with his 
family are members of the First Baptist church. Enterprise and energy 
are the crowning characteristics of his character. 





P&n^ ^ 



'^e^v 




MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



I29 



Louis Rastetter, who has had an honorable career in this city since 
September 27, 1857, came here at that date, expecting to find employ- 
ment as a machinist, a trade he had well learned in his native land, and 
had practiced in America since he landed in 1854, unaccompanied by 
any relatives, to search his fortune in a new land. He had been employed 
two years at Rochester, N. Y., and one year at Buffalo, before coming 
to Fort Wayne. Here he found work in the old Wabash shops. In 
November, 1859, he went to Germany to visit his parents, and 
returned in June, i860, to resume his position in the shops. Marrying 
soon afterward, he set up a small machine shop of his own, which he 
conducted with considerable success until 1870, when he sold his busi- 
ness and took the position of master-mechanic of the wheel works of 
N. G. Olds. Here he remained until the fall of 1876, when, with two 
associates, he went to Lima, Ohio, and they established a factory for 
the production of hubs, spokes and buggy bows, under the name of the 
Lima wheel company. At the end of four years and a half he sold to 
his partners and established his present factory at Fort Wayne, which 
was removed to the site now occupied on the corner of Broadway and 
the Pittsburgh railroad in the fall of 1881. This, the Fort Wayne buggy 
bow works, is one of the important manufactories of the city, and in its 
management Mr. Rastetter displays notable ability. Mr. Rastetter was 
born in Baden, Germany, May 31, 1834, tne son °f Andrew and Anna 
Mary (Sutter) Rastetter. He was educated for a teacher by his parents, 
but his inclinations led him to learn the machinist's trade. He was mar- 
ried August 4, i860, to Elizabeth Hauenstein, who was born in Fort 
Wayne, March 27, 1841, daughter of John and Anna Mary Hauenstein, 
natives of Switzerland. Mr. Rastetter and wife have had seven chil- 
dren, of whom four are living: William C, Helen, Charles and Mary. 
Mr. Rastetter is a member of the I. O. O. F. 

John Lillie, one of the prominent manufacturers and business men of 
Fort Wayne, was born in Scotland, September 12, 1847, the son of John 
and Jane (Fowler) Lillie. The parents were natives of Scotland, the 
father born October 16, 1819, the mother about 1821. The family came 
to the United States in June, 1850, and settled at Fort Wayne. The 
mother died at Wells county, this state, in 1852. In 1856 the father en- 
gaged in the lime and stone business at Fort Wayne, and in 1875 removed 
to Columbus, Ohio, where he died May 21, 1885. John Lillie is the 
second of five children of these parents, of whom three are now living. 
He received a common school education. In 1872 he became a member 
of the firm of James Lillie & Co., and in 1883 became sole proprietor. 
In January, 1884, he admitted Charles A. Munson as a partner in the 
manufacture of Huntington lime, with their works located at Lillie, 
Huntington county. The firm also deals in cement, plaster, sewer pipe, 
etc., and does a large business. Mr. Lillie is a valued citizen, is a repre- 
sentative business man, and is widely known as one of the most promi- 
nent Masons of Indiana. He has attained the thirty-second degree, is 
past eminent commander, Knights Templar, has been grand secretary of 

IX 



130 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



the grand lodge of Perfection, A. A. S. R., at Fort Wayne, since its 
organization March 12, 1887, and is one of the trustees of the Masonic 
Temple. His prominence in these fraternal connections is a valuable 
testimonial to his fine social qualities and worth as a man. The esteem 
in which he is held by those who know him best is shown by his having 
been elected repeatedly to represent his ward in the city council, though 
he is a firm republican, and his is the leading democratic ward in the 
city. Mr. Lillie was married March 9, 187 1, to Kate Williams, of this 
city, who was born in Canada in 1851. 

" William Ranke, of the firm of Ranke & Yergens, manufacturers, 
was born in Prussia, September 16,. 1838. In 1854, he immigrated and 
landing at Baltimore, proceeded to Cincinnati, where resided two years. 
In 1856 he came to Fort Wayne, where he engaged three years later, 
in the bakery business. After a career of seven years in this line of 
trade, he formed a partnership with William Yergens in a saw-mill, 
which they managed until 1871, when they engaged in the manufacture 
of staves and heading, to which products were added buggy bows, in 
1889. Their factory is one of the extensive establishments of the city, 
employing forty-five to fifty men. The product, which annually amounts 
to $75,000 to $100,000, is shipped to St. Louis, Cincinnati, Louisville, 
Boston, Buffalo and other points. The manufactory is situated between 
Ewing and Griffith streets, fronting on Superior, and extending to the 
tracks of the "Nickle Plate" railroad. Mr. Ranke was married April 
19, 1863, to Sophia Jacobs, a native of Germany, who was born Febru- 
ary 18, 1845, and came to America with her parents in the August fol- 
lowing. She is the daughter of Frederick Jacobs, a painter by trade, 
who was one of the pioneers of this city, and died in August, 1879. In 
the same year his wife died, whose maiden name was Sophia Jacobs. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ranke have nine children : William, born January 20, 
1865: Sophia, July 21, 1867; Henry, March 1, 1870; Louisa, August 
3, 1873; Emma, May 29, 1876; Frederick, October 14, 1878; Clara, 
February 4, 1881; Herman, September 25, 1884; Lydia, April 7, 1887. 
Mr. andMrs. Ranke are members of the Emanuel's Lutheran church. 
William Yergens, of the above named firm, came to America in 
1845, from Prussia, where he was born March 26, 1828, and from New 
York, came to Fort Wayne by the way of Albany, Buffalo and over the 
lake to Toledo, thence by the Wabash & Erie canal. His settlement 
dates June 1, 1845, and though that seems a comparatively recent period, 
3 7 et he had the experiences of an early settler and pioneer, as there were 
then not over 500 people in the town, and Indians were almost as numer- 
ous as whites. He has seen the town increase a hundred fold. He 
first engaged in canal boating, but in i860, started a saw-mill, and 
embarked in lumbering. The mill was destroyed in 1863, but immedi- 
ately rebuilt. In 1866, the partnership with Mr. Ranke was formed, 
which has developed into a prosperous and important business. Mr. 
Yergens was married in 1850, to Eliza Jacobs, who was born in Ger- 
many, November 26, 1834, an< ^ came with her parents, Frederick and 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 131 

Sophia Jacobs, in 1845, to America, and settled at Fort Wayne. They 
have six children, three of whom are living: William, born in 1854, 1S 
married, and is employed in the works; Gustav, born in 1861, is mar- 
ried, and served as deputy revenue collector during Cleveland's adminis- 
tration; and Emma, born in 1864, is the wife of William Moellering, of 
the city. The family are members of the Lutheran church. 

Noteworthy in the roll of young men of the city who are interested 
in manufacturing, is John M. Landenberger, treasurer and manager of 
the Indiana machine works. He assumed the duties of his present 
position April 7, 1888. Mr. Landenberger is a native of Philadelphia, 
born September 28, 1863, son of Gottleib and Mathilda (Storm) Land- 
enberger, natives of Germany. The father, who was born in 1843, 
came to the United States in early boyhood, and lived in Philadelphia 
until his death in 1866. The mother died in the same city in 1871, at 
about forty years of age. Of their seven children John M. is the fourth. 
He obtained a common school education, and came to Fort Wayne in 
1875, and studied three years at Concordia college, subsequently attend- 
ing a business college at his native city. He was married October 19, 
1887, to Amelia F., daughter of J. F. W. Meyer. She was born in this 
city in 1863. They are active members of the Lutheran church. Mr. 
Landenberger is a republican, and cast his first electoral ballot for 
James G. Blaine. 

The City carriage works, established in 1857, is extensively engaged 
in the manufacture of carriages, buggies, sleighs, etc., and is one of the 
largest of the kind in the city. The plant includes a brick factory, 
60x100 feet, on Clay street, and a large storage warehouse on Clinton 
street. The firm name of the proprietors is Dudenhoefer, Daniels & 
Co., the partners being George P. Dudenhoefer, S. S. Daniels, H. E. 
Bueker and H. P. Sherer, recently of New Mexico. The other gentle- 
men named are much respected citizens, of long residence in the city, 
which they have done their part to advance. 

George P. Dudenhoefer, the senior partner, learned the trade of 
carriage-maker with his father, George P. Dudenhoefer, who emigrated 
from Germany in 1841, and in Pennsylvania married his wife, Mary A., 
also a native of Germany. They resided four years in Ohio, and came 
to Allen county in 1845, settling in Marion township, where their son, 
George P., was born January 27, 1848. The latter, at eighteen years 
of age, came to Fort Wayne, and worked for eight years in various fac- 
tories. In 1877 he purchased an interest in the City carriage works, of 
.which he has since been one of the proprietors. Mr. Dudenhoefer was 
married October 19, 187 1, to Minnie Scherer, a native of Marion town- 
ship, daughter of Louis and Elizabeth Scherer, natives of Germany, who 
were married in that county, and emigrated and settled at Fort Wayne 
in 1847. Mr. Dudenhoefer and wife have had three children : Amelia'C., 
Mary S. and Clara C, the last of whom died in infancy. He and 
wife are members of the St. Paul's Lutheran church. His long expe- 
rience and talent for business give him a high rank among the manu- 
facturers of the city. 



132 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Capt. Edward A. Ross-Lewin, one of the foremost of those skillful 
men whose work have done so much for the advancement of the city, 
now foreman of the Fort Wayne furniture company, was born in Ireland, 
June 12, 1833, son of Francis B. and Susanna (Kenney) Ross-Lewin, 
both natives of County Clare. The father was born in 1787, came to 
the United States with his family in 1849, lo cate d first at Rochester, 
N. Y., and in 1857, removed to Elkhart, Ind., where he died in 1858, 
and was followed in death by his widow in 1S64, at the age of fifty- 
seven. They had eleven children, of whom eight are living, Edward 
being the second. He was educated in his native country at King's col- 
lege, at Ennis, and after coming to this country began in 1849, an 
apprenticeship at the carpenter's and joiner's trade at Rochester, N. Y. 
In 1854 he went to Elkhart, and was there engaged for five years as 
a contractor. He removed to Rochester, N. Y., in 1859, and in 1861 
enlisted in Company H, Twenty-sixth New York infantry, was elected 
second lieutenant by his company, in 1862 commissioned first lieutenant, 
and in the fall of the same year commissioned as captain. His regiment 
was actively engaged for two years in nearly every engagement in which 
the army of the Potomac was. His record as a true and faithful soldier 
was terminated by his honorable muster out in 1863. In 1864 he came 
to Fort Wayne and for fourteen years he was occupied as foreman of 
the great wheel works of N. G. Olds & Son. He also acted as fore- 
man in the construction of the Masonic Temple and First Presbyterian 
church. His connection with the Fort Wayne furniture factory began 
in 1S88. Mr. Ross-Lewin was married in 1S58, to Sarah Jane Gardner, 
of Rochester, N. Y., who was born in 1837, daughter of John and 
Anna Spencer Gardner, and they have two children: Ida L., now cash- 
ier of the Fort Wayne furniture company, and Jennie S. In politics he 
is a democrat. 

Andrew R. Henderson, superintendent of the woolen mill operated 
under the name of French, Hanna & Co., was born near Auburn, Cayuga 
county, N. Y., March 31, 1826. His parents, Joel P. and Mary Ann 
(Rogers) Henderson, the former a native of Connecticut and the latter of 
Cayuga county, N. Y., removed, when he was a lad of twelve years, to 
Chautauqua county, N. Y., where at the age of thirteen he became 
apprenticed in a woolen mill. During almost his entire life he has been 
employed in woolen manufacture. In 1842 he took a position in a mill 
at Erie, Penn. In 1848 he went to Waterloo, N. Y. Subsequently he 
had charge of mills at North East, Penn.; Westfield, N. Y.; Kingsville, 
Ashtabula county, Ohio. In March, 1856, he came to Fort Wayne to 
manage the mill now owned by French, Hanna & Co., of which he has 
now been superintendent for about thirty-three years. Mr. Henderson 
was married in 1855 to Zervia Berdsley, who died in June, 185S. She 
was born in Rochester, N. Y. March 22, i860, he was married to Miss 
Annetta E., daughter of Harvey M. and Elvira (Lampher) Putnam, 
natives of Lewis county, N. Y. Mr. Henderson and wife are the 
parents of an only son, Charles W. Henderson, who was born January 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 1 33 

17, 1S61, and is now a bookkeeper in the office of the Pittsburg shops. 
Mr. Henderson is a Knight Templar, and politically he is a republican. 
Martin L. Albrecht, carriage manufacturer, is a native of Fairfield 
county, Ohio. He was born June 6, 1847, the son of Rev. Christopher and 
Mary Ann (Conrad) Albrecht, who were natives, the former of Baden, 
Germany, and the latter of Fairfield county, Ohio. Christopher Albrecht 
was the son of Andrew Albrecht, with whom he came to America in 
1S32 and located in Tiffin, Seneca Co., Ohio, being one of the earliest 
settlers. Christopher Albrecht helped to construct the Wabash & 
Erie canal, and with the money thus earned he took a course in the 
Lutheran theological seminary at Columbus, Ohio. He then began 
his ministerial duties in Fairfield county, and labored as a minister for 
more than forty years, having but four different charges. For more 
than twenty-five years he was pastor of the Lutheran church at Miam- 
isburg, Ohio. He died near that place in 1887. The mother of Martin 
Albrecht died when he was but two years old, in Perry county, Ohio, 
whither his parents had moved. After her death he found a home with 
his grandfather, Andrew Albrecht, at Tiffin, with whom he remained 
until he was twenty-one. His education was received in the public 
schools of Tiffin and at Heidelberg college of that place, which he 
attended one year. During the greater part of his youth he was em- 
ployed as a clerk. At eighteen he entered upon an apprenticeship as a 
carriage painter and served three years. In 1868 he went from Tiffin 
to Indianapolis where, for a few months, he worked at his trade, after 
which, in October, he came to Fort Wayne. Here he worked two 
years for Stanley & Bieber. For six months thereafter he was the 
owner of a shop in which was done carriage painting. He then formed 
a partnership in the livery business with James Liggett, and to it his 
attention was given for a year and a half. For the past seventeen years 
he has been engaged in the manufacture of carriages, and he has now 
done a continuous business of that kind longer than any other man in 
the city. From November, 1876, to January, 1883, he was one of the 
proprietors of the City carriage works. For the past six years he has 
been the proprietor of his present establishment on the corner of Barr 
and Main streets. Mr. Albrecht was married May 10, 1870, to Miss 
Dora Bloom, a native of Germany, born in 1848, the daughter of Philip 
Bloom, with whom she came to America when a child. They have 
seven children: Frank L., Samuel W., Edward, Eva M., Fred, Dora S. 
and Christopher. Mr. Albrecht and wife are members of the German 
Lutheran church. He was the first president of the city hospital and is 
the present incumbent, having held the position for the past six years. 

Calvin J. Winch, an old and honored citizen of Fort Wayne, and the 
founder of Winch & Sons' hub and spoke works, was born near Bur- 
lington, Vt., July 14, 1824, the son of Joseph and Almira (Murray) 
Winch, who were respectively natives of New Hampshire and Vermont. 
The grandfather, Joseph Winch, was a native of New Hampshire. He 
was reared to manhood on a farm in his native county, and received a 



134 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

common school education. In the latter part of his youth he learned the 
blacksmith's trade, and he pursued it for a great many years. In about 
1845, he emigrated to Indiana and located in Monmouth, Adams county, 
where he conducted a blacksmith shop some ten years. He then erected 
a steam saw-mill at that place and operated it about three years. He 
then gave his attention to agricultural pursuits until the spring of 1864, 
at which time he removed to Leo, Allen county, Ind., having purchased 
a grist-, woolen- and saw-mill. He conducted that property about five 
years. In the spring of 1869 he came to Fort Wayne, and for about 
two years he was engaged in the building of gravel roads and streets. 
He then began the manufacture of hubs in connection with his son, 
H. D. Winch, the firm name being Winch & Son. The manufacture of 
spokes has been added, and the firm is now the owner of a large factory 
in Fort Wayne and another in Jay county, Ind. For two years their 
business was at Areola, then at Geneva, Adams county, and still later at 
Briant, Jay county. The factory in Fort Wayne was started in Octo- 
ber, 1886. Another son, W. E. Winch, has been a member of the firm 
about five years. Mr. C. J. Winch was married when about twenty- 
years old, to Miss Phebe C, daughter of Calvin T. and Fannie (Bell) 
Dorwin, who were respectively natives of Vermont and New York. 
She was born in Richland county, Ohio, in 1834. Mr. C. J. Winch and 
wife have had eight children: Walter J., born March 9, 1850; Homer 
Dick, February 24, 1853; Willard E. and Mildred D., April 2, 1858; 
Sherman P., October 31, 1862; Fannie M., April 1, 1867; Jessie M., 
July 4, 1869; Howard T., October 29, 1872, all of whom are living ex- 
cept Walter J., who died in the fourth year of his age. Mr. Winch is 
an ardent temperance man and strongly opposed to monopolies. He is 
always active in public enterprises, is an honorable, upright man, and 
very highly respected. 

John Pressler, proprietor of the Summit City galvanized iron 
works, was born at Chambersburg, Franklin county, Penn., October 25, 
1845, the second of two children now living of George and Anna Press- 
ler, who were natives of Germany and immigrated to Pennsylvania and 
there died. In 1863 Mr. Pressler enlisted in Company L, Twenty-first 
Pennsylvania cavalry, William H. Boyd commanding, but being under 
age at the time, his father required his release and he was honorably 
discharged soon afterward. He learned the tinner's trade at Chambers- 
burg, and in 1868 came to Fort Wayne. For three years he was em- 
ployed in the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad shops, under Joseph Stillwagon, 
and for a time at the Wabash shops. He was then for some time oc- 
cupied in the tin and jobbing business, and in 1883 established his pres- 
ent business, which is the largest and most extensive in its line in the 
city. In 1885 he bought his present business property on the corner of 
Barr and Columbia streets, which he has greatly improved, to furnish 
room for his increased business. In addition to his manufacturing he 
deals in hot air furnaces and metalic shingles, and makes specialties of 
natural gas and other fittings, and grates and mantels. He was married 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 135 

July 1 8, 1868, to Amelia Menze, who was born in Fort Wayne, and 
they have six children : Rosa, Charles F., John A., Edith A., Carrie and 
George H. He and wife are members of the English Lutheran church. 
Mr. Pressler became a member of Sol D. Bayless lodge, F. & A. M., 
April 28, 1886, and in 1888 became a Scottish Rite Mason. He is an enter- 
prising, active business man, and though beginning in Fort Wayne with 
small means has prospered, and has a pleasant home on West Main street, 
which he purchased in 1886. 

Sylvanus F. Bowser, a well-known citizen of Fort Wayne, is at the 
head of the firm of S. F. Bowser & Co., patentees and manufacturers 
of the Perfect Self-measuring oil tank, and perfecting siphon, also 
pumps and self-measuring oil wagons. He was born in Allen county, 
August 8, 1854. His parents, John H. and Eliza (Kieger) Bowser, 
came from their native state of Penusylvania to Allen county in 1833, 
and were among the sturdy pioneers, and followed farming in Perry 
township. The father was born April 15, 1812, and died March 10, 
1879; the mother, who was born September 18, 1818, passed away Sep- 
tember 9, 1875. To them thirteen children were born, eight of whom 
survive. S. F. Bowser was reared on the farm of his parents, and re- 
ceived his education in the common schools. In 1882 he took a position 
as traveling salesman for the Chicago paper house of W. H. Wells & 
Bro., and was thus engaged until 1885, when he perfected the inven- 
tion above named, and began its manufacture. Beginning on a small 
scale, he continued the business until July 1, 1888, when the company 
was organized, by associating with him August Bowser and William F. 
Devilbiss. They erected the factory now in use, a three-story frame 
building, with 20,000 feet of floor space, and are doing a prosperous 
and rapidly increasing business. Mr. Bowser is a member of the First 
Baptist church. He was married October 9, 1878, to Sarah F. Russell, 
of Fort Wayne, and to them four children have been born. 

Aime Racine, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, has developed 
here the manufacture of horse collars on a large scale, and the "Racine" 
horse collar has a national reputation. In 1865 he fromed a partner- 
ship in this city for the manufacture of harness, to which was sub- 
sequently added the making of collars, and for more than twenty years 
he has conducted that business. The factory occupies a handsome 
three story brick building, at the corner of First and North Cass streets, 
which was erected by Mr. Racine several years ago. In the near 
vicinity Mr. Racine has two comfortable residence buildings, one of 
which he occupies. Mr. Racine is not wholly absorbed in his prosper- 
ous business, but takes and interest in public affairs, and is prominent as 
a republican. During two years he served as councilman from the 
ninth ward. He was born in Switzerland, March 16, 1834, son of John 
Jacob Racine. In 1849 he accompanied his parents to this country, and 
they settled first in Washington township, this county. He remained 
upon the farm until 1865, and then began an apprenticeship in the har- 
ness business in Fort Wayne. He worked as a journeyman in Chicago 



136 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

six months; at Lafayette, Ind., six years, and as foreman in a collar fac- 
tory in Toledo, two years. He was married in 1865, to Louisa Sawdy, 
of the latter city, and they have living two children: Ollie and Nellie. 
Mr. Racine is a member of the I. O. O. F. 

Erastus B. Kunkle, member of the firm of E. B. Kunkle & Co., pro- 
prietors of the Fort Wayne safety valve works, was born at Greensburg, 
Westmoreland county, Penn., December 14, 1S36, the son of Leonard 
and Harriet C. Kunkle, natives ot Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
respectively. In his youth he learned the trade of a machinist with his 
father, and has followed it during life. In 1862, he removed to Alliance, 
Ohio, where he was employed two years, and then in December, 1864, 
came to Fort Wayne. During eleven years he was employed in the 
locomotive department of the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago railroad 
shops, and since that period has turned his attention to invention and 
manufacture. He invented the celebrated Kunkle lock-up pop safety 
valve, upon which he received a patent May 4, 1875, and another July 
24, 1877. In January, 1876, he began the manufacture of the valves, 
and as it is an article of much importance and solid merit, it finds an 
extensive sale over the continent. Mr. Kunkle has also manifested his 
skill and genius in mechanics by the invention of an egg beater, a water 
gauge, a gauge-cock, and a steam gauge, on all of which he has received 
patents. He is honored as a citizen, is one of the trustees of the English 
Lutheran church, of which he and wife are members, and served one 
year as a trustee of the water-works, to which position he was elected 
in 1887, but was compelled to resign on account of of his private busi- 
ness. He was married October 22, 1868, to Louisa E., daughter of 
Emanuel and Harriet Bostick, esteemed pioneer citizens. She was born 
in Lancaster county, Penn., October 25, 1845. They have these chil- 
dren: Ella A., Eva H., Frances C, Blanche M., Lulu S. and Edith P., 
all living except Frances, who died at the age of three years. 

Jacob Klett, one of the leading citizens of Fort Wayne, of German 
birth, was born in Wurtemberg, in 183 1. In his native land he was 
educated, and learned the potter's trade. In 1853 he immigrated and in 
the following year, settled at Fort Wayne. Four years later, he entered 
the employment of Andrews & Oakley, of Fort Wayne, in their planing- 
mill, and remained with them until i860. He became engaged with 
Clark & Hurd, lumber dealers, in 1861, and continued with the succes- 
sors, Clark & Rhinesmith, and upon the organization of the lumber com- 
pany of the same name, in 1871, he became a stockholder, and accepted 
the position of yard foreman and inspector. Having become thoroughly 
acquainted with the business, he opened an extensive yard on his own 
account in 1877, and prospering in this business, added in 1889, a large 
and complete planing-mill plant, and began the manufacture of sash, 
doors, blinds and general factory work. Mr. Klett's business experience 
has extended over thirty-one years, and he is one of the leading lumber 
men of the city. Socially, he has a wide circle of friends and acquain- 
tances. He was married July 6, 1858, to Louisa Sauter, a native of 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 137 

Germany, who came to this country at about the age of about five 
years, and they have had eight children, five of whom are living. J. A., 
the oldest son, is engaged with his father in the lumber business. 

The management of the extensive lumber yards of Coombs & Co., 
of Fort Wayne, is entrusted to Nelson Thompson, who resides at No. 
339 East Wayne street. He is a native of Sweden, born November 
10, 1844. He remained on the farm with his parents until 1865, and 
then immigrated. He came west and located at Chicago, where he 
remained until 1867, and then came to Fort Wayne, where he has since 
resided. While in Chicago he was employed in laying Nicholson pave- 
ment, and he was engaged in that after coming to Fort Wayne until 
1877, being occasionally in the employment of the city in repairing 
bridges, culverts, etc. In 1877 he entered the lumber yard of Coombs 
& Co., and in 1885 was made manager of the yards. Mr. Thompson 
is a member of the English Lutheran church. He was married in 1868 
to Augustine Pichon, daughter of Alexander A. Pichon, a native of 
France, who settled in Fort Wayne about 1833, and is now in his seventy- 
sixth year, making his home with Mr. Thompson. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Thompson three children have been born : Peter Alexander, John Will- 
iam and Charles Dollies. Mr. Thompson has been very successful in 
business, and has recently completed a handsome two-story residence on 
East Wayne street. In politics, he is a* republican, and his religious 
affiliation is with the English Lutheran church. 

Joseph C. Cromwell is one of the prominent factors in the great 
lumber industry of Fort Wayne, and has been connected with the busi- 
ness here since his coming to the city in 1872. His first employment 
was as bookkeeper and measurer for the lumber firm of Hoffman 
Brothers, and he remained with them until the summer of 1876, when 
he became engaged with Coombs & Co., hardware dealers, as entry 
clerk. In 1880 he assumed the position of chief clerk and head book- 
keeper with the Kerr Murray manufacturing company. After four 
years in this position, in 1884, he engaged in the lumber business on his 
own account, and now has an extensive trade, manufacturing lumber, and 
shipping that and logs to home and foreign markets. His mills are in 
Adams and Jay counties, with headquarters there and in Fort Wayne, 
and the annual business amounts to $20,000. Mr. Cromwell was born 
at Frederick City, Md., January 17, 1852, the son of Joseph W. Crom- 
well, now a worthy citizen of this city, elsewhere mentioned. He re- 
ceived his education in the schools of West Virginia, and in 1868 began 
his business career as a clerk at Frederick City. He was married in 
1880 to Maggie C. Hardt, daughter of John C. Hardt, of the lumber 
firm of Hardt & Keefer, of Frederick City. She was born November 
23,1850. They have three children. Mr. Cromwell is a member of 
Sol. D. Bayless lodge, No. 359, F. & A. M., and of the First Presby- 
terian church. 

David Tagtmeyer, a leading lumber manufacturer, embarked in 
that business in 1861, in company with three partners, and so continued 



I38 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

three years, when the mill was destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt, but 
seemed fated, for two months later the boiler exploded, again destroying 
the building. A second time it was rebuilt but was subsequently sold. 
Afterward, Mr. Tagtmeyer and a partner purchased the property and 
operated it one year, then disposed of it. He was next engaged in the 
grocery business on Columbia street for one year, and then in 1868, 
purchased a half interest in the mill he now runs, gaining possession of 
the entire property five years later. He now manufactures hardwood 
lumber, the product being about 1,300,000 feet annually, which is mainly 
disposed of to the railroads. Mr. Tagtmeyer, though now a successful 
and prosperous manufacturer, started as a poor man. He w r as born in 
North Germany, February 5, 1834, and came to America alone in 1853. 
He came direct to Fort Wayne, disembarking from the canal boat which 
was his con ve}^ nee from Toledo, at the place where Monning's mill 
now stands. The first four months of his residence he w T orked upon the 
construction of the Wabash railroad, and next spent one winter in the 
woods of Adams county, the epidemic of cholera having brought affairs 
to a stand-still in Fort Wayne. Mr. Tagtmeyer was married July, 1862, 
to Caroline Kaysar, who was born in Prussia, in 1834, and died in 1871, 
leaving two children, of whom one survives. In 1873, he was married a 
second time, to Sophy Axt, who was born at this city, in 1843. She 
died in June, 1875, leaving one child, and in November, 1876, he 
married Christine Tilking, who is a native of Prussia, born in 1:854, and 
they have had five children. Mr. Tagtmeyer is a member of the 
Lutheran church. 

The secretary of the Hoffman lumber company, Milton P. Long- 
acre, "*is a native of Chester county, Pa., born January 14, 1851. He is 
the oldest of five living children of David and Hannah B. (Rhinehart) 
Longacre, natives of Pennsylvania, the father born about 1827 and the 
mother about 1831. His father is now engaged in farming and stock- 
raising in Chester county, where the mother died June 14, 1870. Mr. 
Longacre was educated in the public schools at his home, and remained 
there until twenty-one years of age, when he went to Pittsburgh and 
was for six months in the employment of the Wheeler & Wilson sewing 
machine company. In August, 1872, he came to Fort Wayne, and 
served four years in the freight department of the Pennsylvania com- 
pany, under J. C. Davis. He entered the employment of Hoffman 
Brothers in the fall of 1876, and since the organization of the company 
has held his present position, becoming favorably known as an alert and 
capable business man. May 1, 1873, he was married to Rachel Lilly, 
of Perry county, Penn., born January 3, 1852, who died in March, 1876, 
leaving one child, Bertha L., born September 20, 1874. September 20, 
1880, he was married to Caroline Schlatter, who was born in Allen 
county, July 12, 1853, and they have four children: Milton G., born 
November 2, 1882; Hazel I., born October 29, 1884; David S., born 
March 1, 1S86; and Leon R., born February 19, 1889. He and wife 
are members of the First Presbyterian church. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. I 39 

Philip H. Hyman, a prominent citizen of Fort Wanye, is a native of 
Germany, born March 19, 1841. In 1852 he accompanied his parents, 
William and Anna M. Hyman, to America, and the family settled in Huron 
county, Ohio. In 1866 he engaged in mercantile pursuits in Kirby, 
Wyandotte county, Ohio, and was so occupied six years. In 1872 he 
removed to Columbia City, Ind., and was engaged in the lumber and 
stave business, to which his whole attention has since been given. In 
1873 he removed to Portland, Ind.; in 1875 to Versailles, Ohio; to New 
Washington, Ohio, in 1876; in 1877 to Tiffin, Ohio, changing his resi- 
dence frequently with the opening of new railroads. In 1882 he came 
to Fort Wayne. His lumber and stave interests at present are at Payne, 
Ohio. Mr. Hyman was married August 11, 1868, to Cassie Jetter, who 
was born in Philadelphia, March 13, 1851, daughter of Jacob and Anna 
Jetter. They have had nine children: William J., Isabel L., Philip H., 
Edward A., Minnette E., Arthur F., Estella C, Wanetta J. and Anna M., 
of whom William J., Isabel L. and Minnette E. are dead. Mr. Hyman 
and wife are members of the German Reform church. In politics he 
is a republican. 

Samuel D. Bitler, manufacture of cooper's truss hoops, corner of 
East Wayne and Schick streets, Fort Wayne, was born in Berks county, 
Penn., November 23, 1845, son of Daniel and Eve (Frees) Bitler. The 
father was one of seven sons of Daniel Bitler, also a native of Pennsylvania, 
who was the son of John Bitler, a native of Switzerland, who emigrated 
to America between 1740 and 1750, arid became a soldier of the revo- 
lutionary war. He was married to an English lady in Philadelphia. Daniel, 
father of Samuel D., was a blacksmith and farmer; he died in August, 
1867, at the age of seventy years. Eve Frees, the mother, was born in 
Berks county, of German descent, and died in 1863. Samuel D. Bitler 
left the farm in 1870, and spent a year with an engineering force sur- 
veying the Wilmington railroad. In 1872 he came to- Fort Wayne, and for 
a year and a half was in the employ of N. G. Olds & Son. In June, 1875, 
he became a member of the firm of H. Stephan & Co., in the manufacture 
of cooper's truss hoops, and upon the death of Mr. Stephan in January, 
1883, became sole proprietor of the business. His trade extends over the 
entire country, shipments being made to St. Louis, San Francisco, New 
Orleans, New York, Nashville, and even to Cuba and Germany. Mr. 
Bitler was married February 9, 1885, to Mary Beidler, of Birdsboro, 
Penn., and they have one child. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and 
K. of P. Was a charter member of Constoga lodge of Morganstown, 
Penn. 

A. C. Beaver, for many years an honored citizen of Fort Wayne, 
hat witnessed the growth of the city from 1,500 to 40,000 inhabitants, 
and meanwhile has contributed in a decided manner to this advancement 
by active and enterprising business operations. He has been uniformly 
successful in business, and enjoys a well-founded reputation for integrity 
as well as talent for the successful accomplishment of his undertakings. 
He was born near Hagerstown, Md., April 19, 1822, the son of John and 



140 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



Dorothy (Mowen) Beaver, both natives of Franklin county, Penn. The 
mother died in 1837 and the father subsequently married Elizabeth 
Best. The family left Maryland in 1842, settled first in Preble county 
and then in Montgomer}' county, Ohio, where the father was surveyor 
for the county for four years, with his residence at Dayton. The father 
came to Fort Wayne in i860 and here died about 1S81. His widow is 
now living at Columbus, Ohio. A. C. Beaver started from Preble 
county for Fort Wayne on foot in February, 1844, and walked the en- 
tire distance, arriving here March 1, 1844, with a total capital of 75 cents. 
He worked at the carpenter's trade, which he had learned in Ohio, until 
1S52, when he began contracting, at which he was occupied until he 
went into the lumber business in 1867, with Jeptha Mitchell, of the 
well-known firm of Mitchell & Rowland, of Cincinnati, as a partner. 
The business here with a capital of $10,000 ,was conducted in Mr. 
Beaver's name for three years, when the latter purchased the interest of 
Mr. Mitchell, and organized the Beaver-Miller lumber company, still in 
business, with a capital of $24,000. After the panic of 1873 Mr. 
Beaver retired from that firm as an active partner, and organized the 
Fort Wayne lumber company, with a capital of about $10,000 devoted 
to wholesale trade. The retail business was added in 1888 and the cap- 
ital increased to $20,000. Mr. Beaver was married in 184S to Mary 
Maples, daughter of D. W. Maples, a pioneer of Fort Wayne. She 
died in 1853, leaving three children: Catherine, Mary E. and Elizabeth, 
of whom the first only is living. In 1855 he was married to Caroline 
Spence, a native of Leeds, England, who died in 1858, leaving one 
child, Clara E., wife of Frank Miller, of Sacramento, Cal. In 1861 
Mr. Beaver married Emily Parks, born at North Bend, Ind., and they 
have two children : Florence E. and Montgomery G., the latter now as- 
sociated with his father in business. Mr. Beaver united with the Pres- 
byterian church some forty years ago, but recently became a member of 
the First Baptist church. 

The Fort Wayne steam stone works, the leading establishment in 
its line, is managed by Henry Keller. He is a native of Gemany, born 
in 1S53. He emigrated to America in 1870, and located at Chicago, 
where he learned the stone cutter's trade, and remained until 1884, 
being for five years foreman of one of the largest in the state and old- 
est stone yards in that city. On February 2, 1884, Mr. Keller removed 
to Fort Wayne and purchased a half interest in the stone works of 
Frederick Roth. The firm of Roth & Keller has ever since met with 
success, and at present it is the most extensive in the city, and is the 
only one in northern Indiana having a steam derrick. Mr. Roth died 
September 14, 1888, but the firm name is continued. The business was 
established about twenty-three years ago, and has continued at the same 
location to the present, passing through various hands. When Mr. 
Keller entered the firm the business was on a small scale, but each year 
it has improved. They employ from forty to fifty men and do a general 
stone cutting business. Contracting is also carried on, and among the 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. I4I 

buildings for which this firm has furnished the cut stone are the new 
government building, asylum for feeble-minded children, St. Mary's 
Catholic church, St. Paul's Lutheran church, Schmitz's, Rich's and 
Baker's business blocks, at Fort Wayne; First Methodist Episcopal 
church, Jacob Bros.' residence and I. O. O. F. block at Huntington; the 
Peru Catholic church; city hall and engine house, Defiance, Ohio; 
county jail, Decatur, Ind.; court-house in Bluffton, Ind., and Paulding, 
Ohio, and various others. Mr. Keller was married January 4, 1880, to 
Ida Scheibe, a native of Chicago, who died in 1882, leaving one son, 
Frederick. He was married November 11, 1884, to Mary Leitt, born 
in Germany, by whom he had four children, of whom three are living, 
Henry, Ida and Mary. Mrs. Keller is a member of the Catholic church. 

Elliott S. Underbill, one of the prominent young men of the city, 
was born at Olmstead Falls, Ohio, December 1, 1858. He is the son 
of P. S. and Harriet O. Underhill, natives of Vermont and Maine, 
respectively. When he was quite young, his parents located in Fort 
Wayne. The father died in 1877? but his widow is still a resident of 
the city. In 18755 Mr. Underhill engaged in the grocery business and 
was so occupied for three years. In the spring of 1879, he embarked 
in the marble business, and in 1881, went to Hicksville, where he was 
a partner in the same business two years. Returning to Fort Wayne, 
from 1883 until 1885, he was employed as a letter carrier, and then in 
the retail oil business. During the session of 1887 of the Indiana legis- 
lature, he was employed as a clerk in the house of representatives. He 
then resumed the marble business, and is now one of the proprietors of 
Underbill's monumental works, a large establishment at No. 82 Barr 
street. Mr. Underhill was married April 8, 1880, to Anna E. Scott, by 
whom he has three children : George E., Jessie and Hattie. In politics 
he is a republican, and he has for four years been a member of the 
republican county central committee. 

Among the industries of Fort Wayne, a notable one is the manufac- 
ture of the various popular beverages of the day. Prominent among 
those so engaged is the firm of Louis Brames & Co., manufacturers of 
seltzer and mineral waters, ginger ale, birch beer, etc. Louis Brames, 
the leading member of this firm, began this business in 1880, the firm 
being known for the first year as Brames & Ehrman. He does a large 
manufacture and ships extensively. Mr. Brames was born in Adams 
county, Ind., near Decatur, January 3, 1847. His father, Christopher 
Brames, was born in Germany, in 18 14, and was married in his native 
land to Elizabeth Vodde. The family emigrated about 1834, and after 
spending four years in New York, came to Fort Wayne. He was by 
occupation a farmer and was an early settler of Allen county. He died 
at this city, April 25, 1881, and his wife followed him February 12, 1886. 
Of their seven children three are living, of whom Louis is the second. 
He attended the common schools and a commercial college at this city, 
and in 1868 engaged in the grocery business, and three years later 
became a bookkeeper, successively for Messrs. Oppenheimer & Heil- 



I42 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

broiler, Abraham Wolf, and Frank Hake & Co. He was married in 
1 87 1, to Mary A. Tibett, who was born in Allen county, in 1849, and 
they have four children: Anna, John B., Antoinette and Louis. In 
politics he is a pronounced democrat, and in 1878, he was elected to the 
city council from the first ward, an honor which was again conferred in 
1S80. He is a member of the Catholic church. 

One of the leading and most thoroughly competent brewers of 
Indiana is Peter Nusbaum, foreman of the celebrated establishment of 
C. L. Centlivre. He was born in Germany, December 26, 1845, the son 
of Peter and Margaret (Dietsh) Nusbaum, who were born and passed 
their lives in that country. The eldest of their seven children was Peter 
Nusbaum. He received his education in his native land, and in 1859 
began to learn the trade he has since followed. In 187 1 he came to 
this country, and settled at Chicago, where he remained seven years, 
coming then to Fort Wayne. He was engaged by Mr. Centlivre as 
foreman, and has held the position ten years. His thirty years' expe- 
rience has made him a valuable man in that business. Mr. Nusbaum 
was married in 1874 to Susanna Mathy, who was born in Chicago in 
1857, and they have seven children: Matilda, Joseph, Mary, Malchen, 
Victor, Louis and Ida. He is in politics a democrat. 

A well-known citizen of Fort Wayne, and a representative of one of 
the oldest families, is Philip J. Lindlag. His father, C. W. Lindlag, 
was born in Germany in 1818, and there married Sevilla Kiser, who was 
born about 1820. They came to Allen county about 1834, and the 
father was engaged in farming until 1861, when he removed to the city 
from his Wayne township farm. He worked upon the Wabash & Erie 
canal during his early residence in the county, and after removing to 
the city was elected street commissioner in 1862. He also did business 
as a contractor. He died in 1882, and his widow followed him in 1884. 
The second of the three living children is Philip J., born at Fort Wayne, 
December 27, 1854. He received a common school education. For 
some years he was engaged in the contracting business, and was subse- 
quently for fifteen years, the Fort Wayne agent for Graser & Brand's 
brewery, of Toledo. In 1889 ne became the agent of the Berghoff 
brewery company, of Fort Wayne. He resides at the old home, 115 
Washington street, and owns 213 acres of land in the township, the farm 
of his parents. He is a democrat in politics, and a member of Phoenix 
lodge, No. 101, K. of P. 

One of the early German settlers in Allen county, was John Braun, 
•who came to America about 1847, stopped awhile in New Jersey, and 
came to Fort Wayne about 1850. Here he married Barbara Heber, 
a country woman, who had immigrated about 1852. She is now living 
in the city. He was a carpenter by trade, and worked at that in Fort 
Wayne until about 1863, when he removed to St. Joseph, and located 
on the farm where his son now resides. In 1880, he began the manu- 
facture of brick. His death occurred June 27, 1886. John C. Braun, 
the son of these worthy parents, was about seven years of age when 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 1 43 

they removed to the farm. He was educated at the St. Peter's Luth- 
eran school of St. Joseph township, and was confirmed at St. John's 
school in Fort Wayne. He resided on the farm and worked with his 
father at brick making, until the latter's death, when he took charge of 
the yards, and has since conducted the business. The yards are 
among the most extensive, and have a daily capacity of about 11,000 
brick. The average product is about 11,000,000 per year. Mr. Braun 
and wife are members of St. John's Lutheran church. He was married 
in the fall of 1887, to Louisa Braun, who was born in Germany, and 
came to America about 1885. To this union a daughter has been born, 
Lottie. Mr. Braun has a well improved and valuable farm of fifty-four 
acres, upon which he has a comfortable two-story brick residence. 

The brick industry enlists no more industrious manufacturer than 
Joseph Fremion, whose extensive yards are located at the north limits of 
Fort Wayne, between Harrison and Lafayette streets. The daily pro- 
duct of these yards is ten to eleven thousand daily, and the .average 
annual output is 1,100,000. All of this immense product is sold as rap- 
idly as made. Mr. Fremion was born at Lorance, France, April 23, 
1829. Coming to America in 1848, he first made his home in Hancock 
county, Ohio, but in 1853 came to Fort Wayne. In 1869 he engaged 
in his present business. Mr. Fremion was married in 1854 to Sera- 
phine Perasote, a native of France. They have nine children, of whom 
seven are living. They are members of St. Peter's Catholic church. 

The manufacture of brick, one of the important Fort Wayne indus- 
tries, is quite extensively engaged in by Leonard & Son. The senior 
member, Nelson Leonard, was born in Henry county, Ind., in 1825, and 
came to Allen county in March, 1871, and located on the Leo gravel 
road, two miles north of Fort Wayne, and established a brick yard. He 
has followed brick-making all his life, and is one of the pioneer brick- 
makers of the state. He married Drusilla Llewellyn, who was born near 
Harrisburg, Va., in 1823, and came with his parents to Indiana when 
about thirteen years of age. To these parents five children have been 
born, all of whom are living. The junior member of the firm, Jefferson 
Leonard, was born in Delaware county, Ind., December 9, 1847. In 
August, 1863, he ran away from home and enlisted in Company A, 
Twenty-first Indiana heavy artillery, and was with Sherman in his 
Atlanta campaign. He was mustered out at Indianapolis, December 20, 
1865. After the war he went to southern California, and remained 
eighteen months, and then came to Fort Wayne and went to work with 
his father. In 1879 he went to Detroit and took charge of the packing 
house of Willard Parker & Co., and remained two years. He then 
returned to Fort Wayne and went into partnership with his father. He 
was married June 15, 1880, to Aurelia Smith, of Freemont, Ohio, who 
died February 5, 1884, at the age of thirty-two years and six months. 
He is a member of Summit City lodge, No. 132, F. & A. M., Royal 
Arch, and of Harmony lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., of which he has rilled 
all the chairs. 



i 4 4 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



PaulKoehler, a well-known manufacturer of brick, was born in Wayne 
township, February 21, 1856, the son of Michael and Catherine (Kiefer) 
Koehler. The father was born in Germany and came to this country in 
about 1841, making his home in the same year at Fort Wayne, and 
engaging in his business of brick-making. He died March 1, 1S81, at 
the age of fifty-six years. His wife, who was born in Canton, Penn., 
died in September, 1886. Of their ten children, five sons and five 
daughters, one daughter is deceased. Paul Koehler was educated in the 
schools of Wayne township, and worked with his father at brick-making, 
and after the death of the latter, he took the management of the yard 
for his mother. In 1883 he engaged in brick making at Decatur, and 
in the fall of 1884 he went into business for himself, purchasing the 
yard of Alexander Armison at Decatur. This establishment includes 
twelve acres, and a two-story brick residence. At the yards are made 
a daily average of 14,000 bricks, and the annual output is very large. 
The product finds a ready sale at Fort Wayne, where Mr. Koehler 
resides. He was married in 1881, to Mary Brown, of St. Joseph town- 
ship, and they have three children: Andrew, Clara and Charles. Mr. 
Koehler and wife are members of the St. John's Lutheran church. 

John A. Koehler, a prominent manufacturer of brick at Fort Wayne, 
with residence and yards on Lafayette street, just without the city limits, 
was born at Fort Wayne, July 6, 1850, the son of Michael Koehler, one 
of the early manufacturers of brick at this place. The latter was a 
native of Germany, who came to America in 1847, and made his resi- 
dence at Fort Wayne in the same year, and died in this city March 31, 
1881. John A. received a common school education and remained with 
his parents until he was twenty-six years of age, when he established 
himself in business. His yards have a daily capacity of 12,000 brick 
and the average product each season is very large. Mr. Koehler is also 
agent for the Grosser & Brand brewing company, of Toledo, Ohio. 
Since 1886 he has been a member of Phoenix lodge, No. 101, K. of P., 
and his religious affiliation is with St. John's Lutheran church. He was 
married in 1871 to Anna Bergeman, of Fort Wayne, and to them seven 
children have been born, of whom five survive. 

The City book bindery of Fort Wayne, though a comparatively new 
enterprise, is successful, owing to the good business qualifications of its 
proprietor, George W. Winbaugh. He was born in Indiana, June 11, 
i860, and came with his father, John Winbaugh, to Fort Wayne in 
1865. The father was a wagon-maker by trade, and followed that 
calling until his death in 1869. George W. was reared in Fort 
Wayne and educated at the public schools. About 1872 he entered 
the employ of Davis & Bros., bookbinders, and served an appren- 
ticeship with that firm, with whom he remained until 1886. He then 
left their employ and formed a partnership with L. D. Ward, and 
together they established the City book bindery. In the fall of 
1888, Mr. Winbaugh became the sole proprietor, his partner retir- 
ing, and he has since conducted the business alone. He does general 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 45 

bookbinding and paper box manufacturing on an extensive scale, supply- 
ing a territory within a radius of forty and fifty miles from Fort Wayne. 
He was married December 25, 1887, to Miss Jenny Titus, of Fort 
Wayne, and has one son, Charles, born December 21, 1888. Mr. Win- 
baugh is a member of English Lutheran church, and of Fort Wayne 
lodge, No. 14, I. O. O. F. 

In the spring of 1873, Robert Gage, now a well-known and worthy 
citizen of Fort Wayne, engaged in the manufacture of brooms in this 
city, a pursuit which he has continued to the present. His establish- 
ment, which is one of the most extensive of the kind in this region, is 
situated at 318 West Main street, and his trade is a wide one. Mr. Gage 
was born in Pennsylvania, June 26, 1842, son of Robert and Mary 
Gage, both of whom were natives of Ireland. They immigrated to this 
state and three months after the birth of their son Robert, arrived at 
Fort Wayne, on the night of October 31, 1S42. Robert Gage was mar- 
ried November 18, 1S67, to Sarah, daughter of John and Sarah Conley. 
She is a native of Ireland. Mr. Gage has succeeded in his business, is 
enterprising and popular, and worthy as a citizen. He is a Mason, a 
member of the Knights of Pythias and a republican in politics. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 

Beginning with a traffic that ramified throughout the west, then wild 
indeed, Fort Wayne has throughout the major part of its career as a 
business center been the seat of extensive mercantile transactions. The 
traditions of its business are of establishments the dealings of which 
were not confined by state lines, and of pioneers in trade whose names 
were familiar even to the mountains beyond the Mississippi, and the 
story of its modern trade is no less flattering to the enterprise of the city. 
With railroad development came the establishment of wholesale houses 
at Fort Wayne, which receive goods from manufacturers, or imports 
from the seaboard, or fruits from the south, as cheaply as they can be 
delivered anywhere. The same splendid system of railroads enables the 
retailers in a considerable area of territory in Indiana, Ohio and Mich- 
igan, to visit the city more conveniently and receive goods from here 
more promptly, than is true of any other important point accessible from 
this region. Consequently, the wholesale business of Fort Wayne is 
established on a firm foundation, and it is rapidly assuming immense 
proportions, and will continue to grow, keeping pace with the increasing 
wealth and population of its tributary territory. 

A brief enumeration of the houses engaged in the wholesale trade 
will convey an idea of the extent of this branch of business which would 
require much space to give otherwise. The dry goods houses of Root 
& Co., and George Dewald & Co., are widely known throughout three 
states. In the grocery trade, and in fruits, there has been the greatest 
development, and the houses of A. C. Trentman, G. E. Bursley & Co., 
x 



ia6 valley of the upper maumee. 

Skelton, Watts & Wilt, C. D. C. Huestis, J. B. White, Louis Fox & 
Bro., William Moellering & Sons, Niswonger & Fox, and Pottlitzer 
Bros., do in the aggregate an immense trade, their salesmen being sent 
everywhere throughout the wide region tributary to Fort Wayne. In 
confectionery the houses of Fox & Brother and H. Barcus are prom- 
inent; the millinery trade is represented by Adams & Armstrong, and 
the wholesale shoe-house of Carnahan & Co., is one of the leading insti- 
tutions of the kind in the state. The drug house of Meyer Bros. & 
Co. is one of the famous establishments of the city, and has a large 
wholesale trade. The field of the wholesale hardware trade is well 
occupied by the houses of Coombs & Co., established in 1862, Alderman, 
Yarnelle & Co., established in 1883, Morgan & Beach, who have done 
business for over thirty years; Pfeifer & Schlatter, established in 1882; 
G. W. Seavey, a house established in 1875 by Prescott Brothers, and 
saddlery hardware is sold extensively by J. W. Bell and A. L. Johns & 
Co. The wholesale paper trade, in its various departments, is repre- 
sented by Foster Brothers, the Newspaper Union, Siemon & Bro., also 
prominent in the book trade, and M. R. Yohey. 

The Fort Wayne newspaper union, which may be termed a whole- 
sale house, as it is indeed in paper and printers' stationery, is mainly con- 
ducted for the furnishing of ready printed sheets to newspaper publishers 
throughout the large parts of the states of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, 
and covers the field quite successfully. It is under the management of 
Charles D. Tillo, a thorough business man, who is well known among 
the publishers of the states named. 

The local trade of some of the famous retail houses of the city 
almost reaches the dimensions of the wholesale business, and these estab- 
lishments are resorted to not only by the people of the city but fre- 
quently by the inhabitants of towns at a considerable distance, customers 
who are drawn to the city by the shrewd advertising of Fort Wayne 
merchants and by the reputation of the latter for enterprise and attrac- 
tive business methods. 

The importance of organized action by those financially interested in 
the advancement of the city and the enlargement of its field of trade was 
recognized in January, 1872, by the incorporation of the Fort Wayne 
board of trade, the first officers of which were : A. P. Edgerton, presi- 
dent; J. H. Bass and R. G. McNiece, vice presidents; F. S. Shurick, 
secretary; Charles McCulloch, treasurer. On the 10th of November, 
1875, another organization was incorporated, called the chamber of com- 
merce, in which J. D. Bond, Thomas M. Andrews, F. S. Shurick, 
George T. Fowler and others were members. 

The remarkable improvement of the city during the past few years, 
is no doubt due in large measure to the efforts of the business men of 
the city to advertise in a systematic way, the advantages of the city, and 
attract enterprises which would aid in the increase of population. This 
work has been done mainly through the organization of the Business 
Men's Exchange. Late in the winter of 1886, A. S. Lauferty, the foun- 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 47 

der of this institution, caused the publication of several calls for a meet- 
ing for organization, primarily to devise ways and means for the 
establishment of new gravel roads and the freeing of those now entering 
the city. Several meetings were held during December, and the sub- 
ject named was exhaustively discussed without result. Finally at a 
meeting at which were present J. B. White, G. W. Seavey, Fred Eckart, 
J. B. Monning, D. N. Foster, Frank Alderman, A. J. Moynihan and A. 
S. Lauferty, the latter introduced a resolution, setting forth the need of 
united action on the part of business men, and the convenience of having 
a recognized head center for discussion and action concerning questions 
relating to the welfare of the city. The proposed association was dub- 
bed the Fort Wayne Business Men's Exchange, and A. S. Lauferty, 
Fred Eckart and J. B. Monning were selected to canvass for members. 
At the next meeting the association was formed with sixty members, and 
it was incorporated January 3, 1887- The first officers were: president, 
J. B. White; vice president, E. C. Rurode; treasurer, Fred Eckart; cor- 
responding secretary, A.J. Moynihan; financial secretary, J. B. Monning; 
directors, J. B. White, F. Beach, A. S. Lauferty, E. C. Rurode, Fred 
Eckart, J. B. Monning, Frank Alderman, D. A. Foster, L. Wolf, G. W. 
Pixley and O. W. Tresselt; trustees, Charles McCulloch, A. C. Trent- 
man and C. S. Bash. 

First amongst the achievements of the Exchange was the securing 
of the location of the school for feeble minded youth at this city. Rep- 
resentatives of the Exchange interested themselves in the matter, and 
by their efforts in setting forth the claims of Fort Wayne the legislature 
was induced to pass by the inducements held out by other localities, 
including even the capital itself, and direct the establishment of the 
school at this place. 

The locating of the Pennington machine works, the Folding bed 
company, the Bickford furniture company, at Fort Wayne, are also 
due to the efforts of this organization, and the piping of natural gas is 
in a considerable degree the result of its out-reaching for all improve- 
ments possible to add to the city's attractions and conveniences. In 
municipal affairs it is an important factor, and no question of public 
improvement is left undebated by the Exchange. Its members repre- 
sent the plucky, brainy and enterprising citizens of Fort Wayne. 

The present officers are: Samuel M. Foster, president; G. W. Seavey, 
vice president; Fred Eckart, treasurer; J. B. Monning, financial and 
recording secretary. 

August C. Trentman. — The leading commercial houseof Fort Wayne, 
and one of the largest concerns in the west, is the extensive wholesale 
grocery establishment of A. C. Trentman, located on the northeast cor- 
ner of Calhoun and East Washington streets. The laying of the foun- 
dation of this prosperous house dates as far back as 1848, when Bernard 
Trentman, in partnership with one Mills, established a retail grocery in 
this city. Two years later Mills retired from the business, and Bernard 
Trentman continued to conduct a retail establishment until 1864, and 



1^8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

then engaged in the wholesale trade. In 1865 his son, August C, was 
admitted as a partner, the firm then being entitled B. Trentman & Son. 
The senior partner died in 1874, and his son succeeded to the entire 
business, but conducted the same under the old firm name until 1878, 
when the latter was changed to August C. Trentman, as it has since re- 
mained, A. C. Trentman being the sole proprietor. The business con- 
tinued to increase from year to year, until in 1883 Mr. Trentman 
found it necessary to provide suitable quarters for the same, and in the 
fall of that year he began the erection of his present business building 
which is the largest in the city, and one of the largest in the west. The 
building is of brick, four stories and a basement, built in recent style of 
architecture, with pressed brick front, and occupies Nos. in, 113, 115 
and 1 1 7-19 and 20^ Calhoun street, and Nos. 1, 3 and 5 East Washington 
street, and has a total floorage of 45,000 square feet. The business is 
exclusively wholesale, the lines embracing all kinds of groceries, tobac- 
cos and liquors. The territory covered by the six traveling salesmen 
emploved by Mr. Trentman includes Indiana, southern Michigan, east- 
ern Illinois and western Ohio, and the amount of business is enormous, 
and increases each year. As before stated this is the leading commer- 
cial house in Fort Wayne, and the largest wholesale grocery establish- 
ment in the state, and as such reflects much credit upon the city as well 
as upon the gentleman who manages the same as the sole proprietor. 

Bernard Trentman, founder of this house, was one of the pioneers 
of Fort Wayne, and during life one of the most prominent citizens and 
merchants. Born in Hanover, Germany, in July, 1816, he emigrated to 
the United States in 1838, and was located first in Cincinnati, where he 
remained for about two years. In 1840 he came to Fort Wayne, his 
brother John having settled here two years previous, and he soon after- 
ward engaged in farming in Marion township. Later he worked on the 
old Wabash & Erie canal, and was employed in the City mills. In 
1848 he embarked in the retail grocery trade, and in 1864 converted the 
same into a wholesale business. He was a self-made man in every res- 
pect, coming to Allen county poor, and succeeding by good business 
qualifications in climbing to a high round in the ladder of prosperity. He 
was held in high esteem by the community, was a member of the Cath- 
olic church and died March 19, 1874. While living in Cincinnati in 1838 
he was married to Anna M. Rheinhardt, who was born in Hanover, Ger- 
many, in 181 7. To their union eleven children were born, seven of 
whom survive. The mother died in 1859. 

August C. Trentman, proprietor of the above establishment, and 
one of the most prominent citizens of Fort Wayne, was born in Marion 
township, Allen county, February 20, 1843, and is the son of Barnard 
and Anna M. (Rheinhardt) Trentman. He was reared in Fort Wayne 
and given a good education, attending both the Brothers' and the public 
schools of the city, and finishing at Notre Dame, Ind. In 1864 he en- 
tered business with his father, and upon the death of the latter, in 1874, 
succeeded to the immense business of which he is at present proprietor. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 49 

His commercial career has been a successful and brilliant one, and to- 
day he is recognized as one of the leading wholesale grocers of the 
west. Aside from -the grocery business Mr. Trentman is connected 
with other enterprises, being director of the Hamilton National bank, 
special partner in the business of J. B. Monning & Co., extensive spice 
and flour millers; stockholder in the Herman Berghoff brewing com- 
pany, all of Fort Wayne, and he is treasurer of the Koenig medicine 
company of Chicago. Success has attended the efforts of Mr. Trent- 
man in all his undertakings, and he is now one of the substantial men of 
the state. As a citizen he ranks among the most prominent of Fort 
Wayne ; in commercial circles he is recognized as the peer of an} T man 
in the state, and his reputation in that regard is spread throughout the 
west. Enterprising, energetic and liberal-minded, he has always been 
found ready to assist all movements looking to the advancement of his 
city, and for that spirit and his many commendable qualities he is es- 
teemed and respected by his fellow citizens. Mr. Trentman was mar- 
ried October 19, 1865, to Jennie A. Niermann, who was born in Fort 
Wayne, and is the daughter of Herman Niermann, who was one of the old 
settlers and prominent citizens. Seven children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Trentman, four of whom survive: May, born in 1871, graduated 
in 1889 from St. Mary's in the Woods; Carrie, born in 1873; Augus- 
tine, born in 1881, and Joseph, born in 1883. Mr. and Mrs. Trentman 
are members of the Cathedral church, and he is a member of the Cath- 
olic Knights of America. Socially Mr. Trentman and family rank 
among the first in Fort Wayne. 

One of the oldest business establishments of Fort Wayne is the 
house of Morgan & Beach. The hardware business to which it suc- 
ceeded was begun by Horace Durvy, in 1843, and taken up in 1S56 by 
Oliver P. Morgan, a native of Dearborn county, who has' been a resi- 
dent of the city since 1832. In i860 the present partnership was 
formed. Beginning in the retail trade, the house has now an extensive 
wholesale business. Mr. Morgan is a prominent citizen, is director and 
vice-president of the Old National bank, and has served as councilman 
and as school trustee for many years. 

David N. Foster was born at Coldenham, Orange county, N. Y., April 
24, 1841. His early years were spent on the farm of his parents, John 
Lyman and Harriet Scott Foster, and when fourteen years old he went to 
New York city, equipped with such education as he had been able to obtain 
in the country schools, and found employment as bundle boy in the store 
of William E. Lawrence, then a prominent merchant of the metropolis. 
Making rapid progress in his business education, at the age of eighteen, 
with his brother Scott Foster, he established the firm of Foster Brothers, 
which soon became one of the leading retail firms of the country, and partic- 
ularly well known to Indiana people by the large branch establishments 
maintained at Fort Wajme, Terre Haute and Lafayette. Mr. Foster 
had an ambition for the profession of law, and having devoted his spare 
hours to study, in i860 he sold out his interest to his brother, John Gray 



I50 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Foster, and entered an academy at Montgomery, N. Y. But his study 
was soon stopped by the firing upon Fort Sumter. On the morning of 
the day following the first call for troops by Abraham Lincoln the 
students at the academy hoisted a flag amid the cheers of nearly all the 
people of the town, and the excited throng was addressed by Mr. Foster, 
the orator chosen for the occasion, who concluded by announcing that 
he should leave at noon to enlist in the Ninth militia regiment, which 
had tendered its service by telegraph. He was the first volunteer from 
his native county, and going in as a private, carried a knapsack until 
December, 1862, when his commission as second lieutenant reached him 
while lying dangerously wounded in the hospital on the battle ground 
of Fredericksburg. Soon after the battle of Gettysburg he was pro- 
moted captain of his company. But he his wounds soon compelled him 
to leave the service. He was actively engaged in the battles of Harper's 
Ferry, Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock, Thoroughfare Gap, second 
Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. 
Returning to New York city, he re-entered the dry goods business, and 
in 1870 came to Indiana, and established the Terre Haute branch of 
Foster Brothers. In 1873 he disposed of his interest in the firm to 
engage in journalism, for which he had a decided taste, and he estab- 
lished the Saturday livening Post, at Grand Rapids, Mich., an enterprise 
which met with immediate success. In 1878 the health of his brother 
John having failed, he, at the earnest solicitations of his brothers, 
disposed of his newspaper and again entered the firm, coming to Fort 
Wayne, where were its heaviest property interests. Here he has since 
remained, and the business interests of the city have always found in 
him an active and valuable friend. He is the president and manager of 
the D. N. Foster furniture company, and of the Fort Wayne furniture 
company, and has recently been chosen president of the Central Mutual 
fire insurance company of this city. He is the owner of the Aldine hotel, 
recently completed, is director in the Indiana machine company, and is 
besides interested in a number of other enterprises. The people of 
Indiana are indebted to Mr. Foster for the Public Library bill passed 
by the legislature of 1881, under which nearly every city in Indiana 
has since established a public library free to all its citizens. At his own 
expense he circulated petitions in all the large cities of the state, praying 
for the passage of the bill he had prepared, and which was introduced 
in the senate by the late Senator Foster. Mr. Foster has always taken 
an active interest in the prosperity of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and was elected commander of the department of Indiana in 
1885. At that time the membership had rapidly grown to nearly 18,000 
in the state, but there had been little opportunity for perfecting discipline 
necessary to the highest good of the order. This work fell to his 
administration, and so thoroughly was it done that when he turned the 
office over to his successor there was not a post in the department that 
was not in absolute good standing. In politics he has always been an 
active republican, but though frequently named in connection with 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 151 

prominent positions, he invariably declined such honors. He is one of 
the originators of the Morton Club. 

Samuel M. Foster, son of John L. and Harriet Scott Foster, was 
born at Coldenham, Orange county, N. Y., December 12,1851, the youngest 
of seven children, six of whom were boys. When about fourteen years 
old he went to the city and entered the New York dry goods store of 
his brothers. In 1868 he went to Troy, N. Y., and in 1872 formed a 
partnership with his brother, A. Z. Foster, now of Terre Haute, in retail 
dry goods. The venture was profitable, so that two years later he found 
himself able to carry out his cherished plan of securing a collegiate 
education. Disposing of his business interests, he fitted himself for 
college, and in 1875 entered Yale at New Haven, Conn. His 
career there was a creditable one, and while holding his own in the 
class-room he found time to serve as one of the editors of the Yale 
Courant, won an appointment on the " junior exhibition," had the honor 
of being one of the " Townsend men" chosen from 132 competitors, 
and was named by the faculty as one of ten to represent the class on 
the platform on commencement day. He received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, June 26, 1879, graduating fourteenth in a class which originally 
had 200 members. Mr. Foster came west, and in the fall entered the 
law office of Judge R. S. Taylor, not decided in mind to take up the 
profession of law, but feeling that the time devoted to the study would 
be well spent. A few months devoted to alternately reading Blackstone 
and to regaining the health which had been impaired by his college 
work, convinced him that his constitution was not strong enough to 
enable him to win that success in law which he desired, and as a result 
of this conclusion, in December, 1879, * ne ^ rs ^- i ssue °f tne Saturday 
Evening Record, with Samuel M. Foster as editor and proprietor, was 
issued at Dayton, Ohio. His experience in journalism was short and 
decisive. The paper was a brilliant success in every respect but a finan- 
cial one, and though the editor's health gave out before his pocket-book 
did, serious inroads were made upon both. In 1880 the Record (now 
known as the JJayton Herald}, was disposed of, and Mr. Foster returned 
to Fort Wayne and resumed business life in the firm of Foster Brothers. 
This firm was dissolved in 1882, by the withdrawal of Scott Foster 
to accept the presidency of a New York bank, and the business of the 
firm was then divided, Samuel M. Foster succeeding to the dry goods 
department of the firm's trade. In this he continued until 1886, when 
he withdrew entirely from the retail trade, to devote himself to manu- 
facturing, a business which he has built up, and which is assuming large 
proportions, the product going into every state and territory in the Union. 
Mr. Foster is secretary of the D. N. Foster furniture company, president 
of the business men's exchange, and devotes much time to many 
questions of public interest and importance. In politics he was 
raised a republican but has joined the democratic party on the tariff 
issue. Mr. Foster was married in June, 1 881, to Margaret Harrison, of 
this city. 



152 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

John Frederick William Meyer now ranks among the earlier settlers 
of Fort Wayne, having been a resident for forty years past. His career 
has been a laudable and excepional one, which justifies in this work a 
short sketch of his life of activity and usefulness. He traces with much 
pride his ancesters, indirect lineage, to the year 1417, when John Henry 
Meyer wedded a modest girl of inferior rank and without domain. 
Much as this action displeased the parents, they soon became recon- 
ciled and they erected for him, conditionally, a small house on one end 
of the large farm, which remained the home of direct descendants for 
more than four centuries, until the year 1838. J. F. W. Meyer was born 
in Holden, province of Westphalia, Germany, December 19, 1824. His 
parents being in humble circumstance, the average limited education of 
those days was hardly accorded him, and the greater portion of his ear- 
lier days were spent on the greenswarth, herding the sheep. When he 
was nine years of age his father died, leaving a widow and six children. 
His mother again married, and in 1838 the old homestead, in which so 
many generations of one family had passed their days, reverted to the 
original domain, as conditioned four hundred years previous, and the 
Meyer family removed to a neighboring village. In 1846 the mother 
died, and on October 3, the following year, he and his younger brother, 
Frederick, set foot on American soil at New Orleans. Their goal was 
Adams county, and after two months of tedious travel by boat and afoot, 
they reached Monmouth, Adams county, December 3, 1847. The first 
four months were spent in clearing the woodlands, and in the following 
March, Mr. Meyer became a driver of a canal boat team. February 7, 
1849, he was engaged in the drug house of Hugh B. Reed, as bottle 
washer, but being of an industrious and ambitious disposition he soon 
gained a satisfactory knowledge of the business, and in 185 3 became a 
partner in the firm of Wall & Meyer. In 185 1 Mr. Meyer, then earning 
a salary of $15 a month, was married to Caroline Schroeder. One 
daughter and three sons were the fruits of this union; of the latter one 
died at the age of two years. Mrs. Meyer died in 1859, anc * the 
following year he wedded Julia Gerke. In February, 1862, the firm, 
then located on what is now East Columbia street, suffered a great loss 
by fire, but nothing daunted, the ambitious firm had a large consignment 
of new drugs started from New York in two days. In 1865 tne pres- 
ent location on Calhoun and Columbia streets, was taken, and in the 
same year the branch of Meyer Bros. & Co., was established in St. 
Louis, which is now numbered among the largest wholesale drug houses 
in the country. In 1875 the firm established another branch in Kansas 
City, which has since grown to immense proportions. A fire in 1883 
totally destroyed this stock, but the push that has always been charac- 
teristic of this house was again called into action, and in a few days 
sufficed to place then in position to serve the numerous patrons. In 1887 
the company also located a house at Dallas, Texas, and the firm of Meyer 
Bros. & Co., now stands at the head of the wholesale drug business of 
this country. Being of a religious turn of mind, Mr. Meyer attributes 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 53 

the greater portion of the success that has attended his seeming ventures 
to an all-guiding Providence, and modestly he asserts, it was so ordained. 
He has done much for the church and charity, both at home and abroad; 
always open-hearted and cheerful he counts his friends by legions. A 
loving wife and seven children, of whom three are married, afford him 
much comfort, and although already sixty-four years of age, time has 
dealt leniently with him, and he is as hale and hearty as many young 
men of half his age. He was honored by a membership in the city 
council four years, and for many years he has been a water-works trus- 
tee. Politically, he is a democrat, and his religious connection is with 
the Lutheran church. . 

George W. Pixley, one of the leading business men of Fort Wayne, 
who has gained a wide fame by his successful operations in the clothing 
trade, has been engaged in that business since 1872, when he became, 
at Troy, N. Y., the cashier of the first branch house of Owen Pixley & 
Co. In 1876 he came to Fort Wayne, and as resident partner estab- 
lished the house of Owen Pixley & Co., at this city. Mr. Pixley was 
born at Kirkland, N. Y., near Utica, March 1, 1834. His great grand- 
father Pixley was born in Connecticut, and during the revolution raised, 
equipped and furnished a regiment at his own expense. His son, David 
Pixley, was a native of Connecticut, and in 1806 moved to Kirkland, 
N. Y., nine miles from Utica, with his family, where he lived, kept a 
tavern and stage stables on the old Seneca turnpike between Utica and 
Syracuse, where the greater portion of the traffic between the east and 
west passed over that route before the days of railroads. He died at 
that place at the age of seventy-seven years, leaving four sons and two 
daughters. The third son, David, was the father of George W. Pixley, the 
subject of our sketch. He was born at Bridgeport, Conn., in Septem- 
ber, 1798, and died at Kirkland, N. Y., March, 1884. He succeeded 
his father in the hotel and stage business until what is now the New 
York Central railroad was built, when he went into the manufacture of 
brown sheetings and other cotton goods and general merchandise. He 
was postmaster and justice of the peace for over forty years, and was 
widely known and very highly respected. He married Charlotte 
Mygatt, who was born at Berlin, Conn., in March, 1805, and died in 
July, 1885, at Kirkland, N. Y. The Mygatt family were early settlers 
in Oneida county, N. Y. The father of Charlotte was Austin Mygatt, 
who was born in Berlin, Conn., in 1776, and died at Kirkland, N. Y., 
in 1863. He was the inventor and manufacturer of the first tin lantern, 
and made a fortune out of it. David and Charlotte Pixley had five 
children, of whom four survive: Henry D., Eliza J., George W. and 
Abby M. George W. received his education at the Clinton Liberal 
Institute, at Clinton, N. Y., and there was occupied in his father's store, 
then at farming and dairying until he entered his present occupation. In 
1885 tne °ld firm name was abandoned and the firm of Pixley & Co. 
was formed, which is now composed of the following: George W. 
Pixley, Henry D. Pixley, George W. Pixley, jr., Charles E. Read and 



1 54 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Robert H. Parmalee. In 1888 Mr. Pixley and Mason Long erected the 
magnificent business building in which the firm is now established at a 
cost of $75,000. The spacious room is splendidly equipped and there 
is every facility for the proper display of the immense stock and rapid 
disposition of their extensive trade, and great credit is due Mr. Pixley 
for giving to the city such a grand building, which will always remain an 
ornament and pride to the city. The same firm owns branch stores at 
Bloomington and Danville, 111., and George W., jr., and Henry D. own 
stores at Terra Haute, Ind., Rockford, 111., Streator, 111., Sioux City, 
Iowa, Sioux Falls, Dak., and Oshkosh, Wis. Mr. George W. Pixley was 
married at Kirkland, N. Y., December 30, 1870., to Sarah A. Lewis, 
daughter of E. Chauncey Lewis, born at Kirkland, N. Y., December 
30, 1 85 1. Mr. Pixley is a prominent member of the F. & A. M., has 
been a member of Clinton lodge, No. 169, at Clinton, N. Y., since 1855, 
was made a Knight Templar February 12, 1869, in Utica commandery, 
No. 3, at Utica, N. Y. Took the Scottish Rite at Indianapolis consis- 
tory, in March, 18S2, and the thirty-third degree in New York, Septem- 
ber 17, 1889. He has held for many years the responsible position of 
treasurer of the Jenney electric light and power company, and is president 
of the Tri-State building and loan association, capital, $1,000,000, a 
newly organized association for the purpose of assisting people in build- 
ing homes. In politics Mr. Pixley is a republican. 

Capt. James B. White, one of the distinguished citizens of Fort 
Wayne, was born in the town of Denny, Stirlingshire, twenty miles east 
of Glasgow, Scotland, June 26, 1835. His father was manager of a 
large calico printing establishment, which gave employment to over 500 
hands. His mother, a woman of strong intellect, strict in her religious 
life, was careful in the bringing up of her four sons and three daughters. 
At the age of twelve years James B. began a period of two years spent 
at the trade of tailor, but this he abandoned to take up calico printing, 
at which he was engaged until nineteen. Emigration being popular at 
that time, he embarked in a sailing vessel at Glasgow, and thirty-four 
days later, in the summer of 1854, arrived at New York. Seeking em- 
ployment at his trade, he was able to obtain work only until November, 
when, considerably discouraged, he resolved to search for an uncle, John 
Bains, who had settled near Fort Wayne, then in the far west, some ten 
years before. He went to Buffalo by rail, thence to Toledo by steamer, 
and by packet to Fort Wayne on the Wabash & Erie canal. He arrived 
here in the latter part of November, when his money was exhausted, 
and he was compelled to deposit his trunk at the packet office at the old 
Comparet basin in the east end of town, for the sum of $3, still due on 
his packet fare. He walked six miles out on the Winchester road, and 
obtained of his uncle the money to redeem his trunk. He obtained 
temporary work with Wade C. Shoaff, as a tailor, until January, then 
was employed a few weeks in a machine shop on the corner of Barr and 
Water streets, and in February began an employment in the stone yard 
of John Brown, which lasted three months at $3 per week and board. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 55 

He was subsequently employed with Mr. Shoaff, and Nirdlinger & Op- 
penheimer, and in the summer of 1856 opened a tailor shop of his own, 
upstairs in the building occupied now by Mayer & Graffee. Not being sat- 
isfied he went to Cincinnati in the fall, and then to St. Louis, where he was 
employed first as a shipping clerk, and then in a wholesale dry-goods 
house, but making only $6 per week, he resumed his trade as a tailor. 
This was his occupation for a year longer in Fort Wayne, where 
he returned soon, and opened a shop over the dry goods store of 
S. C. Evans. During this year, 1857, he was married to the estima- 
ble lady who has been his helper through life, Maria Brown, a half- 
sister of John Brown. They have seven children, four sons and 
three daughters, viz.: John W., Jessie, Anna B., Edward, Gracie, 
James B., jr., and Alex B., all of whom are living. Mrs. White was 
born in Glasgow, Scotland, in '1836, and came to this country in company 
with her brother in 1853. She is a daughter of John and Jennie (Blair) 
Brown, natives of Scotland. Her father was a man of more than ordin- 
ary ability, and was one of the most extensive contractors and builders 
of Glasgow, where he died in about 1840, leaving the family in good 
circumstances. The mother of Mrs. White was known for her well es- 
tablished Christianity and unswerving faith in the doctrine of the Pres- 
byterian church, of which she was a life-long member. She came to 
Fort Wayne in 1858, and died here in 1874. Mrs. White, like her 
mother, is a pronounced Presbyterian, and esteemed by all who know 
her. Mr. White's next enterprise was the acceptance of a position in the 
establishment of Becker & Frank, Warsaw, and after working there 
two years, he was able to have a shop of his own, a house and lot and 
a prosperous trade. The war of the rebellion now broke out, and in 
August, 1 861, he sold his little stock at a considerable loss and assisted 
in recruiting a company. He was elected captain, and he proceeded 
with his command to Camp Allen near Fort Wayne, where it was 
assigned as Company I, of the Thirtieth Indiana regiment. After being 
equipped at Indianapolis, they were sent to Camp Nevin, Ky., to join the 
command of Gen. Wood. The regiment was among the first troops to 
reach Nashville after the battle of Fort Donelson, and they reached 
Pittsburgh Landing in the command of Gen. Buell in time to participate 
in the second day's fight. In this battle of Shiloh, during the attack when 
Col. Bass was killed, Capt. White was wounded in the right side by a 
spent minie ball, but soon recovered, and took part in the siege of Cor- 
inth, and the skirmishes incident to that campaign. The Thirtieth then 
joined in the movement to LouisviUe in pursuit of Bragg, and followed 
the rebel forces back to Nashville. Soon after the return to the latter 
place, Capt. White resigned his commission in the army. In the spring 
of 1863, ne with Joseph A. Stellwagon, became suttler to the Eighty- 
eighth regiment, and was so engaged to the end of the war. During 
this time, he was twice captured by the rebels. Once he lost everything 
he had, his wagons and merchandise being totally destroyed in the 
Wheeler raid in the Sequatchie valley, near Chattanooga. The next 



I56 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

time he was paroled with little loss. Returning to Fort Wayne at the 
close of the war he established a grocery and fruit house, and was pros- 
pering when his establishment was destroyed by fire in January, 1872. 
Though his insurance did not cover forty per cent, of the loss, his reso- 
lute spirit did not fail him, and on the next day he opened for business 
in a building opposite his old stand, and had ordered a new stock. Two 
years later he had repaired his losses, and was again firmly established. 
Throughout the panic that occurred about this time he abated in no way 
the daring of his operations, and was uniformly successful. He has in- 
vested largely in real estate, and added much to the improvement of 
Fort Wayne, bv laying out new streets, and embellishing the four city 
additions which bear his name. The foundation of his reputation is his 
wholesale and retail grocery house, known throughout northern Indiana 
and northwestern Ohio as the "Fort Wayne Fruit House." This im- 
mense establishment, now quartered in a handsome new building on 
Wayne street, employs seventy-five clerks and employes, and does a 
business of nearly one-half million a year. He has also, in partnership 
with his son, John W. White, established a wheel factory, in which are 
employed about 200 workmen. It has a business which extends to every 
part of the Union, and is one of the largest establishments of the kind 
in the United States, producing all kinds of carriage and wagon wheels. 
John W. White is manager, and has made the business very successful. 
Capt. White was at one time a partner in the ownership of the Fort 
Wayne Gazette, and has always taken a deep interest in politics, though 
not often becoming prominent in political campaigns until recently. He 
was, however, twice elected to the council from the Second ward, a dem- 
ocratic stronghold, and in 1874 he was nearly elected clerk of the cir- 
cuit court by the republicans, in spite of a democratic majority of 3,000. 
In 1886 he was prevailed upon to accept the republican nomination for 
congress as representative of the twelfth district, and though the district 
had been surely democratic, usually by about 3,000 majority, he was 
elected by a majority of nearly 2,500, revealing his unbounded popular- 
ity. During his term in congress he was noted as a zealous worker, not 
only for the good of the people of his own district, but for the whole 
people, and he introduced several measures for the relief of the working 
people, which though they have not yet been adopted, will be recognized 
in the future as the proper foundation for legislation for the amelioration 
of the condition of the wage earners the world over. Such in particu- 
lar was his Minimum Wages bill. Also, during the fiftieth congress, to 
which he was elected, he took an active part in debates and particularly 
on the tariff bills. On the question of protection versus free trade, he 
was able to speak as a business man, with much weight, and his argu- 
ments were widely quoted, The following campaign was fought upon 
that line, and resulted in the defeat of Grover Cleveland. Since his re- 
turn from congress Mr. White has settled down to business with undi- 
minished energy, and having so many interests to demand his attention, 
real estate transactions, the Fruit House, and the factory, he will have 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 57 

little time for politics in the future. Capt. White has long been an at- 
tendant upon the First Presbyterian church, though liberal and charitable 
in his religious views. His kindness and open-handedness to all those 
who are distressed is as widely known as his name, and his quiet and 
unostentatious charity has made him beloved in many a humble home. 
Taken all in all, he is one of those self-made men who have the affection 
of their neighbors, and never loses an opportunity to serve them to the 
best of his ability. 

Mention of the business interests of Fort Wayne would be incomplete 
without notice of the famous wholesale house of Gilbert E. Bursley & 
Co., wholesale grocers. The house was established in 1880, and now 
enjoys an extensive custom throughout a wide territory. The proprie- 
tors have a thorough knowledge of their intricate business, buy in the 
best markets, and have the brightest and most capable salesmen extend- 
ing their trade in the prosperous region tributary to Fort Wayne. The 
house occupies a four-story brick building at Nos. 129, 131 and 133 
Calhoun street, having an area of 50x100 feet, and especially fitted for 
the business. Gilbert E. Bursley, the senior partner, was born at Barn- 
stable, Mass., April 9, 1837. His father, Joseph, son of Lemuel Bursley, 
a native of Massachusetts, was born in i*]gi, served in the war of 1812, 
and died in his native state in 1870. He married Deborah Lothrop, 
who died in 1840, aged about thirty-seven years. They had twelve 
children, of whom five are living, Gilbert being the youngest. He lived 
in Barnstable until sixteen years old, and then went to Boston to seek 
his fortune. He was first employed in a book store, and then by the 
Old Colony railroad, and enlisted in 1862, in Company B, One Hundred 
and Thirtieth New York infantry, and after one year's service, was dis- 
charged on account of ill health. He had visited Fort Wayne in 1861, 
and in 1868 he returned here and made the city his home. He was 
largely instrumental in organizing the Citizens' street railroad company, 
and superintended the construction of the road and the operation of it 
during the first ten years. A few months after the organization of the 
Fort Wayne organ company, in 1872, he became connected with that 
enterprise, and was general manager and the largest stockholder for ten 
years, during which he placed it upon a sound financial basis, and won 
for it an extensive business and high reputation. He married in 1861 
Kate P. Smith, of West Virginia, who died in 1871, and in 1876, mar- 
ried Ellen R. Aldrich, of Providence, R. I. 

James M. McKay, junior member of the above named firm, was 
born in Ontario, Canada, January 21, 1856. His father, Neil McKay, 
was a native of Scotland, born May 6, 1823, and emigrated with his 
parents and settled in Ontario, where he was educated and resided, 
holding the position of " Reave" for several years, until he came to the 
United States in 1864. He settled at Fort Wayne in 1868, and followed 
his occupation of railroad contractor until his death, November 26, 1882. 
He was a man of great energy, and was connected with the construction 
of many of the railroads of this country. He married Nancy Young, 



1^8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

who was born in Canada, December 29, 1833, and died in Fort Wayne, 
in May, 1872. They had eight children, three of whom are now living: 
James M., Nannie, wife of Neil McLachlan, and Jennie E. Mr. McKay, 
in 1880, became a member of the firm of G. E. Bursley & Co., and has 
attained a high rank among the popular and active business men of Fort 
Wayne. His career has been entirely the result of personal application, 
and his success is noteworthy. October 1, 1885, he was married to 
Elizabeth J. McFee, a native of this county, and they have two children: 
Neil A. and William. He is a prominent republican and a member of 
the Morton club. 

Louis Wolf was born in Germany, April 23, 1849, tne son °^ Samuel 
and Fannie Wolf, who lived and died in their native land, the mother 
passing away at the age of fifty-nine years in 1881, the father in 1889, 
at the age of about seventy. There are nine children living, of whom 
Louis Wolf is the second. His childhood was spent in Germany, where 
he received his earliest education. In 1865 he immigrated and settled 
first at Warsaw, Ind., where he entered the dry goods business in the 
employ of Becker Brothers. Two years later he came to Fort Wayne, 
and for five years was employed by the firm of Frank & Thanhauser. 
He then went to Plymouth and embarked in dry goods on his own ac- 
count under the firm name of M. Becker & Co. This business was 
kept up for four years, at the end of which time he sold out, and re- 
turned to Fort Wayne and purchased the interest of Mr. Thanhauser 
in the firm which had formerly employed him. Two years later he 
bought out Mr. Frank and ever since he has managed the large and in- 
creasing trade. The retailing of dry goods, carpets and millinery is the 
principal department, though a considerable amount of wholesale busi- 
ness is done. The establishment is located at 54 Calhoun street, and 
employs fifty to sixty people. Through the indefatigable energy and 
exceptional business ability of Mr. Wolf the store has come to be widely 
known as one of the foremost in northern Indiana. He was married 
in 1880 to Rebecca, daughter of Joseph and Caroline Stiefel, prominent 
people of Angola, Ind. Mrs. Wolf was born at that town, in i860. 
They have three children: Milton, Edgar and Florence. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wolf are members of the Hebrew church. 

Ernest C. Rurodeisone of the successful business men of Fort Wayne, 
a member of the firm of Root & Co., a dry goods house whose exten- 
sive wholesale and retail operations make it one of the most prominent 
institutions of the city, and widely recognized as one of the leading 
business concerns of the country. The business was established by 
McDougal Root & Co., in i860, the present firm succeeding in 1863. 
They moved into their present building in 1874; it is a three story brick 
52x170, fronting on Calhoun street, and 30x50, fronting on Main street, 
all fitted with the most ingenius of modern contrivances for faciltating 
business. The wholesale trade is extensive throughout Ohio, Indiana 
and Michigan, and the firm, being direct importers, compete with all 
markets. The retail trade is very large, the custom of the house not 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. I 59 

being confined to the city alone, but extending over a territory of fifty miles 
in all directions. One hundred and fifteen persons are given employment 
by the firm. Ernest C. Rurode was first associated with the business in 
i860 with the old firm, and in 1S62 took an interest in the same. For twenty 
years he has managed the wholesale and retail departments, and under 
his careful and shrewd management the business has grown to its 
present magnitude; thereby Mr. Rurode has gained for himself the 
widespread reputation as one of the leaders in Fort Wayne's commercial 
life. Mr. Rurode was born in Hanover, Germany, and is the son of 
Henry and Catherine (Hier) Rurode, who livied and died in Germany. 
Mr. Rurode received his early education in his native land, came to 
America in 1854, and first settled at Terre Haute, Ind., where he was 
in the dry goods business until i860. He was married in 1873 to 
Emma Pedecord, of Decatur, 111., by whom he has three children. In 
politics, Mr. Rurode is a republican. 

Carnahan & Co., wholesale dealers in boots, shoes and rubbers, is 
the title of a Fort Wayne house which has an extensive trade through- 
out four states. The house was established in 1872 by Carnahan, 
Skinner & Co., and this was succeeded in 1875, by Carnahan, Hanna & Co. 
In 1886, the present firm Carnahan & Co., composed of William L. 
Carnahan and Emmet H. McDonald, succeeded to the business. The 
establishment is located at Nos. 76, 78 and 80 Clinton street, a four- 
story brick building 60x60, and is stocked with a complete assortment 
of all grades of foot-wear, including boots, shoes, and India rubber goods. 
The purchases of the firm are made with such business acumen that the 
prices it offers are daily recommending it to dealers throughout the vast 
territory the salesmen of the firm are traversing. With annual sales of 
from $400,000 to $500,000, and a steady increasing patronage, the 
future of the firm is a very bright one. William L. Carnahan is the 
son of James G. and Margaret (Brown) Carnahan, both of whom were 
natives of Ohio. They removed to Indiana in 1833, becoming pioneers 
of Tippecanoe county. Settling at Lafayette, the father engaged there 
in merchandise. At that place William L. Carnahan was born March 5, 
1837, and growing to manhood there, attended the city schools and 
prepared himself for entrance to the state university, at which he was 
graduated At the close of the year 1856, he went to Nebraska, 
and remained in that state three years, the greater part of the time in 
Dakota county, and the city of Omaha, in the latter place being engaged 
in merchandise, and as clerk in the land office. Mr. Carnahan returned 
to Indiana in i860, and established himself in business at Delphi, where 
he was occupied for two years, after which he removed to Lafayette and 
embarked in the boot and shoe trade. * Two years later he became a 
traveling salesman for the firm of Carnahan, Earl & Co., of Lafayette, 
in which capacity he acted for eighteen months, at the end of that period 
becoming a member of the firm, which did businens under the title of 
Carnahan Brothers & Co., wholesale dealers and manufacturers of 
boots and shoes. Attending to the wholesale trade, he spent seven 



l6o VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

years altogether on the road. In January, 1872, Mr. Carnahan made 
his home at Fort Wayne and established the business above referred to. 
Mr. Carnahan's long and successful business career gives him a high 
rank among the prominent men of the city. He was maried in 1864, to 
Clara L., daughter of James Bayliss Hanna, of Allen county, and to this 
union four children have been born. 

One of the most destructive fires for many years in the business part 
of Fort Wayne was the burning of the establishment of Louis Fox & 
Bro., dealers in foreign fruits, and manufacturers of confectionery and 
crackers. This fine four-story brick building, 145, 147 and 149 Calhoun, 
and 1 to 11 East Jefferson streets, was entirely destroyed on the morn- 
ing of February 16, 1889, entailing a loss of about $55,000. It had been 
erected but two years before. The Messrs. Fox with characteristic 
energy set to work to rebuild, and the walls of an equally extensive and 
elegant building were erected by autumn. The members of this firm, 
Louis and August Fox, are sons of Joseph R. Fox, of Fort Wayne. 
The father was born in Germany, March 3, 1820, and came to Fort 
Wayne in 1848. He followed farming in Adams township four years, 
then engaged in gardening in the city until 1863, when he began his 
business of confectioner and restauranteur at 25 East Main street, where 
he still does business. He was married in 1848 to Mary Schnetz, a 
native of Switzerland, by whom he had three sons, Joseph in addition to 
those already named. 

Henry C. Graffe has been prominent in the business affairs of the 
city for many years. He is a native of Germany, where in the early 
part of this century Ludwick Graffe died at the age of thirty-four, leav- 
ing two sons, Frederick and Henry. The latter died in his native land 
at the age of seventy-four. Frederick, born in Brunswick, January 31, 
1809, was married in 1837 to Mar} r Ann Stark, who was born in 18 10, 
and in 1838, the young couple came to New York. May 28, 1840, 
they reached Fort Wayne. They brought with them their son, the sub- 
ject of this mention, who was born at Frankfort, March 1, 1838, the 
eldest of eight children, of whom six survive. Frederick Graffe was 
engaged in cabinet-making in the firm of Muhler & Graffe for twelve 
years, and then with the same partner for twelve years in the grocery 
business, until Mr. Muhler died. Mr. Graffe, sr., has since been en- 
gaged in the galvanized iron cornice, roofing and general tin business 
with his two sons George W. & C. M. His wife died in this city in 1882. 
Henry C. Graffe obtained a common school education, and in 185 1 
entered the jewelry house of Andrew Mayer, in this city, as an appren- 
tice for three years, and after three years' further service went to New 
York city, and was employed there three years in the same business. 
He returned to Fort Wayne, and after three years more with Mr. Mayer, 
went into business on his own account and was quite successful. In 
1865 he became a partner with his former employer, the firm being 
known as Mayer & Graffe, a partnership which continued until the 
death of Mr. Mayer in December, 1875. The latter was a native of 




Hjlui^ 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. l6l 

Germany, and immigrated to Dayton, thence to Fort Wayne in 1S44, 
establishing his business at that date. The business has ever since been 
continued in the same block on Columbia street. November 17, 1859, 
Mr. Graff e was married to Eliza A. Myers, who was born at Lancaster, 
Ohio, March 3, 1838, and they have three children living out of nine 
born: May E., Cecilia and Harry C. Mr. and Mrs. Graffe are mem- 
bers of the Catholic church, and he is in politics a democrat. From 
1874 t° I 876 he was a member of the city council, and is now president 
of the electric light and power company. 

Frederick Graffe, jr., a well-known jeweler, is a representative of 
one of the old and prominent families of Fort Wayne. He was born 
in the city, September 18, 1853, the youngest of six children of Frederic 
and Mary Ann Graffe. He gained his education in the Catholic schools 
and the commercial college of this city, and in 1871 entered the employ- 
ment of the firm of Mayer & Graffe, and served an apprenticeship of 
three years. He has since been connected with the same house and 
that of H. C. Graffe. For five years, from 1879, he had charge of a 
branch house at Wabash. He was married in 1882 to Jennie Polk, the 
oldest child of the late Col. Richard Polk, an eminent soldier of the civil 
war, who died at Wabash in 1877. Mrs. Graffe was born at Wabash 
in 1858. They have two children: Verva and Thomas. Mr. and Mrs. 
Graffe are members of the Catholic church, and he is in politics a 
democrat. 

A. F. Siemon, founder of the old and widely known house of Siemon 
& Brother, dealers in books and stationery, was born in Saxony, Ger- 
many, at the city of Ziesar, September 18, 182 1. His father, August 
Ferdinand Siemon, a native of Saxony, was a prominent man, a mer- 
chant at Ziesar, and postmaster and mayor of the city for a number of 
years. He died about i860. His wife, whose maiden name was Caro- 
line Grams, died in 182 1, eight days after the birth of her son. Mr. 
Siemon received a good education in his native town, completing it at 
the college of Brandenburg. In 1849 he came to America and traveled 
directly to Fort Wayne, intending to study at Concordia college. After 
an attendance there of about one year, he entered the employment of 
Towley & Freeman, as a clerk, and subsequently held similar positions 
with W. T. Abbott and Towley & Brother. He founded his present 
business in 1858, and in 1861 admitted his brother Rudolph as a partner, 
when the firm became known as Siemon & Bro. In 1885 the interest 
of Rudolph was transferred to Mr. A. F. Siemon, and the two sons, 
Henry and Herman, were admitted to the business as partners. At their 
present place of business, 50 Calhoun street, they have one of the most 
commodious store rooms in the city, occupying the entire four floors of 
the building, which is in dimensions 20x170 feet, and they carry a com- 
plete stock of books, stationery, wall paper, pictures and frames, doing 
an average annual business of $50,000 to $60,000. Mr. Siemon is one 
of the prominent men of Fort Wayne, a veteran in business and highly 
esteemed in all his relations with society. He is a member of St. Paul's 

XI 



1 62 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Lutheran church, of which he was trustee five years. He was married 
in 1854, to Lisetta Berning, of Hanover, Germany, who died in 1859, 
leaving two sons. In 1861 he was married to Helena Strunk, who was 
born in Fort Wayne, and they have three children. 

Gideon W. Seavey, proprietor of one of the largest wholesale and 
retail hardware houses in the country, has in a business career of some- 
what varied occupation, shown a notable ability in his different enter- 
prises. In 1864, being seventeen years of age, he left the farm and 
entered Company D, One Hundred and Fortieth regiment Illinois infan- 
try, and served until the close of the rebellion. The next year he 
entered Michigan university, and graduated from that institution in 1871, 
with the degree of B. A., receiving two years later, the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts. January 1st, 1872, he established the Hoopston (111.) 
Chronicle, which he conducted five years, making for it a wide reputa- 
tion as one of the ablest papers of eastern Illinois. His residence in 
Fort Wayne began in 1877, when he engaged in the practice of law 
with P. A. Randall. In 1880, he engaged in the lumber business, which 
he subsequently disposed of to enter the hardware business in which he 
is now occupied. He has been decidedly successful in his undertakings 
and is a valuable and enterprising citizen. Mr. Seavey's father was 
Winthrop Seavey, born in New Hampshire in 1802, son of Joshua 
Seavey of that state, who was a soldier in the war of 181 2. The latter, 
who married a cousin of Daniel Webster, died in Illinois in 1862, at the 
age of ninety years. Winthrop Seavey married Elizabeth Curtis, of 
New York, who was born in 1809, and in 1834, they ma de the journey 
from New Hampshire to Illinois by wagon, in forty-five days, and became 
one of the pioneer families of Lee county. They died in Illinois, the 
mother in 1853, the father in 1865. They had six children, of whom 
Gideon was the youngest. He was born at Palmyra, 111., February 14, 
1848. In 1874 ne married Amy C. Randall, born in 1853, at Avilla, 
Ind., daughter of Judge Edwin and Mary A. Randall. They have two 
children, Walter R. and Irma M. 

Frank C. Cratsley, one of the prominent book firm of Renner, 
Cratsley & Co., is a native of Fowler, Trumbull Co., Ohio, born Decem- 
ber 29, 1856. He is the son of William and Sabrina (Kingsley) Crats- 
ley, the former a native of Onondaga county, N. Y., and the latter of 
Trumbull county, Ohio. He was reared to the age of sixteen on a 
farm. His early education was received in the public schools, and later 
he completed a course in a commercial school at Elyria, Ohio. In early 
manhood he taught school for six months at Oberlin, Ohio. In 1881 he 
took a position as bookkeeper with Brown, Eager & Hull, a wholesale 
and retail book and stationery firm at Toledo. He continued with them 
in the same capacity until June, 1888, when he came to Fort Wayne, 
and he has since been a member of the firm of Renner, Cratsley & Co. 
Mr. Cratsley was married in February, 1881, to Adella, daughter of 
James and Ann (Bates) Hull. Mr. Cratsley and wife are members of 
the Baptist church. He is a member of the National Union and Royal 
Adelphia societies. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 63 

Henry B. Ayres, an esteemed and worthy citizen of Fort Wayne, and 
son of the late Dr. Henry P. Ayres, is one of the native busi- 
ness men of the city, having been born here on the 8th day of March,. 
1847. He has been associated with the drug business almost all his 
life, having become initiated in it in the capacity of clerk as early as 
thirteen years of age. With one exception, he has been identified with 
this business longer than any druggist in the city, and he has built up 
an enviable reputation as an honest man and as a competent and reliable 
pharmacist. He was married in May, 1870, to Miss Margaret A. Kirk, 
by whom he is the father of two sons: Henry Cooper, born in July, 
1872, and Kirk Banard, born in February, 1877. The social qualities of 
Mr. Ayres are admiraby well developed, and though of a retiring nature, 
he is, to his friends, most genial and companionable. He is a good man 
and his friends are numerous. 

Robert Ogden, in 1858, having just immigrated from England, 
came to Fort Wayne, and embarked here in the business of plumber, 
which had been the trade of his father and grandfather in the old coun- 
try, and which he had thoroughly learned. In October, 1859, he re- 
moved to Dayton, Ohio, and in 1870 returned to this city, which has 
since been his home. He conducts a large plumbing business, with his 
establishment at 26 East Berry street, and has achieved an honorable 
reputation. He was the first plumber to establish himself at Fort 
Wayne. Mr. Ogden was born near Manchester, England, January 9, 
1825, son of John and Alice Ogden, and when a small boy began learn- 
ing his trade with his father. He has been three times married. His 
present wife, to whom he was married July 3, 1888, is Agnes H., 
daughter of John Fowles of this city. She is a member of the First 
Presbyterian church. Mr. Ogden is a member of the Episcopal church, 
and is a prominent Mason, being a Knight Templar and a member of 
the lodge of Perfection. He is also connected with the Sons of St. 
George. He is a republican and a charter member of the Morton club. 
He stands high in both business and social circles. 

One of the leaders in the musical instrument trade in northern 
Indiana is Philemon Dickinson manager in this city for D. H. Baldwin 
& Co. He learned the jewelry trade early in life, with his father, and 
after the war he engaged in the jewelry business at Richmond, Ind., 
where previous to the war period he had dealt in musical instruments. 
In 1866 he removed to Des Moines, Iowa, and was engaged in jewlery 
two years, then going to Troy, Ohio, where he was in business four 
years, adding musical instruments to his former stock. These two 
branches of business he continued from 1873 to 1875, at Richmond, 
Ind., and in the latter year he removed to Indianapolis, and next year 
became associated with the firm of D. H. Baldwin & Co., of that city, 
a business alliance that has since continued. In February, 1885, he came 
to this city and took charge of the large establishment of the firm at 
98 Calhoun street, and has since successfully conducted it. 
Mr. Dickinson was born at Richmond, Ind., September 15, 1839, son 



164 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

of Charles A. and Sarah A. (McCoy) Dickinson, who were pioneers 
of Wayne county. In June, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company I, 
Eighty-fourth regiment, Indiana infantry, and served with the same 
company in the line for twenty-six months. He was then promoted first 
lieutenant, and transferred to Company H, One Hundred and Fortieth 
Indiana, and served as acting quartermaster until the close of the 
war. He participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Dalton and 
those incident to the Atlanta campaign, and was mustered out at 
Greensborough, N. C. Mr. Dickinson was married April 29, 
1862, to Olivia Lefevre, who died in June, 1872, leaving two children, 
Clarence and Laura May. He was married December 15, 1873, t0 
Emma Thompson, by whom he has one child, Mary Olivia. Mr. and 
Mrs. Dickinson are members of the Third Presbyterian church, and he 
is a comrade of the G. A. R. 

John Gilbert, a business man of the city, was born in Bohemia, 
March 9, 1833. In 1846, he came to the United States, and made his 
home at New York city, where he remained until 1S54. He then 
removed to Canada West, where he served an apprenticeship as a 
pharmacist. A year later, his brother having gone to Rockford, 111., 
he followed him there, and was engaged eight years at that city at the 
drug business. He came to Fort Wayne in 1866, and for fourteen 
years held the responsible position of manager of the wholesale and 
retail departments of the famous drug house of Meyer Bros. & Co. In 
1880 he was appointed manager for the Standard Oil company, at Fort 
Wavne, and now has charge of their immense business at this point. 
Mr. Gilbert was married at Rockford, 111., in 1861, to Harriet P. Mande- 
ville, a native of New York state, and daughter of Michael Mandeville, 
a pioneer of Winnebago county, 111., who died in 1885, at the age of 
ninety-four years. Mr. Gilbert is a member of Sol. D. Bayless lodge, 
F. & A. M., and is a charter member of Plymouth Congregational 
church. 

John W. Orr, a prominent gentleman, who is now engaged in the oil 
business with Joseph Hughes & Co., was born in Brooke county, W. Va., 
May 2, 1829. When ten years of age he removed with his parents to 
Belmont county, Ohio, and there most of his boyhood was spent. He 
was educated at Barnesville academy, in that county, under Professor 
Thomas Merrill, now president of the Newton (Iowa) college, and Pro- 
fessor N. R. Smith, formerly of Boston. After leaving school he went 
to Wheeling, W. Va., and served an apprenticeship as machinist. After 
four or five years he returned to Ohio, following his trade and 
clerked in a store. About i860 he went to Illinois and followed farming 
and school teaching for two years. October 1, 1862, he came to Fort 
Wayne and engaged as a machinist with the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad 
company, and later was in charge of an engine on the same road. In 
186S he took an engine on the Wabash railroad under W. F. Ray, mas- 
ter mechanic, and was so engaged until 1872, when he entered the 
Wabash round-house as assistant foreman, and was promoted foreman 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. l6$ 

of the same. He held this position until June, 1887, when he quit rail- 
roading and took the position -of bookkeeper with the house of Joseph 
Hughes & Co. During the absence of Mr. Hughes in Europe, from 
July, 1888, to July, 1889, he had the management of the business. Mr. 
Orr has always been a democrat, and has taken an active interest in the 
party affairs. He has been a Mason since 1854, and is a member of 
Summit City lodge. He is a member of the First Presbyterian church. 
Mr. Orr was married December 27, 1853, at Fairview, Ohio, to Ellen, 
daughter of Joseph Carlisle. To their union five children have been 
born : Joseph H., who holds a position in the First National bank of Fort 
Wayne; Charles W., assistant cashier in the Hamilton National Bank; 
Flora E., wife of Charles S. Bash, grain and commission man; Kate C, 
a teacher in the city schools, and James A., a stenographer for Bash 
& Co. 

Lewis O. Hull, one of the leading business men of Fort Wayne, 
came to this city in 1865 at the close of the war, and in 1S70 he engaged 
in house and sign painting. Nine years later he undertook his present 
enterprise, dealing in wall paper, paints and decorative materials, artists' 
materials, etc. He also carries on the business of painting and deco- 
rating, and does a large business in all departments, standing in the front 
rank in Indiana. He was born in Lucas, Richland county, Ohio, August 
7, 1849, son °f Wesley and Elizabeth (Deems) Hull, the first of whom 
was born in Ohio in 1817, the latter in the same state in 1826. In 1863 
the parents came to Fort Wayne, and here the father died in 1888, but 
the mother survives. Mr. Hull enjoys the distinction of having been 
one of the youngest soldiers in the war of the rebellion, having enlisted 
as a drummer boy August 10, 1862, at the age of thirteen years and 
three days. He was a member of Company B, One Hundred and 
Twentieth Ohio regiment, and saw hard service, participating in the bat- 
tles at Vicksburg, Arkansas Post, Jackson, Miss., Mobile, run the block- 
ade on the Mississippi at Vicksburg, was with the army of the Gulf, 
was on the Red river campaign, and was honorably discharged Novem- 
ber 5, 1865. Mr. Hull is prominent as a republican, and he is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order. He was married October 25, 1875, to Viola 
C. Markley, of this city, and they have three children: Grace, Clara 
and Mabel. 

On the west bank of the St. Joseph river, a mile and a half northeast 
of the court-house and a short distance beyond the limits of the city, 
Charles L. Centlivre, a native of one of the Rhine provinces, established 
a brewery nearly twenty-five years ago. There were at that time 
seven other concerns of the kind in Fort Wayne, one of considerable 
extent being owned by Franz J. Beck. The new enterprise thrived 
remarkably, and now many thousands of dollars that went to other cities 
for this beverage, is spent at home, to the great profit of the city. The 
brewery was established on a strip of ground between the feeder canal 
and the river, the difference in the levels of which is twenty feet, and 
thus a constant supply of water was obtained. The cellars were sup- 



1 66 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

plied with a patent cooling apparatus which constantly maintained a very 
low temperature throughout the extensive area in which the beer is 
stored. At first a white frame building was the principal structure and 
this gave way to a handsome brick building, which was destro}'ed by 
fire, Jul}' 1 6, 1889. 

Among the improvements of recent years, are the artesian well, 
which furnishes a constant supply of the purest water. Two new cel- 
lars of immense size were added in 1887, greatly increasing the storage 
capacity, and now the original plat of ground is nearly all excavated, 
and devoted to cellar room. The new building which takes the place 
of the one destroyed by fire, exceeds the old one in extent and is per- 
fectly adapted to the requirements of the business. . 

The immense proportions to which this business has grown may be 
inferred from the fact that the real estate, buildings, machinery, cellars, 
etc., are valued at over $300,000. The output in 1887 was 20,000 bar- 
rels. Associated with C. L. Centlivre in the management of this great 
establishment are his sons, Louis A., general manager, Charles F., super- 
intendent of the works, and John B. Reuss, general agent. Mr. Cent- 
livre has been very enterprising in improving the approaches to his 
establishment, and invested $9,000 in a street car line, which connects 
with the Citizens' railway, and he was a prominent promoter of the 
macadamizing of Spy Run avenue. The boat house, and the improve- 
ment of the delightful sylvan surroundings of that vicinity, are due to 
the enterprise of this house. 

The Berghoff brewery, which was founded in 1887 by the Herman 
Berghoff brewing company, is one of the prominent establishments of 
the kind in the west, and has a wide-spread reputation for the purity 
and wholesomeness of its product. The company makes a specialty of 
purely malt and hop products, being the only house in the west of that 
kind, and it has an extensive trade throughout the northwest and west- 
ern states. The special export brands, "Salvator" and " Dortmunder," 
the latter named after the birthplace of the Berghoffs, are well known. 
The capacity of the establishment is about 100,000 barrels a year. The 
building of this company is conspicous in the eastern part of the city, 
near the eastern end of Washington street, and is six stories in height, 
with a ground plan of 100x160 feet. It is equipped throughout with 
all the new and improved machinery for this industry. This building was 
erected in 1888 to replace the first one destroyed by fire. The company, 
of which Herman Berghoff is president and Henry C. Berghoff secre- 
tary and treasurer, was incorporated in 1887, with a paid up capital 
stock of $100,000. The estimated value of the plant is $250,000. Her- 
man Berghoff, president of the company, a man of remarkable business 
and executive ability, is a native of Germany. He came to Fort Wayne 
in June, 1870, and has been engaged in mercantile business ever since. 
Henry C. Berghoff came to this city in 1872, and has since been engaged 
in business, and was for eight years treasurer of the city of Fort Wayne, 
an office he filled to the general satisfaction. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 67 

Albert J. Dittoe, the well-known proprietor of the Boston tea store 
at Fort Wayne, was born in Perry county, Ohio, August 23, 1845. His 
parents were Jacob A. and Catherine (Cluny) Dittoe, the former of 
whom was born in Perry county, the latter near Wheeling, W. Va. 
Mr. Dittoe had his home upon the farm of his parents until he was 
twenty-three years of age, receiving his education in the common 
schools, and in St. Joseph's college in his native county, which he at- 
tended two years, after having passed the common branches at the early 
age of fourteen. At eighteen years of age he accepted a position as 
teacher ',in St. Thomas's Catholic school at Zanesville, Ohio, for one 
term, and during tbe winter which followed he taught in Perry county. 
In the spring of 1869 he came to Fort Wayne, where he has since been 
an active and prominent citizen. For two years he held deputyships in 
the offices of the county recorder and the clerk of the circuit court, and 
was for four years employed as bookkeeper and cashier of the whole- 
sale hardware firm of A. D. Brandriff & Co. In the season of 1873-4 
he was engaged in the ice business with his father-in-law, the late Peter 
Moran. Afterward becoming a clerk in a grocery store, he held that 
position until July, 1882, when he purchased the store, which he has 
since conducted with marked success. It is recognized as one of the 
leading establishments of the kind in the city and is popularly known as 
the Boston tea store. Mr. Dittoe was married January 25, 1870, to 
Margaret G. Moran, and they have had nine children: Mamie C, 
Charles W., Loretta A., Vincent A., Anna G., Peter A., Margaret 
May, Alice G. and Burnadette, all of whom are living save Anna G., 
who died in childhood. Mr. and Mrs. Dittoe are members of the 
Catholic church. 

Mason Long, a citizen of Fort Wayne whose career is widely known, 
has thus epitomized his life in his famous volume entitled " The Converted 
Gambler, and Save the Girls" : " My story is that of a bleak and cheer- 
less childhood, a youth of ignorance and hardship, a manhood of intem- 
perance and vice." This, however, he wrote from a standpoint he had 
attained of prominence among those who labor for the good of their fellow 
men. He was born in Luray, Licking county, Ohio, September 10, 
1842, and six years afterward his father died. He went with his mother, 
Margaret Long, a noble woman, to the home of her father, in Ashland 
county. There, when Mason was ten years old, his mother died, leav- 
ing him to the mercy of the world. He* was bound out to a wealthy 
farmer of Medina county, and his life for seven years afterward was one 
of slavery, doomed to cruelty, incessant toil, and deprived of education. 
This service finished he went to Illinois, where he worked and went to 
school a short time. In the spring of 1862, he enlisted in the One Hun- 
dred and Twelfth Illinois regiment as a private. Throughout the war 
he served, performing brave and patriotic duty with his regiment, which 
participated in the memorable defense of Knoxville, the bloody battle of 
Franklin, and the defense Nashville, under Gen. Thomas. During the 
service, having had no early training as a guide to conduct he entered 



1 68 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

recklessly into the gaining which was resorted to in order to pass away- 
tedious days in camp, and here the bent of his life, for many years to 
come, was formed. In August, 1865, he came to Fort Wayne and 
opened a grocery store, and abandoned cards, devoted himself to busi- 
ness, and for a while did well. But about a year later he accepted the 
invitation of a saloon-keeper to drink, and the invitation of a prominent 
citizen to play, and from that time his business was sacrificed. Fort 
Wayne was at that time a paradise for gamblers and confidence-men, and 
some of the largest games in the United States were maintained. In 
1866 and 1867, the city was also the headquarters of as desperate a 
gang of pick-pockets as could be found in the country, thoroughly organ- 
ized under the leadership of one Edward Ryan. They exercised a 
potent influence in politics and carried things with a high hand. Finally, 
Ryan robbed an old man named Tucker at the saloon which was the 
headquarters, and the latter attempted to shoot him. The result was 
the burning of the saloon by a mob, and the end of the gang. Mason 
Long, thrown into such surroundings, became known as a gentlemanly 
gambler, elevated above his associates by business-like honesty, manli- 
ness, high-mindedness and remarkable generosity to the poor. He had 
been an occasional attendant at the church of Rev. J. R. Stone, but the 
influence of that good man did not seem to be felt. In 1877, during the 
great temperance revival, when the the rink was crowded nightly, and 
the good women of the city labored heroically for the reformation of the 
community, a struggle was made for the enlistment of Mr. Long in this 
movement, he having attended the meetings out of curiosity, and finally 
he yielded and signed the pledge. The struggle that followed against 
his habits was a fearful one, but he conquered and soon became a famous 
speaker in the temperance cause. A great revival followed, the results 
of which for good are of incalculable extent. He was admitted to the 
Baptist church in 1878. Since then he has carried on the work of tem- 
perance agitation far and near, and has made many warm friends, and 
has done great good in many localities. 

A. Mergentheim, proprietor of the most extensive retail millinery 
house in northern Indiana, was born in the province of Westphalia, Ger- 
many, June 18, 1847, and in 1862 began the millinery business in Bre- 
men, Germany. In 1865 he emigrated to the United States, and set- 
tling in Philadelphia, was there for three years a clerk in the wholesale 
notion house of Metz Brothers. In 1870 he came to Fort Wayne and 
embarked in the notion business in a small way. His custom rapidly 
increasing he located at his present place of business in 1883, and the 
establishment now employs twenty-seven people. Mr. Mergentheim is 
the fourth of seven living children of Joseph and Bertha (Gans) Mer- 
gentheim, natives of Germany, who both died in their native land, the 
father in 1864, at the age of sixty-two, and the mother in 1854, a ^ forty- 
five years of age. He was married in 1875, to Josephine Hirsch, born 
in Newark, N. J., in 1856, and they have one son, Morton A. Mr. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 69 

Mergentheim has been very successful in business, which testifies to his 
sagacity and enterprise, and is a popular and worthy citizen. 

Thornton J. Fleming, a prominent merchant of Fort Wayne, has 
been engaged in merchandise since his majority, when he entered the 
dry goods business in Jay county. In 1883, he went to Dakota and 
returned to Fort Wayne the next year, and purchased what was known 
as the " old Kiser stand," where he has since done a flourishing busi- 
ness in dry goods, notions, and all kinds of gentlemen's furnishing goods. 
His father, J. W. Fleming, who now resides in this city, is a native of 
Virginia, and married- Nancy Sunderland, who was born in Montgomery 
county, Ohio, in 1819, and was killed by a railroad accident at Detroit, 
Mich., August 17, 1888. Thornton J. Fleming, the sixth of ten children, 
seven of whom are living, was born near Huntertown, December 30, 
1849, anc ^ spent his youth upon the farm, receiving a common school 
education. He is a member of Sol D. Bayliss lodge, having become a 
Mason in 1885; in politics he is a democrat. The building occupied by 
Mr. Fleming is an historic one, the date of its erection being 1838 or 1839. 

Aurora C. Keel, dealer in books, stationery, etc., at 139 Broadway, 
was born in Stark county, Ohio, July 19, 1835, son °f Joseph and Eliza- 
beth (Chestnut wood) Keel. The parents, who were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, removed to Ohio when young, and were married in Stark county, 
where they resided the rest of their lives. The father died August 8, 
1877, at the age of seventy-two, and the mother died October 18, 1882, 
aged seventy-eight years. Aurora C. Keel was reared on the farm and 
educated in the common schools. At the age of seventeen years he 
entered the hardware store of James A. Saxton, at Canton, Ohio, and 
three years later took a position as traveling salesman for the wholesale 
grocery and drug house of Weimert & Steinbacher, of Akron, Ohio, 
with whom he remained until the breaking out of the rebellion, April 
18, i86i>; enlisted in Company G, Sixteenth regiment, Ohio volunteer 
infantry, for three months' service, and went into quarters at Camp Jack- 
son, Columbus, whence the regiment was sent to West Virginia. It 
took part in the first battle of the war, at Phillipi, and was at Laurel 
Hill, when General Garnet tried to make his escape down Cheat river, 
and was engaged at Garrett Ford, where Garnet lost his life. The 
regiment then returned to Ohio and was mustered out after four months' 
service, receiving as payment $11 in gold per month. September 7, 
1861, he re-enlisted in the Nineteenth Ohio regiment and was elected 
second lieutenant of Company F. The regiment was assigned to duty 
in the army of the Cumberland. During the winter of 1 861-2 they 
were in camp at Columbia, Ky., and after the battle of Mill Springs 
joined the army at Bowling Green. At the latter place Mr. Keel was 
taken with typhoid fever and was sent to Louisville. Recovering from 
his illness he joined his command at Corinth, having been promoted 
first lieutenant April 30, 1862, and participated in the siege of that 
place. They were next at Battle Creek, Tenn., and with the army dur- 
ing Buell's movement from Chattanooga to Louisville. He was at the 



170 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

battle of Perryville, and afterward participated in the battle of Stone 
River. Just before the close of the last day of that battle he received 
a gunshot wound in the right arm which caused excission of the elbow 
joint, rendering that arm useless during life. He was placed in a field 
hospital, and later returned home on furlough. In the following Sep- 
tember he rejoined his command at Chattanooga, having been pro- 
moted captain on July 22, 1863. His disability unfitted him for field 
duty and he was recommended for the veteran reserve corps, and 
received his commission as second lieutenant of such from President 
Lincoln, March 8, 1864. He was on duty at Camp Rendezvous Dis- 
tribution, at Washington city, performing exacting and arduous work, 
until June, 1865, and received promotion from President Johnson to first 
lieutenant, and was sent to Concord, N. H., to assist in mustering out 
state troops. He resigned his position November 30, 1865, and returned 
to Ohio. In 1866 he removed to Ligonier, Ind., and engaged in the 
grocery and provision business. March 17, 1868, he came to Fort 
Wayne, and in company with H. V. Sweringen, M. D., established the 
Broadway drug store. The establishment was destroyed by fire in 1873, 
after which he was engaged in the preparation of an atlas of the state 
of Indiana. In 1876 he established the Broadway news depot and 
added thereto the present extensive stock. Mr. Keel is a member of 
the G. A. R. and the I. O. O. F. He was married in 1866 to Miss 
Mary G., daughter of Sarah J. McKenzie, of Ligonier, Ind., and they 
have had five children, one now deceased. 

J. G. Thieme, the senior merchant tailor of the city, in years of busi- 
ness career, was the senior member of the firm of Thieme & Bro., which 
was organized in 1850, and did business for many years at the corner of 
Columbia and Clinton streets, Since February, 1889, the firm has been 
known as J. G. Thieme & Son. They do an extensive merchant tailor- 
ing business and manufacture clothing on a large scale, employing forty 
to fifty hands. Mr. Thieme is a prominent citizen, and a member of the 
board of Concordia college, an institution which he helped to build and 
organize. He is a native of Saxony, born March 20, 182 1, son of 
Andrew Thieme, who was born in Germany in 1791, and died in his 
native land. J. G. began to learn the tailor's trade at eight }^ears of age, 
and in 1846 came to the United States and settled at Fort Wayne in 
1847, having spent the intervening time at New York. By his first 
wife, Mr. Thieme had one daughter, Engel, born in 1850. In 1851 he 
married Sophia Blecke, his present wife, who was born in Prussia in 
1833, daughter of Christian Blecke, who was born in Germany in 1800, 
and settled at Fort Wayne in 1839. Mr. and Mrs. Thieme have the 
following children: Pauline, born 1853; Mary, born 1S55; Traugott, 
now a minister at South Bend; Gottlieb, born i860; Clara, born July 
25, 1864, and Emma, born 1868. Mr. Thieme and wife are prominent 
members of the Lutheran church. Gottlieb C. Thieme, the junior mem- 
ber of the firm, was born at this city, February 20, i860, graduated at 
Concordia college in 1880, and in the fall of that year went into busi- 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 171 

ness with his father, being admitted to the firm in 1889. He is one of 
the popular young men of the city, and is an earnest democrat. 

The late Frederick J. Thieme was, during his active life, a leading 
spirit in some of the beneficial enterprises of the city of Fort Wayne. 
He was a good business man and prospered in his private affairs, but 
besides this, his public spirit led him to engage in projects for the gen- 
eral good. He was a prominent Lutheran, was one of the charter 
members of Immanuel's church, and for many years a trustee. He was 
also the first president of the Lutheran Mutual Insurance company. 
He was one of the founders of the City hospital, and its first president, 
a position which he held for three years. Mr. Thieme was born at 
Leipsic, Germany, February 7? !823, and immigrated in 1854, settling 
at Fort Wayne the next year, when he engaged in the clothing trade 
and merchant tailoring with his brother, J. G. Thieme, as a partner. 
The firm was first located on Calhoun street, subsequently removed to 
the corner of Calhoun and Clinton streets, and there lost everything by 
fire in 1862, but rebuilt in 1863. The firm continued in business until 
the death of Frederick J. Thieme, December 16, 1887. His wife died 
on October 14th of the previous year. Her maiden name was Clara 
Weitzmann; she was born in Saxony, in May, 1832, and was married 
to Mr. Thieme, July 12, 1852. They left the following children: Lon- 
nie, born 1855; Theodore, born 1857; John A., born 1859; J- ^., born 
1863; Frederick J., born 1865; Pauline, born 1S67; Hugh P., born 
1870, and Matilda, born 1873. John A. and' J. G. are leading merchant 
tailors of this city, at 12 West Berry street, under the firm name of 
Thieme Brothers. They are among the most promising and enterpris- 
ing young men of the city, and are active republicans. 

Edward J. Golden, of the firm of Golden & Monahan, whose busi- 
ness career has been a brilliant and successful one, is a native of the city, 
having been born here January 17, 1854, son of Patrick and Mary 
(Barrett) Golden, natives of Ireland. The father was born in 1810, 
and emigrated to this country when a young man. He was a contractor 
by occupation, and was engaged in the construction of the Wabash & 
Erie canal. The mother was born in 1815 and died at this city in 1880. 
In the same year the father passed away suddenly, dropping dead in the 
court-house. Of their six living children, Edward is the fifth. He was 
educated at the Brothers' school, and in 1877 began business in partner- 
ship with Dennis Monahan, dealing in hats, caps and men's furnishing 
goods, and manufacturing shirts. In 1886 they established a branch 
store at Defiance, Ohio, under the name "of Golden, Monahan & Co., 
and in 1889 another branch at Van Wert, Ohio, all doing a good busi- 
ness. The firm is the leading one in its line in this part of the west. 
Mr. Golden was married in November, 1881, to Louisa Hutzell, a native 
of Fort Wayne, born 1861, and they have two children: Charles E. and 
Edward G. He is a member of the Catholic church, and is a democrat 
in politics. 

Dennis Monahan, of the well-known firm of Golden & Monahan 



172 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

was born in Jefferson township, February 27, 1846. His father, John 
Monahan, a native of Ireland, born in 181 1, married Catherine Driscoll, a 
daughter of the Emerald Isle, and they came to Allen county in 1834, 
after which he was engaged upon the Wabash & Erie canal. The 
father died in 1866 and the mother in 1885. They had six children, 
four now living, of these latter Dennis being the youngest but two. He 
worked upon the farm and attended the common schools until December, 
1863, when he enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth Indiana regiment and served until the close of the war, participat- 
ing in the battles of Resaca, Kenesaw Mount, and the engagements about 
Atlanta and Kingston, N. C. Upon again taking up peaceful pursuits 
after this worthy military career, he engaged in the merchandise of 
men's furnishing goods in 1868, having an interest in the firm of Harper 
& Co., and in 1877? he formed his present partnership with Edward J. 
Golden. He is one of the prominent men of the city, is in politics a 
democrat, has served on the city council in 1886-7, ar *d is a member of 
the Catholic church. He was married in September, 1872, to Elizabeth 
Golden, who was born in Fort Wayne in 1849, an< ^ they have eight 
children: John J., Franklin G., Grace B., Thaddeus B., Alfred E., 
Benadette C, Dennis L., and Edith J. 

One of the oldest tailoring establishments of Fort Wayne is that of 
Joseph M. Clark & Co., of which firm a valued member is Perry N. 
DeHaven, one of the enterprising young business men of the city. Mr. 
DeHaven is a native of Wayne county, Ohio, born May 20, 1853. His 
father, Harrison DeHaven, married Nancy Stonehill, and they came 
many years ago to this city, where the mother died in 1872. Both par- 
ents were natives of Ohio. Of the three surviving children, Perry N. 
is the oldest. He received his education in the city schools, and in 1867 
entered the employment of Joseph M. Clark, who had been doing busi- 
ness here since as early as 1857. February 7, 1889, Mr. DeHaven 
became a member of the firm. Their establishment at 32 East Berry 
street, is one of the finest of the kind in the city and eight to ten skilful 
workmen are constantly employed, Mr. DeHaven is a popular citizen, 
is a past chancellor of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 116, K. of P., and in 
politics is a democrat. 

A worthy ex-official of Allen county, Charles Stellhorn, is a native 
of northern Prussia, and was born May 27, 183S. He remained upon 
the farm of his parents and attended the common schools until fifteen 
years old, when he learned the trade of boot and shoemaker. In 1856 
he emigrated to America, landing in New York city on Novem- 
November 2nd. He came directly to Fort Wayne, where three of his 
uncles were living, and began work at his trade. In 1870 he engaged 
in business for himself at his present stand, at 146 Calhoun street, at first 
doing only custom work, but in 1886 he added a stock of books, station- 
ery, cigars, tobacco and notions. In 1886 he was elected coroner of 
Allen county on the democratic ticket, and served two years. Previous 
to that he served as clerk for the coroner two years. Mr. Stellhorn was 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 73 

married in 1S60 to Frederica Ohm, of Fort Wayne, and they have had 
six children, four of whom survive: Louisa, Frederica, Charles William, 
Frederica, Henry. Mr. and Mrs. Stellhorn are members of the Emanuel 
Lutheran church. 

For a considerable number of years Gustave Spiegel, a worthy Ger- 
man citizen of Fort Wayne, has been engaged in the retail boot and 
shoe business, at No. 132 Broadway. He is a native of Prussia, born 
March 8, 1823. In July, 1846, he immigrated, and landing at New York, 
city, remained there until October, 1850, when he came to Fort Wayne. 
Having learned the trade of boot and shoemaker in Germany, he fol- 
lowed that as an occupation until about i860, when he opened a shop 
of his own, carrying a small stock of ready-made goods. About 1870, 
he opened a regular boot and shoe store at his present place, and has 
since carried a full line of all kinds of boots and shoes, and also does 
general repairing. Mr. Spiegel was married in 1847, to Mary E. Baals, 
of New York city, who was born in Bavaria, and emigrated to America 
in 1846. To their union nine children have been born, six of whom 
survive. He is a member of the Lutheran church, is an elder and a 
member of the school board, of Emanuel's church. 

Edward Gilmartin of Fort Wayne, an extensive dealer in tele- 
graph poles and lumber, is a native of Queens county, Ireland, where 
he was born January 13, 1840. He came to America in i860, landing 
in New York city on July 4 of that year. He came directly to Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and engaged with the Western Union telegraph company at 
that place. In the winter of 1861 and 1862 he was sent south to build 
military telegraph lines after the army of the Potomac, and was en- 
gaged in that work for about two years. Returning to Columbus, Ohio, 
the Western Union telegraph company assigned him to work for the 
Pennsylvania railway company on the east end. In 1864 the company 
sent him to Fort Wayne, and he was given charge of the western divis- 
ion of the Pennsylvania line until 1870, and then transferred to the 
G. R. & I. He built all that railroad line, in all six or seven hundred 
miles. He was engaged with G. R. & I. until November, 1887, 
when he resigned to attend to his private business. During his service 
in the Western Union and Pennsylvania companies he never lost a day 
in twenty-seven years. He had previous to that time been dealing in 
telegraph poles and lumber, and his business having greatly increased, 
his resignation was necessary. He now supplies the Western Union 
electric light and telephone companies, and Pennsylvania and G. R. & 
I. companies, shipping as far as Texas. In 1862 while laying a cable 
from Cape Charles to Fortress Monroe he was ship wrecked losing all 
personal effects. He was married in May, 1867, to Katherine Lynch, 
who was born in Dublin, Ireland, and came to America with her parents 
when a child. To their union eleven children have been born, nine of 
whom are living: Kate, now the wife of W. D. McDonald, superinten- 
dent of electric light works, Fort Wayne; Michael J., William P., 



174 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Mary A., Edward, Nellie, John F., Loretta and Alice. He is a mem- 
ber of the Cathedral congregation, and Catholic Knights. 

Frank R. Barrows, one of the leading photographers of Indiana, was 
born at Sturgis, Mich., August 5, 1854, son °f Julius M. and Eliza 
(Hammond) Barrows. His father, a native of Hartford, Conn., born in 
1S29, resides at Sturgis, and is well-known in that region as a skillful 
architect and builder. His mother was born near London, England, in 
1830. There are three living children of these parents, of which Frank 
R. is the second in age. He was educated in the schools of Sturgis 
and Lansing, Mich., and spent about three years in the profession of 
architect. In 1876, however, he engaged in photographv, an art for 
which he has shown the highest adaptability, and in which he has risen 
to the front rank, mastering all the remarkable advances which have 
been made by science, and combining with artistic skill such business 
methods as commend him to the public and at the same time assure his 
own prosperity. Three years after turning his attention to the art he 
came to Fort Wayne, and was until 1882, in partnership with Francis H. 
Clayton, under the firm name of Clayton & Barrows. At the latter date 
Mr. Barrows purchased the entire business and four years later, Mr. 
Clayton died at Chattanooga, Tenn. In October, 1888, he occupied his 
establishment at the corner of Berry and Calhoun streets. The patron- 
age of his gallery is not confined to the city, but embraces man}^ of the 
neighboring towns of Indiana. It is noted that the largest direct photo- 
graph to be obtained in the city, bears the name of Barrows. Socially 
he is one of the most popular men of the city. He was married March 
22, 1877, to Abbie Hanson, born in Massachusetts, and they have two 
children, Lulu G. and Ray H. 

Maurice L. Jones, a leading photographer, and dealer in photographic 
supplies, was born at North Manchester, Wabash county, Ind., August 
11, 1848. His father, Rufus T. Jones, is a native of New York, and 
now resides at Bunker Hill, Ind., engaged in farming. During the war 
he enlisted, in 1862, in Company A, Thirty- ninth regiment, and was 
placed on detail service. Maurice is the oldest child by the second mar- 
riage of his father, which was to Mary A. Burr, who was born in James- 
town, N. Y. In 1863 he enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and 
Eighteenth Indiana infantr}', and subsequently served in the Thirty-ninth 
regiment, and the Eighth cavalry, until the close of the war, marching 
with Sherman to the sea. Being honorably discharged in 1865, he came 
home and entered Bryant & Stratton's commercial college of Indianap- 
olis, from which he graduated in 1867. Until 1870 he was in the lumber 
business with his father at Bunker Hill, and then for four years in the 
employment of the Howe sewing machine company at Peru, Ind. There 
he engaged in photography, being a partner in the firm of Moore & 
Jones, and in 1876 came to Fort Wayne, where he is the second oldest 
photographer, and ranks among the best in this part of the state. In 
politics he is a republican; he wasa charter member of Mythra lodge, 
K. of P., at Peru, and is a member of Loyal lodge, of Fort Wayne, and is a 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 7 5' 

comrade of the G. A. R.,; was married in 1870, has a son and daughter. 
His son, Harry A., is now engaged in business with his father at 44 
Calhoun street, Fort Wayne. 

More than a half century ago John J. Jocquel became a resident of 
Indiana. Born in France in 181 2, he immigrated in 1832, and settling 
first at Cincinnati, then at Milton, Ohio, in 1836, he came into Indiana, 
and made his home first at Logansport, then at Peru, and in 1854 came 
to Fort Wayne. For a year he was foreman for D'erry & Maple, stove 
and tinware dealers, and then engaged in business for himself. In 1871 
he began dealing in oil and lamps, but in 1876 changed his business to 
books and stationery, at which he continued until December 1, 1887, 
when he retired from active life. While at Peru he was married to a 
daughter of Capt. Louis Drouillard, an Indian trader. She died in 
August, 1876. Mr. Jocquel, now in his seventy-seventh year, is one of 
the oldest members of the congregation of the Cathedral, for which 
building he furnished all the tin and galvanized iron work. He retains 
his mental faculties in a surprising degree, with an excellent memory of 
the early days. He was succeeded in business by his son, Louis Jocquel, 
who was born at Peru, in 1849. ^ e was educated in the Catholic 
schools, and in 1871, engaged in the book and stationery business. 
From this he retired in 1876, to accept the appointment of deputy asses- 
sor of Fort Wayne. After holding this position for three years he was 
in 1880, elected by the council to fill an unexpired term as assessor, and 
in 1882 and 1884 was elected by the people. He conducts a first-class 
bookstore on Calhoun street, making a specialty of Catholic books. 
He was married November 5, 1872, to Philomena, daugther of Jacob 
Glutting, of Fort Wayne. 

John C. Wagner, one of the foremost in the piano trade in this city, 
came to Fort Wayne in 1875, and soon became generally known as a 
skillful piano tuner. He has been busily engaged in this, and during the 
past five years has also dealt extensively in pianos, his present establish- 
ment being at 27 West Main street, where he has built up a successful 
business. He is unusually skillful in his profession and as a business 
man, and socially possesses the esteem and confidence of the community. 
He was born in Germany, October 4, 1851, son of Sebastian and Eliza- 
beth Wagner, and received his early education in his native country. 
At the age of seventeen he came to America, leaving his relatives in 
the old country, and from 1868 to 1875 made his home in New York 
city. Mr. W T agner was married June 3, 1873, to Maggie Schield, 
daughter of John and Margaret Schield. She died September 4, 1886, 
leaving three children: Bertha, Louise and Sophia. 

Henry Pfeiffer, senior member pf the hardware firm of Pfeiffer & 
Schlatter, had his introduction to the business in 1866 at Dillenburg, 
Germany, where he continued until the fall of 1868, when he immi- 
grated and settled at Fort Wayne. After attending the common schools 
some time he entered the employ of Morgan & Beach, and continued 
with them for more than thirteen years. In May, 1882, he formed his 



176 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

present partnership, and is now doing a handsome business, and is 
recognized as one of the leading young business men of the city. 
He was born in Prussia, April 17, 1851, son of Peter and Mary (Gick) 
Pfeiffer. The father was born in 1793? and died in his native land in 
1858. He had nine children, of whom Henry is the youngest. Five 
are deceased. In 1S73 he was married to Mary Meyer, who was born 
in New York city in 1850, and they have had four children: Henry, 
born 1874; Flora, born 1880; Albert, born 1882, and Bertha, born 1887. 
Mr. Pfeiffer and wife are members of the St. Paul's Lutheran church, 
and he is in politics a democrat. 

Christian C. Schlatter, of the hardware firm of Pfeiffer & Schlatter, 
was born in Cedar Creek township, Allen county, September 13, 1851. 
His father, Sebastian Schlatter, is a native of France, who came to the 
United States in 1838, and lived first six years in Wa} T ne county, Ohio, 
settling then in Allen county, where he died in 187 1, having devoted 
his life to the occupation of farming. He married Rebecca Conrad, 
who was born in Wayne county, Ohio, in 182 1, and now resides in 
Cedar Creek township. They had eleven children, of whom eight are 
living, C. C. Schlatter being the fourth born. He was raised on a farm, 
and at eighteen years of age went to Wooster, Ohio, and for two years 
attended high school, at the expiration of that period entering the em- 
ployment of D. D. Miller, hardware dealer. A year later he came to 
Fort Wayne, and was for ten years in the employment of Morgan & 
Beach, acquiring a thorough knowledge of the business, which enabled 
him, when he embarked in trade for himself in partnership with Henry 
Pfeiffer, at the expiration of the service referred to, to speedily gain a 
high rank among the enterprising and trustworthy business men of the 
city. He was married in 1876 to Addie Zimmerman, who was born in 
Cedar Creek township, May 6, 1856, and they have one child, Harry 
C, born October 26, 1885. Mrs. Schlatter is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

Theodore O. Gotsch, a prominent hardware dealer, of the firm of 
Smith & Gotsch, was born at Kendallville, Ind., June 25, i860. His 
father, Julius H. Gotsch, was born at Leipsic, Saxony, in 1830, came 
with his parents to Ameriea when a young man, first settled in Fort 
Wayne, and in i860 removed to Kendallville, where he died in 1872. 
He was a jeweler by trade. He married Lena Muessing, who was 
born in Frille in Kresse-Menden, Prussia, in 1835, by whom he had 
five children, three of whom are living, Theodore being the second. 
The latter received a common school education at his birth place, and 
in 1877 came to Fort Wayne, and the next year took a position with 
Prescott Bros. & Co., hardware merchants. In 1881 he began a six 
years' employment with Morgan & Beach. He embarked in business 
independently in 1888 in partneaship with Fred M. Smith. They pur- 
chased the store of T. J. Nolton, and are now doing a prosperous 
business. Mr. Gotsch made his own way in life since he was nine 
years of age, and is highly esteemed as a citizen. He was married 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 77 

November, 1884, to Carrie Johnson, who was born at Waterloo, N. Y., 
in i860. She died April 18, 1886. Mr. Gotsch is a member of St. 
Paul's Lutheran church. 

Fred M. £mith, of the hardware firm of Smith & Gotsch, was born 
at Watertown, Jefferson county, N. Y., son of Willett and Zilpha (Baker) 
Smith, both natives of that state. His father, born in 1834, died in 1887, 
at Watertown, and his mother, born in 1834, died at t ^ ie same place in 
1880. Mr. Smith, the second of three living children, attended the 
schools of his town, and then, in 1880 entered the Potsdam Normal 
school, whence he graduated in 1886. He was for two years principal 
of the Parishville graded school, and then in 1888, came to Fort Wayne, 
and engaged in the hardware business, purchasing the stock of T. J. 
Nolton. He carries a general line of light hardware, and is doing 
a good business. Politically he is a democrat, and socially he is highly 
esteemed, being generally classed among the prominent young business 
men of the city. 

Joseph A. M. Storm, who is a native of Germany, arrived in 
America with his parents in 1863, settling first at Philadelphia, where 
he resided until October, 1864, when he removed to Fort Wayne. In 
January, 1865, he entered the hardware store of Morgan & Beach, where 
he remained five years, then spending seven years in the same business 
with McCulloch & Richey. Subsequently, after three years' experience 
with Coombs & Co., as traveling salesman, he bought out the firm of 
McCulloch & Richey, and since has had that success in business that 
his twenty-three years' experience in his chosen line, and his natural 
ability in commerce have led his friends to expect. Mr. Storm was born 
in Germany on the river Weser, January 18, 1847,, son of Conrad and 
Sophia (Reiking) Storm. His father was born in 1802, in the town of 
Oberkirchen in Hesse and when he emigrated to the United States, 
settled at Philadelphia, where he lived until his death in 1884. He was 
by occupation a glass engraver. The mother of Mr. Storm was born in 
1808, at the village of Haevern on the river Weser, and now resides at 
Philadelphia. - Mr. Storm is the sixth in a family of eight children, of 
whom six survive, and received his education in Germany. He was 
married in 1873, to Caroline Paul, born in 1853, and they have one 
child, Matilda. They are members of the German Lutheran, church. 
In politics Mr. Storm is a democrat, and as such from 1885 to 1887, 
represented the Fifth ward in the city council, serving as a member of 
the finance committee during his membership, one year as chairman. 

In about the year 1855, John Spice, a native of County Kent, Eng- 
land, came to the United States, and settled at Buffalo. In 1861 he 
came to Allen county, and settled on a farm in Lake township. He 
was appointed superintendent of the county poor farm in 1869, and held 
that position until 1880, when he made his home at Fort Wayne, and 
engaged in business, dealing in pumps, pipe, and fittings, lightning rods, 
drive wells, water elevators, etc., and as agent for the Star wind mills. 
Established first on Broadway, the business was removed in 1885 to 

XII 



iy8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

No. 48 West Main street. The business was founded in 1865 by A. P. 
Kyle, who was succeeded by J. Y. Keyser, and he in October, 1880, by 
John Spice & Son. In July, 1887, John Spice retired from business, 
and removed to Hudson, Steuben county, where he and wife, whose 
maiden name was Frances Craft, are living a retired life. They had five 
children: John W., born in England, in 1841, died in 1877: Charlotte, 
died in chilhood; Fanny, born in England in 1853; Herbert, born in 
New York in 1857, died in 1880, and Robert, born in New York, June 
6, 1859. The latter succeeded to the business in which he had been a 
partner, in 1887, and has a large trade throughout a territory in- 
cluded in a radius of twenty miles. He was married in July, 1878, to 
Alice E. Richey, daughter of James Richey, of this city, and they have 
had five children, two of whom are deceased. Mr. Spice is a member of 
the Knights of Pythias. 

Louis J. Bobilya, one of the brightest and most active young busi- 
ness men of Fort Wayne, occupies the responsible position of general 
agent for J. F. Sieberling & Co., of Akron, Ohio, manufacturers of the 
Empire mowers, reapers and binders. He is a native of the county, 
born August 9, 1857. His father, August Bobilya, married Susan Buva, 
in their native country, France, and they then immigrated, settling first in 
Ohio, and removing to Allen county in 1851. The father died in the 
thirty-fourth year of his age, and the mother survived him until 1886, 
when she died in her fiftieth year. Louis was the third of five children, 
of whom four are living. After the death of his father he made his 
home with an uncle at Defiance until he was twelve years of age, when 
he entered the employment of Frank Alderman, in the agricultural im- 
plement business. Five years later he engaged with J. F. Sieberling & 
Co., as general agent for the state of Indiana. He is a Mason, and in 
politics a democrat. He has made his own way in life, and his success 
in business and good standing in all the relations of life, are highly grat- 
ifying to his many friends. 

One deserving mention among the young business men of the city is 
Alexander H. Boerger, a prominent young druggist, a native of this 
city, born July 15, 1867. He is the son of William and Elizabeth 
(Spring) Boerger., old and esteemed citizens of Fort Wayne. He 
received his early education in the public schools of the city, both English 
and German branches. At sixteen he took a position as clerk in a 
drug store, and a year later entered the Cincinnati college of pharmacy 
and attended two terms. Returning home, he spent a few months in the 
capacity of clerk, after which on August 1, 1887, he opened a drug 
store at No. 316 Hanna street, where he has since done a successful 
business. He is a member of the Salem Reformed church. Mr. Boer- 
ger is an upright young man, and a competent and reliable pharmacist. 
In the year 1884 John J. Brink established himself in the drug busi- 
ness at 43 Wells street, and has since enjoyed a profitable custom. He 
is prominent in his business, an enterprising and popular young citizen. 
Mr. Brink was born in this citv March 30, 1857, the son of Jacob and 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 79 

Catherine (Wismer) Brink. When he was eight years old he lost his 
father by death. In 1871, being then fourteen years old, he began his 
experience in business with his employment as a drug clerk, and he con- 
tinued to be engaged in that capacity until opening a store of his own. 

Martin Detzer, one of the most trustworthy druggists of the city, 
began his study of pharmacy in 1867, when he accepted a clerkship in 
a drug store at Defiance, Ohio. A year later he was employed in the 
same capacity at Napoleon, and four months afterward came to Fort 
Wayne. He was subsequently compelled by sickness to give up his 
position, and he was then employed for a few months at Bryan, return- 
ing then to this city and taking a position with August L. Selle, drug- 
gist. In 1878 he and his brother, August J. Detzer, became the 
successors of Mr. Selle, purchasing the stock after his death, and the 
firm of Detzer & Brothers prospered for nearly eight years. December 
14, 1885, Martin Detzer became the sole proprietor, by purchase of his 
brother's interest. His establishment at 260 Calhoun street, is one of 
the prominent drug stores of the city, and is enjoying a lucrative busi- 
ness. Mr. Detzer enjoys the confidence of the community as an honorable 
and upright man. He was born in Williams county, Ohio, May 23, 1851, 
the son of Rev. Adam J. and Charlotte (Neidhardt) Detzer, natives 
respectively of Bavaria and Alsace. When Martin was a small child 
the family removed to Defiance, Ohio. The mother died at Desplaines, 
111., September 26, 1873; the father, a minister of the Lutheran church, 
resides at Holgate, Ohio. Mr. Detzer first came to Fort Wayne at the 
age of eleven as a student in Concordia college, where he remained 
five years. He was married in December, 1874, to Lizzie, daughter of 
Rev. W. S. Stubnatzy, formerly a Lutheran minister at Fort Wayne. 
She was born in Illinois, in April, 1852. They have had four children: 
Phebe W., Charlotte E., Paul F. W. and Edith, the first and last being 
deceased. Mr. Detzer and wife are members of the Lutheran church. 

One of the popular young men of the city, and well equipped by 
taste and education for his business as a druggist, Henry C. Granneman, 
was born in Osage county, Mo., August 18, 1867. His parents are 
Charles H. and Minnie (Fisher) Granneman, natives of Germany, the 
father born in 1822 and the mother in 1826. They came to the United 
States about 1856, and subsequently removed to Missouri, but are now 
residents of the city. To them six children were born, of whom three 
are living, the youngest being Henry C. He came to Fort Wayne with 
his parents in 1873, and received his education at the Lutheran schools. 
He entered the drug business in 1883, in the employ of the well known 
firm of C. B. Woodworth & Co., with whom he still remains. He 
studied his profession in the Chicago college of pharmacy, of which 
he is a graduate, and he is a member of the Indiana state phamaceuti- 
cal association. He is a member of the Lutheran church, and is one of 
the Fort Wayne light artillery, Company G, of the first regiment. He 
is a republican in politics, and cast his first presidential vote for Benjamin 
Harrison. 



l8o VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

After a seven years' experience with the late Henry G. Wayne as a 
drug clerk, Charles O. Lepper, at present proprietor of the popular 
drug store at 66 West Jefferson street, embarked in business on his own 
account, September 27, 1S86. Mr. Lepper possesses a thorough 
knowledge of pharmacy, is a conscientious and trustworthy young man, 
and possesses in a marked degree those desirable business qualifications 
which insure success. He was born in Washington township, Allen 
■count)', January 27, 1864, the son of Lewis and Margaret (Good) 
Lepper. The father was killed in 1870 by the explosion of a boiler in 
his grist-mill, at New Haven, and soon afterward the mother and 
children removed to this city. Mr. Lepper began his engagement with 
Mr. Wayne in the drug trade in 1879. He ^ s a member of the Salem 
Reformed church, and also of the Salem literary society, being treas- 
urer of that organization. 

George H. Loesch, the well known druggist at No. 96 Barr street, 
is a native Indianian, born in Marshall county, October 31, 1856. He is 
the son of Christian and Augusta L. (Hamm) Loesch, both natives of 
Germany. The father was born at Heidelberg, and is a graduate of 
the university at that place, and the mother w r as born forty of fifty miles 
from there, in the state of Baden. They were married at Pittsburgh, 
Penn., about 185 1, and now reside at Plymouth, Ind. About ten years 
before their removal to the latter place, their son George H., was born, 
and his early education was received in the schools there. In November, 
1870, he took a clerkship in a drug store there, and after two or three 
years' experience, went to Chicago, where he spent over three years, 
having employment as a drug clerk, and also taking one course in the 
Chicago medical college, and two in the college of pharmacy, graduating 
from the latter March 11, 1876. In the latter part of the following 
month he came to Fort Wayne, and obtained a clerkship with the late 
George B. Thorp. A year and a half later he purchased the establish- 
ment, and has since conducted the business very successfully. He is 
quite prominent among the business men of Fort Wayne, is accomplished 
in his profession, and socially occupies a high standing. He was mar- 
ried October 29, 1S78, to Mary M., daughter of John and Mary M. 
(Mahler) Hohan, who was born at Lake Maxinkuckee, April 17, 1857. 
Her father, an old settler of Marshall county, is living at Plymouth, but 
the mother died in November, 1875. Mr. Loesch is a Knight Templar 
and a member of the lodge of Perfection. 

H. J. Seibold, superintendent of the Keller medicine company, of 
Fort Wayne, and a member of the Fort Wayne bill poster company, 
was born in Allen county, nine miles west from Fort Wayne, in 1856, 
the son of George and Dorothea (Seigel) Seibold, both of whom were 
natives of Germany. They emigrated to America in 1845 and coming 
directly to Allen county, located in Lafayette township, upon a farm. 
The mother died in 1875, at the a ge of fifty-seven, and the father has 
now passed his seventy-ninth year. Mr. Seibold was reared on the 
farm until fourteen years old and was educated in the country schools. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 8 1" 

Subsequently he came to the city and engaged, in April, 1873, in the 
drug business with T. M. Biddley. He remained in this position until 
the fall of 1879. He then engaged with C. B. Woodworth for two 
} T ears and became a half partner in 1881. On July 1, 1S86, he engaged 
in the hotel business as one of the proprietors of the Robinson hotel. 
He was thus engaged until 1888, when he took his present position in 
the Keller company. Mr. Seibold was married June 23, 1887, to Chloe, 
daughter of Captain H. C. Eastwood, one of the proprietors of the 
Brunswick hotel. Mr. Seibold is a popular citizen; is a member of the 
Elks, of the Evangelical association and the Apollo musical club. 

One of the handsomest drug stores of the city, that at 35 Calhoun 
street, is under the able management of Henry G. Sonimers, one of the 
enterprising young business men of the city, who became proprietor in 
the fall of 1887, purchasing the stock and the valuable business property 
which the store occupies. Mr. Sommers is a thorough druggist, and is in 
all respects adapted to carry on the business successfully. He is energetic, 
courteous and deservedly popular. • Mr. Sommers was born at Fort 
Wayne, September 16, 1863, and is the son of Frederick and Jennie 
(Mergel) Sommers, former residents of the city, now deceased. At 
fifteen years of age he became employed in the drug store which he. 
now owns, as clerk for his uncle, Henry G. Wagner, then proprietor. 
Under the tutelage of that prominent druggist he acquired a complete 
knowledge of the business. 

James Urbine, a well-known business man of Fort Wayne, is a na- 
tive of Allen county, born February 18, 1849, son °^ J onn B. Urbine, a 
native of France, who was born in 1821, son of Nicholas Urbine, who 
died in this county about i860. John B. Urbine came to Fort Wayne in 
1833, and helped in the excavation of the Wabash & Erie canal. He 
married Adeline C. Litot, who was born in France in 1822. Five o£ 
their children are living, James being the oldest. He received a com- 
mon school education, attended the commercial college, and in 1875 en ~ 
tered the employment of Dreier Brothers, and began his life occupation as. 
a druggist. After seven years' experience he became engaged with 
J. F. W. Meyer & Bro., where he is at present. In 1881 he was mar 
ried to Mary T. Golden, who was born in Ireland in 1859, and they have 
two 'children: Catherine C, born April 22, 1882, and James Ralph,. 
April 22, 1886. Mr. Urbine and wife are members of the Catholic 
church. They reside at 52 East Williams street. 

Fremont L. Jones was born in Grant county, Ind., August 10, 
1855, son of David W. and Jane (Atkinson) Jones. His father was 
born in Montgomery county, Ohio, in 1821, son of Obadiah Jones, a 
native of North Carolina, who died in Jonesboro, Ind. His mother was 
born near Dayton, Ohio, in 182 1, and died at Fort Wayne in 1882. There 
are six children of these parents living, of whom Fremont L. is next to 
the youngest. He came to Fort Wayne with his parents in 1S63, and 
received his education in the common schools and Fort Wavne college. 
In 1876, he removed to Grand Rapids and served an apprenticeship in 



1 82 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

the laundry business, returning the next year and establishing the now 
widely known Troy steam laundry, which is conducted under the firm 
name of F. L. Jones & Co. The establishment employs fifty people the 
year round, and does a great business, its custom extending widely 
throughout the adjacent counties. In politics, Mr. Jones is a republican, 
and is a member of the Morton club. He and wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. He was married in 1879, to Gertrude M. 
Hatch, who was born in this county in 1859, daughter of N. V. and Abi- 
gail (Parker) Hatch, who were among the first settlers of the county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jones have four children : Bessie L., David V., Ralph L. 
and Walter B. 

Ogden Pierce, one of the proprietors of the Troy steam laundry, 
above mentioned, was born in Green county, N. Y., March 19, 1830. 
His father, Eli Pierce, was born in the same state about 1775, and mar- 
ried Sarah Burgess, who was born in Philadelphia about 1797- They 
removed to APen county in 1844, and here the mother died ten years 
later, and the father in his eightieth year. They left seven children, of 
whom Ogden is the fourth. He was raised on a farm, obtained his edu- 
cation in the public schools, and in 1856 went to Milwaukee, Wis., where 
for some time he was engaged in the produce business, returning to 
Fort Wayne in 1870, where he has since resided. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed to the position of railway postal clerk on the Eel river line from 
Detroit to Logansport, which route he held until two years later, when 
he was transferred to the Michigan Southern line from Toledo to Chi- 
cago, and after two years to the fast mail between Cleveland and Chi- 
cago. In 1876 he was transferred to the Pittsburgh line railway post- 
office, and given charge of a car from Crestline to Chicago, which 
position he retained until January, 1884, gaining a reputation as one of 
the most valuable and efficient men in the service. He became a part- 
ner in the Troy steam laundry with his brother-in-law, F. L. Jones, ih 
1877, and since 18S4 has given the business his personal attention. He 
was married in 1870 to Martha A. Jones, born in Grant county in 1848, 
and they have five children: Ogden, Ethel, Robert B., Howard and 
Martha. 

Cassius A. Miller is an enterprising young business man of Fort 
Wayne, having been engaged with his father in the furniture business 
since completing his education. During an interval of two years, how- 
ever, 1875-7, he was in California, and while there he cast his first presi- 
dential vote for President Hayes. He has remained an earnest repub- 
lican, and is now one of the vice presidents of the Morton club. He is a 
representative of one of the oldest families of the city. He was born 
at this cityjanuary 10, 1853, to John M. and Sarah (Noble) Miller, and 
is the second of three living children of those parents. He received his 
education in the public schools and the commercial department of Fort 
Wayne Methodist Episcopal college. January 10, 1883, he was married 
to Minna A. Wright, a native of Allentown, Penn., daughter of Judge 
Robert E. and Maria Wright. Judge Wright died January 10, 1887. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 83 

Mr. Miller is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and his 
wife of the Episcopal charch. Their residence is at 103 East Washing- 
ton street. 

E. Shuman, dealer in furniture, was born in Mainville, Penn., May 
15, 1841, son of Isaiah and Mary Ann (Miller) Shuman, natives of 
Pennsylvania, in which state his father died and his mother now resides. 
He is the second of four children living. After receiving a common 
school education he came to Fort Wayne in 1863, and was for eight 
years in the employment of John M. Miller, furniture dealer, and then 
spent four years in Grand Rapids in the same business, returning to 
Fort Wayne to embark in the business on his own responsibility. For 
nine years he has been doing a successful business, also giving consid- 
erable attention to pawnbroking. He is a republican in politics, and is a 
member of the Masonic order. In 1869 he was married to Amanda 
M. Grover, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1844, and they have seven 
children: George, Frank, Gilbert, Katie, Arthur, Annie and Robert. 
Mr. Shuman is an admirer of fine horses, and has owned some noted 
animals, and in March, 1889, he purchased at Cambridge City, Ind., the 
famous mare, Lady Wonder, record 2:25, for $925. She has a colt, 
Anna Wonder, foaled June 1, 1889. Mr. Shuman's life has been active 
one, and he is noted for industry and application to business. 

Daniel Shordon the senior dealer in agricultural implements of Fort 
Wayne, embarked in that business here in 1870, and has been notably 
successful in his enterprises. He is also prominent as a citizen, and 
generally esteemed. In 1887, Mr. Shordon was elected a member of 
the city council for the second ward by a majority of twenty, he being a 
candidate on the straight republican ticket. He was born at Syra- 
cuse, New York, March 15, 1837, son of Stephen and Catherine 
(Keifer) Shordon, both natives of France. His father was born in 180S, 
the mother in 1807, and they came to America in 1835, an d after stop- 
ping four years in New York, settled in Springfield township, Allen 
county, Ind., in 1839, being one of the first families in the township. 
The father died here in 1882, and the mother lives in the city. Daniel 
is the oldest of their twelve children, of whom six are living. He 
attended the public schools and one year at the Notre Dame university, 
and also taught school for some time. In 1862, he enlisled in Company 
D, Eighty-eighth Indiana regiment, and served gallantly at the battle of 
Chickamauga, at which he was wounded, Stone River, Resaca, Peach 
Tree Creek, during the siege of Atlanta and at Jonesboro, the last bat- 
tle of the war, and was mustered out in 1865, as sergeant. On coming 
home, he went to farming, and while so engaged, served one term as 
trustee of St. Joseph township. He was married in 1871 to Susan Lau 
who died in 1874. ^ n I S8i he married Augustine Joly, born in Allen 
county in 1845. They are members of the Catholic church. 

Frank D. Paulus, who deals in engines and threshers and other ag- 
ricultural implements at 53 East Main street, has had a long experience 
in the trade, and few men are better qualified for success in that busi- 



184 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ness. Two years after the close of the war, he entered the employ of 
the firm of J. F. Sieberling & Co., of Akron, Ohio, and was with them 
ten years, after which he was employed by Aultman, Miller & Co., for 
thirteen years. He came to Fort Wayne in 1875, and is now princi- 
pally handling Walter A. Woods' binders and mowers, and the Huber 
threshers and engines. Mr. Paulus was born at Akron, Ohio, Novem- 
ber 23, 1842, son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Girrl) Paulus. Both parents 
were born in 181 2; the father died in 1845, and his widow now resides 
in Michigan. Frank, the youngest of three children, worked out for 
his board and clothes from nine to fourteen years of age, and then was 
employed by the month on a farm until October, 1861, when he enlisted 
in Company G, Sixty-fourth Ohio infantry, with which he served until 
December, 1864, participating in the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, siege of Atlanta and battle of Franklin. He was mar- 
ried December 31, 1868, to Mary C. Bolender, born in Stark county, 
Ohio, in 1846, and they are members of the Reformed church. He is 
a comrade of the G. A. R., a Mason and Odd Fellow, and in politics an 
earnest republican. 

Henry H. Schone, a prominent young business man, of the undertak- 
ing firm of Schone & Wellman, was born in this city December, 1859. 
His father, Henry J. Schone, a well known citizen, was born in Germany, 
September 15, 1815, came to the United States in 1840, and in the fall 
of that year settled in Fort Wayne. He is a tanner by trade, but for 
nineteen years was engaged in the grocery business. He is a faithful 
member of the Catholic church, and is highly esteemed by the com- 
munity. He was married in 1843, and by this union had one child 
Elizabeth. This wife died in 1857, and in 1858 he was married to 
Margaret Damon, who was born in Germany in 182 1. She gave him 
one child, Henry H. The latter was educated at the Catholic schools 
of this city and afterward attended the commercial college. In 1874 ne 
took a position as clerk in a dry goods store, and was so engaged for 
twelve years. In October, 1887, he embarked in his present occupation 
with Henry Wellman as a partner, and their business has prospered, 
even beyond their expectation. They are fully equipped for the proper 
and comely performance of their offices, do embalming according to the 
best methods, and in every way justify the noteworthy popularity which 
they enjoy. Mr. Schone was married October 18, 18S0, to Jennie E. 
Henry, who was born at St. Joseph, in 1858, and they have two children, 
Alnoria G. and Julian J., and Mary and Aloysius, deceased. He and 
wife are members of the Catholic church. 

George C. Brinsley, dealer in illuminating oils and gasoline, at No. 
85 West Main street, was born in Cheshire, England, April 25, 1826. 
He was reared in Staffordshire, and in 1850 came to America, and settled 
in New York. Two years later he removed to New Jersey, where he 
remained two years. He afterward resided successively in New York city, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania (Schuylkill county), New Jersey, New York 
city and Crestline, Ohio. On November 12, 1864, he enlisted in Company 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 85 

B, One Hundred and Seventy-ninth regiment, Ohio infantry, and served 
until his muster out near Nashville, Tenn., in June, 1865. He then 
returned to Crestline, Ohio, and was engaged in railroading with his 
residence there until 1883, when he came to Fort Wayne and engaged 
in the oil business. He does a successful retail and wholesale business. 
Mr. Brinsley is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and of Sion 
S. Bass post, G. A. R. He was married in England, in 1849, t° Sarah 
A. Hibbs, who died in 1876, leaving five children. In 1877 he was 
married at Mansfield, Ohio, to Sarah R. Nunamaker, by whom he had 
two children, one of whom is living. The children by his first marriage 
are: Louis S., born in 185 1, now farming in Kansas; George C, born in 
1853, in business with his father; Mary Ann, born in 1855; William, 
born in 1857; Charles E., born July 1, 1861, and the surviving child by 
his second marriage is Harry A. Charles E. was born in Cresline, 
Ohio, and remained ther until 1880, receiving a public school education. 
He resided four years in Springfield, Ohio, and then came to Fort 
Wayne, and went into the oil business July 1, 1887. He was married 
November 7, 1887, to Hattie E. Phillabaum, of Fort Wayne, and they 
had one child, Mabel S., born November 19, 1888, and died March 24, 
1889. 

• Weil Brothers & Co., a prosperous firm, doing a large business in 
pelts, furs, wool, etc., at 92, 94, 96 and 98 East Columbia street, is com- 
posed of Isaac and Abram Weil, both worthy and enterprising men. 
They began doing business as a firm in 1877 on Calhoun street, and four 
years later removed to 87 and 89 East Columbia street, where they 
remained until July, 1887, when the stock was destroyed by fire. The 
same year they built the present business house, sixty feet front, and 130 
feet deep. They employ more than fifty people, have an annual trade 
of $600,000, and do a business which is among the most extensive in 
this part of the country. The Weil brothers are children of Jacob and 
Rosa Livingston Weil, natives of Germany, who came to the United 
States about 1850, settled first in Cincinnati, and in 1858 came to Fort 
Wayne. They now reside here. Isaac Weil, the oldest of their four 
children, was born at Cincinnati, December 13, 1855. He was educated 
in the Fort Wayne schools, and in 1870 began to learn the trunk busi- 
ness, at which he was engaged two years, abandoning it to deal in hides, 
pelts, etc., on Bass street, where he remained five years. He is a mem- 
ber of Wayne lodge, No. 25, F. & A. M. He was married in 1888 to 
Rena Rothschild of Terre Haute. Abram Weil, the other member of 
the firm, was born at Cincinnati, December 16, 1S57, and is an enter- 
prising business man. 

William Fred Schulz, a well-known German citizen of Fort Wayne, 
and a leading sewer contractor, was born in Prussia on August 21, 1839. 
Emigrated to America in 1865. Learned his trade in Germany; came 
direct to Fort Wayne, and went to work for an employer, with 
whom he remained for fifteen years. Began contracting in about 1885, 
as one member of a partnership in the sewer business, and the next 



1 86 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

two years with Joseph Derheimer, still with him in sewer work. 
They do most of the city work, and recently took three large contracts. 
Married in 1866 to Wilhelmenia Kreger, who was born in Germany. 
Three children have been born to them, five altogether, two dead. 
Member of the St. Paul's Lutheran church. 

The Abstract Office. — Among the oldest and most reliable abstract 
companies of Indiana is that of F. W. Kuhne & Company, which began 
business as early as 1870. F. W. Kuhne, the senior member of the 
firm, is a native of Prussia, born in 1831, and he was raised and edu- 
cated in that country. In 1856 he came to America, on a visit merely, 
but liking the country, its people and institutions he concluded to remain, 
settled at Iowa City and became naturalized. February, 1866, he ac- 
cepted the position of deputy auditor of Allen county, Ind., and moved 
to Fort Wayne. He served the county as deputy auditor from March, 
1866, to October, 1875, and as deputy treasurer from 1875 to 1879, 
gaining in those positions a broad familiarity with the the lands of the 
county. In 1870 he became associated with John M. Koch and C. M. ' 
Barton in the abstracting of titles of real estate. Later Mr. [Kuhne 
purchased the interest of Mr. Barton, and about the same time David 
P. White became a partner in the firm. About 1875 Mr. Kuhne 
bought the interest of John M. Koch, and upon the death of Mr. White, 
he admitted his sons to the firm. Paul F., the eldest son, was born in 
Iowa City, Iowa, November 16, i860, received a good business educa- 
tion, and in 1877 entered the employment of the First National bank, 
where he remained six years. Richard H. was born January 14, 1862, 
and Charles W. Kuhne, the youngest son, February 5, 1864, both in 
Iowa City. The latter was educated in Fort Wayne and in the univer- 
sity of Michigan, graduating from the law department in 1887. He 
was admitted the same year to the Allen county bar, and is making a 
specialty of realty law and probate matters. The firm, thus composed, 
and headed by F. W. Kuhne, is a strong one, and does an extensive 
business in preparing abstracts, and placing mortgage loans, making 
collections, and selling exchange on Europe. 

John W. Hayden, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, was born in 
Brown township, Franklin county, Ohio, May 18, 1837. His father, 
Isaac Hayden, was born in Fayette county, Penn., March 21, 1809, and 
was married in 1833, to Elizabeth Crabb, who was born in Franklin 
county, Ohio, August 15, 1815. He was of English descent, she of 
Scotch, and their parents both served in the war of 181 2, his father 
being at the battle of the River Raisin. Their only other child was 
Emeline, born in 1835. ^ n 1848 the family removed to Kosciusko 
county, Ind., where they settled in a cabin on 160 acres of land, and 
here, without the advantage of good schools or church privileges, except 
such as the itinerant preacher furnished, John W. grew up to the age of 
nineteen, when he was sent to Fort Wayne college. He completed the 
course here in i860, but on account of a slight misunderstanding with 
the president, refused to accept his diploma. He began the study of 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 87 

law with Hon. Isaac Jenkinson, and was admitted to the bar. On April 
22, 1861, when President Lincoln called for three months' enlistments, 
he became a member of Company G, of the Twelfth Indiana volunteers. 
Being appointed second sergeant, he held that position until the expira- 
tion of his enlistment, when he re-enlisted for one year, but on account 
of disability contracted while in line of duty he was discharged at Pools- 
ville, Md., August 31, 1861. Returning home he was engaged for sev- 
eral years in the pension office at Fort Wayne, and subsequently began 
the practice of law. August 12, 1875, he was appointed register in 
bankruptcy by Judge W. Q. Gresham, which office he held until the 
repeal of the law in 1878. On the organization of the United States 
district court at Fort Wayne, he was appointed deputy by United 
States Marshal W. W. Dudley, and he held this place until the change 
of administration in 1884. In the meantime he had built up a large 
and lucrative real estate and loan business, at which he is now occupied. 
Mr. Hayden is a Methodist, as were his parents. Born a whig, he 
became an enthusiastic republican, and early in life adopted for his polit- 
ical motto, "Colonization and qualified suffrage," a doctrine which he 
still believes could have saved the union its tremendous sacrifice in set- 
tling the question of slavery. He was united in marriage May 18, 1866, 
with Sarah M., daughter of Dr. Samuel J. Green, of Wayneton, Ind., 
and they have had five children, two of whom are living: Grace G. and 
John R. Mr. Hayden is a Mason of the thirty-second degree, a Knight 
Templar and a member of the G. A. R. 

One of the most prominent and trustworthy passenger conductors in 
the service of the Pennsylvania company is Thomas M. Glenn. Has 
also of late years, when off duty, devoted much time to real estate, more 
particularly to the development of the south side, where his was one of 
the first offices of the kind established. His energy, candor and manly 
principles, have earned him an enviable' standing among all classes. He 
entered the service of the Pennsylvania company in the year 1858, at 
Lima, Ohio, as water boy on a gravel train, under the direction of the 
late O. A. Simons, and rose through nearly all the subordinate posi- 
tions in the service, to the position of passenger conductor in 1879, on 
western division between Fort Wayne & Chicago, since which time he 
has resided in Fort Wayne with the exception of about a year's leave of 
absence traveling with his family in California and Mexico. He occu- 
pies a high position in his calling. His gentlemanly and courteous man- 
ners and watchful care of his passengers, has made him popular with 
the traveling public, and given him the perfect confidence and esteem of 
his officers and associates. Mr. Glenn was born in Allegheny county, 
Penn., March 1, 1848, son of Robert and Ann (Smith) Glenn, who 
were both natives of County Antrim, north of Ireland, of Scotch descent. 
His father was born in 1813, and mother in 1817. They came to Amer- 
ica in 1839, an d settled in Pennsylvania, subsequently removing to Van 
Wert, Ohio, where his father died in 1876, and his mother in 1883. 
Thomas M. was the fifth born of their seven children, five of whom are 



1 88 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

now living. He was mar/ied at VanWert, Ohio, March 22, 1871, to 
Miss Viola C. De Puy, the accomplished daughter of Dr. W. W. 
De Puy, an old and prominent physician of northwestern Ohio. She 
was born at Laketon, Wabash county, Ind., January 24, 1853, and they 
have three children living: Walter D., Robert W. and Viola B. Her 
mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Bonner. Mrs. Glenn has been a 
member of the Second Presbyterian church of Fort Wayne, for many 
years. In 1874 Mr. Glenn took his first degrees in the order of Free- 
masonry, at Longmont, Col., St. Vrain lodge, No. 23, A. F. & A. M., 
and is now a member of Fort Wayne commandery, No. 4, Knight 
Templar, Valparaiso chapter, No. 137, Royal Arch Masons, and Por- 
ter lodge, A. F. & A. M. 

Capt. Allan H. Dougall was born in Glasgow, Scotland, July 17, 
1836. Twenty-two years later he emigrated with his father, John 
Dougall, and the younger portion of his father's family, arriving in Fort 
Wayne, June 2, 1858. The family settled in St. Joseph township in Jury, 
1858, where they engaged in farming. During the agitation in Great 
Britain for the abolition of human slavery in the British colonies, his 
father took a prominent part, and at the outbreak of the rebellion, fore- 
seeing that American slavery had to succumb ere peace would be 
restored, he willingly permitted the subject of this sketch and his brother 
William, to enlist in the army. Although comparatively unknown, 
Allan H. Dougall enlisted as a private in Company D, Eighty-eighth 
Indiana volunteer infantry, in July, 1862. He served with distinction at 
the battles of Stone River and La Vergne, Tenn., also in the Tullahoma 
and Chattanooga campaigns. He was severely wounded in his right 
arm and shoulder while leading his company against a rebel battery at 
the battle of Resaca, May 15, 1864. This wound crippled his entire 
right side and rendered him ever after unfit for manual labor. July 1, 
1864, he was promoted adjutant of his regiment, aud while serving as 
such he was shot through the left leg at the battle of Peach Tree Creek, 
July 20, 1864. From the commencement of " Sherman's march to the 
sea," to the close of the war, he was topographical engineer of the first 
brigade, first division, fourteenth army corps, under Gen. H. C. Hobart, 
and aid to Col. C. E. Briant, commanding the right wing of the brig- 
ade, composed of the Thirty-third Ohio, Eighty-eighth Indiana 
and Ninety-fourth Ohio volunteers infantry. At the battle of Benton- 
ville, N. C, he was wounded and left on the field, but succeeded in 
regaining our lines by Acorn run, and assisted in re-forming the brigade 
in support of the massed artillery which so materially assisted in decid- 
ing that battle. He was mustered into the G. A. R. in August, 1866, 
and is one among the oldest members in the department of Indiana, of 
which he has been chief mustering officer. He is past commander of 
Anthony Wayne post, and is at present a member of the national council 
of administration. For some time after his return from the army he 
was engaged in the milling business at New Haven, and was for several 
years clerk of that town and one of the school board, and commenced 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 89 

the first set of books for both these corporations. He is now engaged 
in the pension, government claim and insurance business. His peculiar 
adaptation to details, acquired in the adjutant's department, makes him 
especially fitted for executive work, and in whatever position of life he is 
planted, he is sought out for this work. The captain has always been 
a republican. He took an active part in the election of Abraham Lin- 
coln, and in every campaign since. In 1872 he was a candidate for the 
legislature, running ahead of his ticket, he receiving more votes than 
the governor and congressman in the county. He has been, at differ- 
ent times, and is at the present time, secretary of the republi- 
can central committee. Although of a retiring disposition he is 
sought out and urged to till these positions. He was one of the 
prime movers in the organization of the Morton club, and has held 
official position in that flourishing political organization. In Masonic 
circles he stands high, and is past master of Newman lodge 
of New Haven, Ind., past high priest of Fort Wayne chapter, 
and past illustrious master of Fort Wayne council, vice-presi- 
dent of the Fort Wayne Caledonian club. In August, 1862, he married 
Josephine Griffin who, with their two sons, John I. Dougall and Arthur 
H. Dougall, and their daughters, M. Inez Dougall and Winnie J. Dougall, 
are well known in Fort Wayne social circles. On coming to this 
country he brought with him his transfer from the old kirk of Scotland and 
affiliated with the First Presbyterian church of this city in 1858, and is 
still a worthy and honored member. Like his nationality he is a man 
of strong convictions, and when once convinced of the right, no power 
will induce him to turn. He is always known to fight for his principles 
to the last, and if need be, go down with them. His counsel is therefor 
eagerly sought after in whatever position in life he may be placed either 
in society, politics or elsewhere. 

Conrad Neireiter, general insurance agent and notary public, has been 
for years one of the prominent men in business life in Fort Wayne. He 
came to the city in July, 1848, having then been but little over a year a resi- 
dent of the United States. After landing at Baltimore, May 18, 1847, 
he had settled in Pennsylvania, and there passed the intervening time. 
He was first occupied here as a clerk in the general store of I. Lauferty, 
which position he held for four years, resigning it to go into business for 
himself. For some time he conducted a grocery, then for seventeen 
years was in the harness and saddlery business, was four years a whole- 
sale leather merchant, and then for several vears engaged in the manu- 
facture of trunks. In all these pursuits his correct business principles 
and upright dealing gained him the confidence of the public and the gen- 
eral esteem. For the past six years he has devoted his talents to insur- 
ance agency, managing the interests here of the German insurance 
company, of Freeport, 111., the Williamsburg City fire insurance com- 
pany of New York, the Rochester German, of Rochester, N. Y., and 
the Concordia, of Milwaukee, all reputable and responsible organiza- 
tions. Socially Mr. Neireiter enjoys in a marked degree the good-will 



190 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



of the community, and has many warm friends among his wide acquain- 
tance. In politics, he is a democrat, and was at one time honored by 
that party with a membership in the city council. He was married 
October 27, 1852, to Harriet Lepper, who was born in Germany, March 
5, 1834, and came to Allen county in 1845. They have three children: 
Kittie M., born October 1, 1858; Nettie F., July 11, 1862; Emma E., 
April 7, 187 1. Mr. Neireiter and wife are members of the German 
Reformed church. Mr. Neireiter was born in Germany, June 11, 1829, 
and is the eldest of five children living of Conrad and Mary Ann Nei- 
reiter. His father was born in 1804, and died at Fort Wayne in 1872; 
his mother born in 1808, died January 2, 1889. They came to Fort 
Wayne in i860. 

George K. Torrence, of the firm of George K. Torrence & Co., 
real estate and loans, was born in Fayette county, Penn., August 11, 
1835. His father, Robert Torrence, was a native of the county, born in 
1800, by profession a civil engineer. He married Sophia Kemp, who was 
born in Hagerstown, Md., in 1804. They resided in Dayton, Ohio, 
from 1850 until their deaths, which occurred, the father's in 1878, the 
mother's in 1879. They had four children, Emma R., George K., 
Mary A., who in 1867 married Edward Edmondson, who died in San 
Jose, Cal., in 1884, and Isaac M., now ticket agent at Denver, Col., of 
the Santa Fe railroad. In 1857 George K. went to New Orleans, and 
was engaged until 1867 in the sugar business, handling also sugar 
• making machinery. In the latter year he returned to Da} r ton, Ohio, 
and there resided until 1870, when he came to Fort Wayne and entered 
the employment of Hoffman Bros., with whom he remained four years. 
In 1874 ne went to South America and for one year was occupied in 
shipping fine cabinet woods to New York. Upon his return to Fort 
Wayne he was in the lumber business for several years, and then 
engaged in his present occupation. In politics he is a democrat; is a 
Mason, having been Master of Sol D. Bayless lodge, No. 359; and he 
and wife are members of the Presbyterian church. He was married 
July 10, 1867, to Alice Belknap, who was born at Frederick City, Md., 
in 1849. 

Robert L. Romy, upon coming to Fort Wayne in 1866, found 
employment for the first few months as a day laborer, and for twelve 
years following was engaged in farm life. In 1882 he embarked in the 
real estate and loan agency in the city, and is now one of the most suc- 
cessful in that calling, and in good circumstances. He is a native of 
Switzerland, born near Bern, March 2, 1851, son of Fredrick and Bar- 
bara (Lutth) Romy, who were both born in Switzerland, of French- 
German descent. The family immigrated in 1854 and settled in Wayne 
county, Ohio, where the mother died in 1861. Robert is the third of eight 
children. He was married March 18, 1871, to Catherine Yerks, born 
in Canada in 1841, who came to Fort Wayne with her parents in 1851. 
They have five children: James L., Nora M., Viola, Catherine A., and 
Ida C. Mr. Romy's residence is three miles northwest of the court- 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. I<?I 

house. He owns 920 acres of land, 390 of which lie in Allen county. 
He and wife are members of the Grace Reformed church, and he is an 
Odd Fellow, and in politics a democrat. At present, he is justice of the 
peace of Washington township. 

The Dreibelbiss Abstract of Title Company, one of the success- 
ful business associations of Fort Wayne, is composed of, and under the 
exclusive management of, John and Robert B. Dreibelbiss, who are 
prominent as business men, and in addition to their abstract business, 
which has assumed large proportions, do an extensive real estate and 
loan business, and are associated in various manufacturing enterprises, 
being stockholders in the Indiana machine works, and the Old Fort 
manufacturing company. They have offices in the Pixley-Long build- 
ing, East Berry street. John and Robert Dreibelbiss are sons of John P. 
Dreibelbiss, born in Bavaria, November 28, 1829, who was three years 
later brought by his parents to America. The family came to Fort 
Wayne by ox-team from Buffalo, N. Y. In 1852, John P. Dreibelbiss 
was married to Anna Saurer, who was born in Switzerland, April 24, 
1829, and seven children were born to them: John, Christian G., Christ- 
iana R., Conrad W., Mary L., Robert B., and Edward D. The father 
died December 31, 1886, aged fifty-seven years, and his widow is still 
living. John was born March 24, 1853, and was married to Kate M. 
Darrow, October 11,1877. He is in politics a republican. Robert, 
next to the youngest of the family, was born October 19, 1861, at Hunt- 
ington, Ind.~ is unmarried, and is politically a democrat. The brothers 
began in December, 1883, the laborious task of copying from the deed, 
mortgage and court records, all matters pertaining to the title of real 
estate in Allen county, and after completing this, incorporated, January 
1, 1887, the company above named. 

Edward L. Craw, engaged in the real estate and loan business, was 
born in Cleveland, Ohio, February 7, 1846. His father, James A. 
Craw, was a native of New York, born in 181 2, and was a stone mason 
and contractor. For sixteen years he was city sexton at Cleveland, for 
two years deputy provost marshal, and two years marshal of the city. 
He married Rhoda L. Lynde, born at Newark, Ohio, in 1819, who 
died June 26, 1846. He died November 11, 1864. Of these parents 
the youngest of three living children, raised at Cleveland, is Edward 
L. After receiving a good business education at the Cleveland institute 
he came to Fort Wayne in 1862, and until 1869 was in the postal ser- 
vice of the city, under Postmaster Drake. During the next two years 
he served in the Cleveland postoffice under Postmaster Benedict. Re- 
turning to this city, he was for twelve years a traveling salesman with 
A. S. Evans & Co., then for two years in the real estate and loan office 
of D. C. Fisher. Shortly afterward he engaged in the business on his 
own account, and has been eminently successful. He was married in 
1874 to Maria Rockhill, born in 1852, daughter of the late Hon. William 
and Elizabeth (Hill) Rockhill, and they have one child, George R., 
born in March, 1875. Mr. Craw and wife are members of the Episcopal 



192 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



church; he is a leading Mason, being a member of Sol D. Bayless 
lodo-e, No. 359, Fort Wayne chapter, No. 14, council No. 4, and grand 
lodge of perfection. In politics he is a republican. 

August H. Carier, a resident of Fort Wayne during the past thirty- 
eight years, is a native of France, born December 30, 1827, the fourth of 
five children of Claude and Rosa (Melnotte) Carier. The father and 
mother were both born in 1796, and both died in France, their native 
land, he in 1876, she in 1856. Mr. Carier was educated in France, and 
was a student at the seminary of Pont a Mouson, department of the 
Meurthe. In 185 1 he immigrated and settled at Fort Wayne, where 
for about three years he engaged in teaching the French language. He 
then embarked in the wholesale liquor trade, and was so occupied until 
1859, when he entered the insurance, loan and real estate business, in 
which he has been successful in a notable degree. His religious affilia- 
tions are with the Catholic church; in politics he is a democrat, and for 
two terms, 1869 to 1873, he was a member of the city council. He 
was married in France, in 1847, to Clemence M. Bourdon, who was 
born in 1828. They have three children, Juliette, now the wife of 
Henry Lingenfelser, of Milwaukee, Helene, and Clemence. 

Simpson Breidenstein, a well-known real estate and loan agent, made 
his debut in that occupation in June, 1872, when he entered the office 
of John Hough. He remained there until the death of his employer in 
1875, when he accepted a similar position with Fisher & Tons, who took 
charge of Mr. Hough's business. He was with this firm until 1882, 
when he embarked in the real estate and loan business on his own 
account, and has built up a prosperous agency. In politics he is a repub- 
lican. Mr. Breidenstein was born in Fort Wayne October 16, 1854. 
His father, Mathias Breidenstein, was born in Columbia county, Ohio, 
in 181 5, came to Allen county in 1840, and is by occupation a carpenter. 
He married Margaret Doctor, who was born in Hesse-Darmstadt in 
1825, and died at this city in 1883. Of their two living children, Simp- 
son is the younger. He was educated in the public schools and attended 
Fort Wayne college about two years. October 4, 1880, he married 
Margaret Rothefluoh, born in New York state in 1859, an< ^ they have 
one child, Jerome H., born in 1881. 

Benjamin L. Auger, one of the leading florists of Fort Wayne, was 
born in this city February 22, 1853, the son of Charles and Catherine 
(Trapp) Auger. The father was born near Versailles, France, in 1824. 
He was the son of a French florist and worked in the leading gardens 
of Europe, principally of France. He immigrated to America, and 
after spending some time in New York city, came to Indiana and located 
at Marion. In 1852, he came to Fort Wayne and engaged in market 
and flower gardening. Later, in 1869 when the city had sufficiently 
developed, he confined his business to that of a florist, exclusively, and is 
the pioneer florist of Allen county, and one of the oldest in the state. 
He is still a resident of Fort Wayne, being in his sixty-fifth year. His 
wife, who is now in her fifty-fifth year, was born near London, Eng., 




^^^^£Zc* As^^^&i^ 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 93 

and came to America at about the same time as her husband, to whom 
she was married in New York city. Benjamin L. Auger was educated 
in the Fort Wayne public schools, and spent three years at Notre 
Dame. After leaving school, he came into the business with his father. 
About 1873, he went to Cincinnati and had charge of the establishment 
of Cooke & Co., the leading florists of that city. Returning home in 
1876, he engaged in business with his father and succeeded the latter 
upon his retirement, in 1883. He conducts an extensive establishment 
and has probably the largest cut flower trade in the city. His place at 
No. 16 East Washington street, occupies 62x150 feet space, and in 
1887, he started a growing house, 150x150 feet, at Creighton avenue. 
In 1879, Mr. Auger was married to Lilian, daughter of James Bird, of 
Fort Wayne, and they have three children. Mr. Auger is a member of 
the National and State Florists' associations, Sol D. Bayless lodge, 
F. & A. M., the I. O. O. F., K. of P,. and Trinity church. 

Samuel Bard, a well-known and respected citizen of Fort Wayne, 
was born in Montgomery county, Penn., June 10, 1825, the son of 
Samuel and Mary (Yates) Bard. The former was a native of Mont- 
gomery county, Penn., and the latter of Philadelphia. The boyhood of 
Mr. Bard was spent in his native county, but in 1840 his parents removed 
to Stark count} T , Ohio, where he spent his youth and early manhood. 
He learned the carpenter's trade with his father, beginning at the age of 
sixteen. At twenty he became a teacher in the district school and alto- 
gether taught four winter terms. When not thus engaged he worked 
at the trade he had learned, and between his first and last terms of 
school he attended college at Meadville, Penn., two years. He w r as 
married in Stark county, Ohio, in 1850, to Mary, daughter of John and 
Mary Niesz, who was a native of Stark' county. For a number of years 
after his marriage Mr. Bard gave his whole attention to the carpenter's 
trade. In 1864 he removed to Fort Wayne, and in 1865, in connection 
with N. B. Freeman, began the erection of a paper mill at Fort Wayne, 
which was completed and Mr. Bard continued to be one of its proprie- 
tors until 1869/ In 1871 he removed to Logansport, where he was the 
proprietor of a paper mill for ten years. For two years thereafter he 
conducted a paper mill at Mansfield, Ohio. Mr. Bard returned to Fort 
Wayne in 1883, and here has since led the life of a retired citizen. He has 
had a career of activity and industry, and is now permitted to spend his 
declining years in comfortable circumstances. He is the owner of a 
valuable business block recently erected on Berry street, besides other 
property in the city. In politics Mr. Bard is a democrat. He and his 
wife have two children living, Frank I. and William A. 

Though a young man, William J. Barr has spent all his business life 
in Fort Wayne, and has become well and favorably known in business 
circles and generally. He was born at Springfield, Clark county, Ohio, 
February 3, i860, the son of Thomas and Mary Barr, who were born 
and married in Ireland, and emigrated to America in 1854. When 
William J. was but eight years old his father died and soon afterward 

XIII 



194 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

he accompanied his widowed mother to Port Wayne, their subsequent 
residence. As early as thirteen years of age he became engaged as 
clerk in a grocery store, and he has since been connected with a grocery 
store, either as clerk or proprietor, almost continuously. For a period 
of nearly fourteen years he was employed as clerk in the Yankee gro- 
cery, formerly one of the largest establishments of the kind in the 
city. In October, 1887, he engaged in the grocery business for himself, 
and he is now the proprietor of a large store at No. 25 West Main 
street, and enjoys a good trade. Mr. Barr was married April 5, 1883, 
to Cordelia, daughter of William and Susan Winget. They have two 
children : Walter A. and Jessie. Mr. Barr is a member of the K. of 
P., the F. & A. M., the Patriotic Circle and the A. O. U. W. In poli- 
tics he is an ardent republican. 

Jacob Bastian, mail carrier under Postmaster Kaough, is one of the 
younger citizens of Fort Wayne, who has made his own way in life 
and achieved a noteworthy degree of success. He was born in Ger- 
many, August 23, 1853, to George and Catherine (Hans) Bastian, 
natives of that country. He came to Allen county with his parents in 
1868, and here his father died in 1870, at the age of seventy-eight 
years. His mother, who was born in 1807, still lives in this county. 
Mr. Bastian received his education in the common schools and the Fort 
Wayne commercial college, and first worked for some time at common 
labor. From 1884 to 1886 he was in the bakery business for himself, 
and since 1887 has been connected with the postofhce. He is a demo- 
crat and influential in politics. In 1878 he was married to Maggie 
Scherer, a native of Allen county, born December 14, 1879, an d they 
have one child, Ida E. C. Mr. and Mrs. Bastian are members of the 
Lutheran church; they reside at 205 Madison street. 

A venerable citizen of Fort Wayne, Abraham G. Beaber, was one 
of the pioneers of Ohio, having removed to Tuscarawas count}- with 
his parents, Christian and Margaret (Gimmins) Beaber, in 1821. He 
was then thirteen years old, having been born in Westmoreland county, 
Penn., October 6, 1808. On October 20, 1831, he was married to Anna 
Mary, daughter of Isaac and Anna Mary (Flack) Thomas, of Tuscar- 
awas county. In 1848 he removed to Wells county, Ind., and farmed 
there for fourteen years, after which he came to Fort Wayne, where he 
has since resided, his home now being at No. 150 Broadway. During 
the greater part of his residence here he has been engaged as a car- 
penter. He is a member of the English Lutheran church, and in poli- 
tics a republican. During five years of his stay in Wells count}-, he 
has held the office of justice of the peace. During early life he taught 
eight terms of school. Mr. Beaber and wife lived happily together 
within four days of fifty-six years, when she passed away, October 16, 
18S7. They have had these children: Jemima, Elizabeth, Harriet (de- 
ceased), John T. (deceased), Isaac (deceased), Daniel D., Lafayette 
and Columbus C. Elizabeth, the second daughter, was born in Tuscar- 
awas county, Ohio, October 23, 1833, and was married September 10, 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 95 

1S54, to Elijah W. Sink, a farmer and school teacher by occupation, 
who was born in Tuscarawas county, March 30, 1834. He died De- 
cember 8, i860, leaving three children: Genoa Sebastian, Mary Alice,, 
and Florence Elizabeth, all of whom are living. 

John Beighler, a prominent citizen of Allen county, was born in: 
Fairfield county, Ohio, February 16, 1833. His parents, Enoch and Mary 
C. (Buskirk) Beighler, were both natives of Ohio, the former the son; 
of a worthy German father, who settled in Fairfield county in an early 
day, and died there in 181 2. Both Enoch and Mary Beighler were' 
born in Fairfield county, in 1810 and 181 2, respectively, and they both 
died there, the mother at the age of about forty-four years, the father in 
1888. John Beighler is the oldest son among their eight living children. 
He was reared on a farm, and received a common school education, fitting 
himself for teaching, which he was engaged in for five years in Ohio. 
He then engaged in farming, an occupation in which he has been 
notably successful, and was so occupied for four years before he came 
to Indiana. Removing to Allen county in 1857, he settled on the farm 
in Lafayette township where he now resides. The land was then un- 
improved, and he took it covered with forests, and was compelled to cut 
a road to his land from five points in order to have an outlet to the 
world. This is all changed, however, through his intelligent industry, 
and he has a beautiful farm of 160 acres, well improved. He was 
married in 1853 to Nancy Nonamaker, a native of Fairfield county, 
Ohio, a daughter of Jacob Nonamaker, who with his wife, was drowned in 
Walnut creek, Ohio, in 1849. Two children of this union are living: 
Dorothy Alice and Frances May. Mr. Beighler and wife are members 
of the Grace Reformed church of Fort Wayne, and he is a member of 
Harmony lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F. In politics Mr. Beighler has 
always been a steadfast friend of the democratic party, and ever active 
for the success of its tickets. 

Worthy of mention among the enterprising cigar manufacturers of: 
Fort Wayne is Louis Bender, a native of Germany, born June 24, 1845. 
He learned the cigar maker's trade in his native land, and came to 
America in 1869, proceeding directly to Allen county. He settled first 
at Maples, ten miles east of Fort Wayne, but in 187 1 returned to the 
city, and in 1872 began the manufacture of cigars, at No. 30 W. Main 
street. In 1878 he built his present property, at No. 168 E. Washington 
street, where he has since resided and carried on his business. He 
manufactures the following leading brands: "Polly," "Morning Star,"' 
" L. Bender's No. 4," " Boquet," and " Casino." He manufactures 
extensively for the local trade and also does a retail business. Mr. 
Bender was married in 1869, to Christina Braun, of Maples, and to them 
have been born ten children, six of whom are dead. Mr. Bender and 
wife are members of St. Paul's Lutheran church. 

Henry F. Beverforden, the well-known druggist, was born in Han- 
over, Germany, December 30, 1852, the son of August M. and Johanna 
E. (Reffelt) Beverforden, the former of whom now resides in Fort 



IC)6 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Wayne. The mother died March 22, 1889. At the age of fifteen Mr. 
Beverforden accompanied his father to America. They reached New 
York city July 25, 1868, and came directly to Fort Wayne. The 
mother and other children came in the following year. On September 
1, 187 1, Mr. Beverforden took a position as apprentice in the drugstore 
of the late H. G. Wagner, and remained with him until September 1, 
1876. A recommendation which Mr. Wagner gave him at the end of 
that time states that during three of the five years he had exclusive control 
of the prescription department, for which he is peculiarly adapted. He 
further recommends him as being thoroughly posted in all branches of 
pharmacy and as a sober and industrious young man. A few days after 
giving up his position with Mr. Wagner, he went to Kansas City, Mo., 
where he clerked in a drug store about fourteen months. Late in the 
fall of 1877 he returned to Fort Wayne and soon after engaged in the 
drug business in partnership with the late George B. Thorp. Six months 
later Mr. Thorp sold his interest to D. B. Strope, to whom Mr. Bever- 
forden sold his interest March 28, 1882. He then erected a building at 
294 Calhoun street, and started a new drug store May 1, 1882. On 
November 25, 1S85, he removed his stock to No. 286 Calhoun street, 
where he is doing a prosperous business. This, known as the Depot 
drug store, is well situated, and is in every respect a first-class store. 
He was married December 10, 1878, to Emma S., daughter of Freder- 
ick Kroemer, a pioneer of Washington township. She was born in 
Washington township, March 10, 1858. Their marriage has resulted 
in the birth of four children : Bertha, Laura, Ella and Otto, of whom 
Bertha and Laura are deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Beverforden are mem- 
bers of the Emanuel's Lutheran church. He is one of the most com- 
petent druggists of the city, and is an' honorable, upright man, one in 
whom the public has full confidence. His residence which he erected 
in 1882, is at No. 284 Harrison street. He also conducts a branch drug 
store, having erected and stocked a new building on the corner of Cal- 
houn and DeWald streets, in 1889. 

The residence in Fort Wayne of John Brossard, who has since May, 
1885, been doing a prosperous grocery business at 84 Wells street, 
began on December 28, 1854, when he arrived in this city from New 
York, having landed a few days previously from his native land. He 
was born in Bavaria, May 12, 1834, ^ie son of Andrew and Apollonia 
Brossard. There he worked at farming and at his father's trade, 
blacksmithing, until his emigration. Soon after reaching here he was 
employed for five seasons on the Wabash & Erie canal between Toledo 
and Lafayette, and then resumed the blacksmith's trade and worked at 
it for twenty-eight years, all but the first three of which were spent in 
the Pittsburgh shops. Mr. Brossard was married November 13, 1861, 
to Carrie, daughter of Caspar and Elizabeth Heingardner, early settlers 
of Fort Wayne. They have had three children, John P., Clara T. and 
Frank E., the first of whom died at the age of thirteen years. Mr. 
Brossard and wife are members of the Catholic church. He is a demo- 
crat in politics. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. I97 

Henry Buhr, for many years a farmer of St. Joseph township, and 
lately an extensive dealer in feed, at No. 20 Harrison street, Fort 
Wayne, was born in France in 1844. He was brought to America in 
1845 by his father Henry Buhr, who was also born in France. The 
father came directly to Fort Wayne, then a small village, and two years 
later removed to a farm in St. Joseph township, going first upon the 
Rudisill farm, where he remained five or six years. He subsequently 
occupied Judge Hanna's farm seven years, and then bought a farm of 
eighty acres in St. Joseph township, four and a half miles north from 
the city, on the St. Joseph river, where he now resides, in his seventy- 
eighth year. His wife died in 1871. To these parents nine children 
were born, two of them in France, and but two survive. Henry Buhr, 
one of these, was reared on the farm in St. Joseph township, and was 
educated at the public schools and the Brothers' school in Fort Wayne. 
In 1S64, he enlisted in Company B, Fifty-third Indiana regiment, and 
served in the Seventeenth army corps with General Sherman, and was 
discharged at Indianapolis in 1865. ^ n J^o, he began life for himself 
and has ever since been engaged in farming on his father's farm. He 
was married in 1865, to Lorinda Combs, by whom he had five children, 
of whom four are living, Charles Francis, George Edward, Catherine, 
and Henry Jacob. Their mother died in March, 1880, and subsequently 
Mr. Buhr was married to Mary Miller, by whom he has four children. 

For more than ten years Henry Busching has been one of the well 
known grocers of Fort Wayne. He is a native of German)-, born Decem- 
ber 9, 1854, the son of Christian and Wilhelmina Busching. Until the 
age of seventeen he remained in his native country, attending school 
until he was fourteen, and then assisting his father in the latter's nur- 
serv until he was seventeen. At that age he emigrated to America, 
reaching New York about April 1, 1872. He at once came to Fort 
Wayne where he has since lived. During the first year here he was in 
the employ of the Hon. Holman Hamilton. For two years thereafter 
he was employed as laborer on the Pittsburgh railway, and then one 
year in a restaurant. For four years following this he was engaged as 
a clerk. In 1878 he embarked in the grocery business at No. 272 Hanna 
street, where he has ever since had a successful trade. Mr. Busching 
was married January 11, 1880, to Katie Garmann, a native of Allen- 
town, Penn., daughter of Adam and Katie Garmann, the former a 
native of England, the latter of America. They have three children : 
Rosa, Emma and Elnora. Mr. Busching and wife are members of 
Zion's German Lutheran church. 

George W. Doswell, prominent as a wholesale and retail florist of 
Fort Wayne, is a native of Wisconsin, born September 20, 1854, the son 
of J. H. Doswell, elsewhere mentioned. Mr. Doswell began business in 
Fort Wayne in 1877, establishing a green house at his present place of 
business, on West Main street, near Lindenwood cemetery. He began 
on a small scale, with one house, 10x40 feet, with 400 feet of glass, but 
under his skillful management the business has prospered, and now 



1;q8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

about 8,000 feet of glass are required to cover his stock. He deals in cut 
flowers and plants exclusively, and has a trade which extends over a 
considerable territory outside of the city. His business amounts to about 
$2,500 annually, and he ranks among the leading florists. Mr. Doswell 
is a member of the Episcopal church, and of the Canton lodge, No. 14, 
I. O. O. F., and Sons of St. George, and several beneficiary societies. 
He was married in 1876 to Lucy Jocker of this city, who died in Octo- 
ber, 188 1, leaving one child. In 1885 he was married to Mary Webb 
of this city, and to their union three children have been born, one of 
whom is deceased. 

John C. Eckert, an enterprising citizen of Fort Wayne, and manu- 
facturer of cigars, was born in Dauphin county, Penn., April 22, 1836, 
the son of John C. and Sarah (Turner) Eckert, both of whom were 
natives of Pennsylvania. The father died about 1844, and the mother 
in April, 187 1. John C. was reared in Harrisburg, Penn., and in 1851 
he began the cigar maker's trade there and was engaged in it at that 
city until 1857. He then went to Ohio, but in 1859 returned to Harris- 
burg. In August, 1862, he enlisted in the state troops of Pennsylvania, 
joining the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh regiment, being one of 
the nineteen regiments called out by Governor Curtin for nine months' 
service. In May, 1863, he was mustered out, and in September following 
he came to Fort Wayne, where he has since resided. Upon locating 
in Fort Wayne he went to work at his trade, and in 1870, he opened an 
establishment of his own and began the manufacture of cigars, making 
a specialty of the brand " 39 ", which has been widely popular for over 
nineteen years. His factory is at No. 39, and his place of business at 
No. 85 Calhoun street. Mr. Eckert is a member of Harmony lodge, 
No. 19, I. O. O. F. He was married February 8, 1857, to Rachel 
A. Walters, who was born in Dauphin county, Penn. To this union 
six children have been born: Charles H., born April 30, 1859; William, 
March 26, 1861; David, February 4, 1865; Jesse, June 13, 1868; 
■Catherine G., July 19, 1870, and John C, May 8, 1874. 

Subsequent to the war of the rebellion, in which he did patriotic 
service, Charles Ehrmann resumed the trade of blacksmithing. His 
apprenticeship was interrupted by enlistment, and he is now proprietor 
•of an extensive establishment on West Main street, and ranks among 
the successful men of the city. He is a native of Bavaria, born July 
21, 1842, son of John M. and Mary Ehrmann. The family came to 
America in 1852, and settled in this city, where his parents passed their 
lives. He enlisted in Company K, Eighty-ninth Indiana regiment, on 
August 16, 1862, and was mustered out at Mobile, July 22, 1865. Mr. 
Ehrmann was married January 21, 1867, to Mary Lahmeyer, and they 
have had thirteen children, of whom Louisa, Mary C, Charles, Wil- 
helmina, Herman, Ferdinand, Clara and Otto Herbert are living; and 
John, Matilda, Emma, and two others are deceased. Mr. Ehrmann is 
an Odd Fellow, a member of the G. A. R., and affiliates with the Ger- 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 1 99 

man Reformed church. In politics he is a republican. He is a valued 
citizen and a first-class mechanic. 

One of the best known cigar manufacturers and dealers of Fort 
Wayne is August N. Ehle, who was born in Germany in 1825. He 
came to America in 185 1, and first settled at Rochester, N. Y., where 
he remained four years. Coming to Allen county in 1855? he made his 
home upon a farm in Lake township, and was there engaged in 1865, 
when he was accidentally shot and in consequence of the wound lost his 
left leg. He subsequently removed to the city and learned the trade of 
cigar maker. He embarked in the manufacture for himself in 1867, 
and this has since been his occupation. Since 1870 his place of business 
has been at No. 178 Broadway, factory No. 128. His leading brands 
are the " No. 36," which has been a popular cigar for sixteen years, 
" No. 5," and the " Nightingale." He employs four men and does a 
flourishing wholesale and retail trade. Mr. Ehle is a member of the 
Emanuel church. He was married in 1853 to Christina Gahn, of Ger- 
many, and of their seven children born three are living: Frank, in busi- 
ness with his father; Henry and Ernst also with their father. 

An enterprising citizen of Fort Wayne, Christian Entemann, was born 
in Wurtemburg, Germany, May 17, 1840. His father, John George 
Entemann, was born in 1804, and took to wife Barbara Schneider. He 
was by occupation a glazier and painter. In 1852 they emigrated and 
settled at Toledo, where the mother died in the same year, and the 
father died in 1886. Christian was the second youngest of their five 
children. He received a common school education, and in 1861 engaged 
in business at Toledo, entering the wholesale and retail grocery business 
in 1865. This he continued for six years, and until 1877, was connected 
with the business interests of Toledo. He then removed to Fort Wayne, 
and in 1889, bought out the Globe chop-house, which he rechristened 
Entemann's restaurant, wholly remodeling and refurnishing it, and is now 
doing a prosperous business. Mr. Entemann was married in 1862, to 
Caroline Zimmer, born in Bavaria, May 9, 1840, and they have three 
children: Lena, born in Toledo in 1866; Ernst, born in Toledo, in 1875; 
and Charles, born in Fort Wayne in 1882. Mr. Entemann is a member 
of the I. O. O. F., Concordia lodge, No. 228, the Patriarchal circle, Fort 
Wayne temple, No. 1, and Phoenix lodge, No. 101, K. of P. 

One of the valued mechanics of Fort Wayne, William A. Ersig, was 
born at St. Mary's, Ohio, September 13, 1856. He is the son of Chris- 
tian and Mary Ersig, both natives of Germany. They yet reside at 
St. Mary's, Ohio. The boyhood of Mr. Ersig was spent on a farm, 
and at sixteen he entered an apprenticeship in the carriage maker's 
trade at Fostoria, Ohio. He served four years, and then worked four 
years as a journeyman in Fostoria, Ohio, after* which, in September, 
1879, he went to Dunkirk, Ohio, but in November following he came 
to Fort Wayne. Here his whole attention has been devoted to his trade, 
and since June, 1887, he has conducted a shop of his own on Harrison 
street. He makes a specialty of horseshoeing, and gives to it his exclu- 



200 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

sive attention. He was married in June, 1880, to Miss Caroline, daugh- 
ter of Frederick and Mary Smith, born in Fort Wayne, January 9, 1857. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ersig have three children : Edward, Mamie and William H. 
Mr. Ersig is a member of the K. of P., and the Patriotic circle. 

Max L. Frankenstein, a prominent druggist at the corner of Wash- 
ington and Burr streets, Fort Wayne, was born in Olbernhau, Saxony, 
May 22, 1849, tne son of Conrad C. and Julia S. (Fleischer) Franken- 
stein. He attended school in his native land until he reached the age of 
eighteen, when he began an apprenticeship at the drug trade, serving 
three years. He was then employed for three years as clerk in a drug 
store, after which he served one year in the German army. In April, 
1875, he came to America, and proceeded to Chicago, where for four 
years, he was head clerk in the drug store of C. C. Clacius & Co. In 
1879 he returned to Germany, and entered the university of Leipsic, 
and graduated there in the spring of 1881. He then took a seven 
months' course in analytical chemistry, at Wiesbaden, Germany. In 
October, 18S1, he took a position as manager of a large prescription 
store in Hamburg, and held that position until August 15, 1885. On 
the 22d of the same month he started to America again, and in January, 
1886, engaged in the drug business at Fort Wayne. He first located 
at 66 West Jefferson street. In October, 1887, he became the proprie- 
tor of the handsome drug store where he is now doing a very successful 
business. He was married October 4, 1887, to Mrs. Bessie Fairman, 
nee Wilcox, who is a native of Toronto, Canada. They have two chil- 
dren: Edith R. and Beatrice, the former of whom was born to Mrs. 
Frankenstein by a former husband. In politics Mr. Frankenstein is an 
ardent republican. He has been thoroughly schooled in every branch 
of pharmacy and the drug trade, and is recognized as one of the most 
competent prescriptionists in the city. 

August Freese, an enterprising grocer of Fort Wayne, whose busi- 
ness place is No. 1S4 Fairfield avenue, was born in Germany, Septem- 
ber 14, 1859. He is the son of Frederick and Dorothea Freese. He 
attended school until he was fourteen, after which he learned the miller's 
trade and worked at it in Germany until he was twenty-two. In 1S82 
he came to America, landing at New York, August 11, and came 
directly to Fort Wayne, which has since been his home. In January, 
1883, he became a clerk in a grocery store and held the position until 
November, 1884, when he set out for Germany to visit his parents. 
After an absence of four months, he arrived home, and on February 15, 
1885, he became a partner in the grocery business. He was married 
May 31, 18S5, to Miss Christena, daughter of Henry Kiel. She came 
to America from Germany at the age of sixteen, in 1873. They have 
three children: Frederick, August and Hermann. Mr. Freese and 
wife are members of Emanuel's German Lutheran church. In politics 
he is a democrat. 

Ignatius Freiberger, foreman of J. B. White's fruit house, spent his 
childhood on the farm of his parents in Pleasant township, and at the 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 201 

age of thirteen, began his commercial life as a clerk for Gerardin Bros., 
with whom he remained five years, during that time also attending com- 
mercial school. For the past sixteen years he has been engaged with 
J. B. White, eleven years of the period as foreman of the famous estab- 
lishment to which his abilities have been devoted. Politically, Mr. Frei- 
berger is a democrat, and his religious affiliation is with the Catholic 
church, he and wife being valued members of St. Paul's, he also having 
a membership in the Catholic Knights of America. He was married in 
1882, to Mary Schweiters, who was born in Allen country in 1859, and 
they have three children: Frank, born in 1883; Marcullus, born in 1885, 
and Amelia May, born in 1888. Mr. Freiberger is a native of France 
and was born September 16, 1854, came to tms country with his parents 
in 1857, and since childhood, has made his own way in life. He is the 
son of Ignatius and Tracy (Gerardin) Freiberger, who were born in 
France, the father in 1816, the mother in 1819, and since' 1885, have 
resided in this city. 

Mendel Frank, proprietor of a grocery and provision store and meat 
market, is a native of Russian Poland, born October 15, 1852. He is 
the son of Abraham and Bessie (Joseph) Frank. The father of his 
mother lived to be one hundred and nine years of age. His grandfather, 
David Frank, was a man of great wealth and lived to the still more re- 
markable age of one hundred and nineteen. Abraham Frank, who was 
a contractor by occupation, lived to see the age of eighty-eight. Mendel 
Frank received a good Hebrew education, and at eleven years of age 
began to learn the trade of a stone and brick mason with his father. 
To this occupation his attention was devoted throughout his youth and 
early manhood. He was married in the early part of July, 1869, to 
Mollie Nauvelatsky, daughter of Levy and Jennie (Isreal) Nauvelatsky. 
In the spring of 1870 he emigrated to America, his wife joining him in 
this country about thirteen months later. Mr. Frank remained six 
months in New York city, and then came to Fort Wayne, and for sev- 
eral years worked at his trade in summer and did a huckster business in 
winter. In 1877 he engaged in a grocery and retail meat business 
which he has conducted ever since. Mr. and Mrs. Frank have seven 
children: Jennie, Bessie, Joseph, Rachel, Jacob, Lillie and Anna. All 
belong to the Hebrew church. Mr. Frank is a member of several 
secret orders and a democrat in politics. To the union of Mr. 
Frank's parents these children were born. Barney, Sarah, Levy, Asha, 
Mendel and Libbey. Sarah is the wife of Jacob Koffman, Asha of 
Harvey Provewinskey, and Libbey of Samuel Neiman. His father and 
mother departed this life at Lasday, Russian Poland. 

It has been said that there is no better appointed horseshoeing 
establishment in the state than that of Henry Freistroffer, No. 41 
West Main street, Fort Wayne. Mr. Freistroffer is a native of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, born September 17, 1854, son of Simon and Elizabeth 
Freistroffer, the former of whom was born in Lorraine, France, the lat- 
ter at Milheusen, in the same region. When Henry was four years old 



202 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

his parents came to Allen county, and located in Adams township, where 
his boyhood was spent on a farm. When he was fifteen they removed 
to Hesse Cassel, where they still reside. At nineteen he came to Fort 
Wavne and entered upon an apprenticeship at the blacksmith trade and 
served over two years. His entire attention has ever since been given 
to this occupation, and since April 29, 1879, ne nas conducted a shop of 
his own, doing an exclusive horseshoeing business. He erected his pres- 
ent establishment, a substantial brick building, in 1884. Mr. Frei- 
stroffer was married October 23, 1879, to Mary E. Crouser, a native of 
Ohio, born January 18, i860. She is the daughter of Victor Crouser, a 
native of Lorraine, France. They have one child, Charles S., born 
August 13, 1880. Mr. Freistroffer and wife are members of the Cath- 
olic church, and he is a member of the Catholic Knights of America. 

Capt. George A. Gale, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, who has 
since January, 1889, been retired from active business, was born at Lon- 
don, Canada, November 1, 1839. His parents, Anthony and Rachel 
(Sawyer) Gale, were born and married in Ireland. They emigrated 
first to Hartford, Conn., and in 1831 removed to Livingston county, 
Michigan, thence to Canada, in 1839. In 1845 they moved to Buffalo, 
N. Y., and became residents of Fort Wayne in 1861. Here the mother 
died in 1870, and the father died at Buffalo in 1873. Capt. Gale received 
a good early education, and during his youth worked for several years as 
a printer, beginning at sixteen. In April, 1861, he enlisted in the Union 
army, and on May 22, 1861, was mustered in Company G, Thirty-third 
New York regiment. Enlisting as a private, he was appointed first 
sergeant upon muster, and May 20, 1862, was promoted second lieuten- 
ant. He was promoted first lieutenant October 17, 1862, and captain 
December 20, 1862, which rank he held until muster-out, in June, 1863. 
He participated in fifteen engagements, among them the seven days' 
fight before Richmond, the second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antie- 
tam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. At the siege of Yorktown 
he was wounded by a ball in the left thigh, April 6, 1862. On leaving 
the army he was engaged as messenger by the United States express 
company five and a half years, and then acted two and« a half years as 
assistant division superintendent. He then became connected with the 
Chicago house of correction, acting six years as chief clerk, and nine 
years as deputy superintendent. In 1888 he returned to Fort Wayne, 
and for a few months was engaged in the grocery business, but was 
compelled by failing health to retire from business. He is a man of 
excellent business qualifications, and fine executive ability. He is a 
Mason, of the rank of Knight Templar. In 1873, Capt. Gale was mar- 
ried to Caroline M. Gable, a native of Adams county, and daughter of 
Christian and Mary Gable. He and wife are members of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal church. 

Albert F. Gessler, an enterprising and successful young business 
man, is proprietor of one of the leading meat markets of the city, at 
No. 60 East Main street. He was born at Dayton, Ohio, September 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 203 

29, 1855, son of Frederick and Victoria (Schmidt) Gessler, both natives 
of Germany. In 1857 the family came to Fort Wayne, and the father 
was engaged here as a butcher until his death. The mother is still 
living in the city. Albert F. Gessler learned his father's trade early in 
life, and in June, 1877, purchased a meat market at his present stand, 
and has done business there for twelve years. His establishment 
is one of the largest and most attractive in the city, and his custom 
is quite large. Mr. Gessler was married May 29, 1882, to Rosa, 
daughter of James and Mary King, formerly of Jefferson township, 
where she was born. Mr. and Mrs. Gessler have four children: Clar- 
ence F., Laura, Florence M. and Albert J. Mr. Gessler is a member 
of the Catholic Knights, and he and wife are members of St. Mary's 
church. 

W. F. Geller, confectioner and baker, was born in Fort Wayne, 
March 27, 1859, trie son °^ P eter and Catherine (Martin) Geller, natives 
of Germany. His father was born in 1839 and came to this country at 
fifteen years of age, settling in New York city. Three or four years 
later he visited Fort Wayne, remaining a few weeks, but returned to 
New York and did not settle in this city until ten years later. He served 
eighteen months in Company H, Seventh New York infantry. His 
wife was born in 1839 and died in Fort Wayne in 1872. Five of their 
children are living, of whom W. F. is the oldest. He received a com- 
mon school education, and in 1874 began learning the baker's trade. 
He embarked in business on his own account in 1881 at 104 and 106 
Broadway, and in 1886 bought his present business house at the corner 
of Broadway and Washington, a three-story brick building, 30x100, a 
well situated and valuable property. Here he has an extensive and 
lucrative business, and employs fifteen to twenty people. Mr. Geller is 
ranked as one of the leading bakers and confectioners of the city. He 
was married in 1881 to Cecilia Neal, a native of Darke county, Ohio, 
and they have one child, Mabel V., born July 15, 1888. They are* 
members of the Lutheran church. 

Fourteen years' experience as a retail grocer, has given John Michael 
Gruber a well earned prominence in the business circles of Fort Wayne. 
Mr. Gruber is a native of Germany, born September 5, 1828, son of 
Frank and Rachel (Henry) Gruber. He was reared in his native 
county, and attended school until he was fourteen, after which he 
learried the tailor's trade and followed it until 1852, when he immigrated, 
landing at New York June 5. He remained in that cit}^, working as a 
tailor until the next fall when he came to Fort Wayne, arriving Novem- 
ber 8. Here he continued the tailor's trade with the exception of one 
j'-ear, during which he was employed in the Pittsburgh shops, until Sep- 
tember 13, 1S75. Since that date he has been engaged in the grocery 
business at No. 16 Wilt street, and has enjoyed a good trade. Mr. 
Gruber was married July 31, 1855, to Veronika, daughter of Vitus and 
Elizabeth Huhn. Mrs. Gruber came from Germany in 1852, landing 
early in July. They have had eleven children: Mary M., John W., 



204 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Mary E., Charles, Frank J., John Jacob, Veronika, Edward J., Michael, 
Caroline and a son that died unnamed. Mary M., John W. and Charles 
are also dead. Mr. Gruber and wife are members of the Catholic church. 
He is a member of the Catholic Relief society. 

Though one of the young business men of Fort Wayne, George 
Wallace Haiber, has devoted many years to the retail grocery trade and 
none in that line are better informed. He. is a native of Massillon, Ohio, 
born April 7, 1S60. He is the son of Frederick and Margaret (Good) 
Haiber, the former a native of Germany, who came to America about 
1852, and the latter a native of Ohio. In 1863 the family came to Fort 
Wayne. Mr. Haiber received his early education in the German Luth- 
eran school and the city schools. During his boyhood he worked two 
summers at gardening, after which at the early age of eleven, he was 
employed one year as clerk in the grocery store of George Heger. 
Afterward he took a position in the Fruit house, and for ten years was 
in the employ of Hon. J. B. White. He began as a cash boy but was 
regularly promoted order boy, clerk, produce buyer, and finally he 
was given charge of the stock. In 1881, he engaged in the grocery 
business for himself, and is now the proprietor of a well-stocked grocery 
and provision store, and in connection with it conducts a meat market 
and deals in flour and feed. He was married May 17, 1881, to Miss 
Mary Kaiser, who came with her parents from Germany, when seven 
years old. They have four children: Edward Frederick, Bertha Mary, 
Eleanora Theresa, and Lorenz Francisco. Mr. and Mrs. Haiber are 
members of the Catholic church, he having joined it at the age of nine- 
teen. He is a member of the Butchers' national protective association 
of the United States, and of the Catholic Benevolent Legion. 

Charles F. Haiber, grocer and proprietor of a meat market at No. 
122 Wells, and another at No. 15 High street, was born in Stark 
county, Ohio, August 21, 1858, the son of Frederick and Margaret 
Haiber, the former a native of Germany and the latter of Pennsylvania. 
When he was six years old his parents came to Fort Wayne, where they 
still reside. October 2, 1877, he opened a meat market at No. no 
Wells street, and he has since remained in that business. January 1, 
1889, he added a stock of groceries. He was married April 25, 1881, 
to Mary Ellen Clark, who died April 21, 1882, and was buried just one 
year from her wedding day. He was married March 8, 1885, to AILc 
A. Kelsey, his present wife. By the latter marriage he has two chil- 
dren, Edna B. and Byron C. Mr. Haiber is a member of the A. O. U. W., 
and he is a republican in politics. In May, 1886, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the city council by a majority of 225, a great testimonial to his 
worth, as the democratic majority in the ward ranges from 225 to 250. 
In May, 1888, he was re-elected, and is now serving his second term. 

Gottlieb Haller is a native of Switzerland, born November 6, 1849. 
He was the son of Gottlieb and Anna Haller, the latter of whom died 
when their son was but two years old and the former when he was 
eleven. He worked on a farm and attended school until he was four- 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 205 

teen, when he learned the butcher's trade, to which his attention has been 
given ever since. He pursued that business in his native country, later 
in Germany about six months, and in France about two years. In 1872 
he emigrated to America and at once located at Fort Wayne. Here, 
after two years' employment, in 1874 he opened a market of his own 
and is now doing a prosperous business at 366 Calhoun street. Mr. 
Haller was married November 7, 1878, to Mollie, daughter of Anthony 
and Margarita Fischer, born in Fort Wayne, September 23, 1859. Mr. 
Haller and wife have one child, Anna, born November 8, 1885. They 
are members of the German Reformed church. Mr. Haller is a mem- 
ber of the Odd Fellows lodge, the K. of P., and the Patriotic circle. 
He is a staunch republican in politics, and is a member of the Morton 
club. He is president of the local Butchers' union, and is a member of 
the Business men's exchange. 

Jacob Hartman was born in Marion township, this county, Septem- 
ber 11, 1862. His father, Joseph, was born in Germany, on February 
2, 1834, and in 185 1 came to Allen county and settled in Marion town- 
ship. The mother, whose maiden name was Caroline Hoffman, was 
born in 1S39. Mr. Hartman remained on the farm, receiving a com- 
mon school education, until sixteen years of age, and was then until 
1883, a clerk in a grocery store. In July of the latter year he embarked 
in the grocery and provision business, and in 1886 engaged in his 
present business at No. 267 East Wayne street. Mr. Hartman is 
a prominent member of the Catholic Benevolent legion. He has 
held different positions of honor, and has also taken active part 
in the Emmett commandery, No. 123, a branch of the order of the 
Knights of St. John, and is a member of St. Julian council, No. 89, and 
a faithful worker in the Catholic church. He was married October 18, 
1883, to Anna Aukenbruck, who was born in this city, September 17, 
1862, daughter of Bernhard Aukenbruck. They have two children, 
Augusta and Andrew. Mr. Hartman is a democrat in politics. 

John H. Hartman, a prominent grocer of Fort Wayne, whose place 
of business is at No. 126 East Washington street, was born in this city, 
April 15, 1855. He was the son of Herman and Anna Hartman, both 
natives of Germany. They sailed to America on the same ship, and 
were married in 1854, at Peru, Ind. In the following year thev removed 
to Fort Wayne, a short time before John was born, and they have ever 
since resided in this city, being old and respected citizens. Their 
son, John H., learned the tinner's trade in his youth, devoting about two 
years to it. After this he was variously employed until 1875, when he 
engaged in the grocery trade, in which business he has remained and 
been quite successful. He began with very moderate means, and at the 
time was carrying an $800 debt. He has not only been able to free 
himself from indebtedness, but has accumulated much property. He 
erected his two story brick business block at No. 126 East Washing- 
ton street in -1885, and is also the owner of several residence properties 
from which he realizes a considerable income. Mr. Hartman was mar- 



2o6 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ried October 24, 1876, to Louisa, daughter of Joseph and Amelia 
Aubrey. They have two children : Eve and Clements. Mr. Hartman 
and wife are members of St. Mary's Catholic church. He is a member 
of the Catholic Knights and the Catholic benevolent societies. 

Joseph H. Hartman, of the grocery firm of Hartman Bros., is a 
native of Peru, Ind., born August 23, i860. He is the son of Adolph 
and Theresa (Weachman) Hartman, both natives of Germany. When 
he was two years old his parents came to Fort Wayne, but a year later 
emigrated to Shakopee, Scott county, Minn., where they resided nearly 
seven years. In 1872 they returned to Fort Wayne where the father 
died in 1883, and where the mother still resides. In his youth Joseph 
H. Hartman learned the butcher's trade. At eighteen he became a 
clerk in a grocery store and continued in that capacity about six years. 
On February 14, 1885, he engaged in the grocery business for himself, 
and he is now one of the leading grocers of Fort Wayne. In the spring 
of 1887 his brother Henry became a partner, the firm being known as 
Hartman Bros. He was married August 26, 1886, to Miss Josephine, 
daughter of Daniel Jennings. She is a native of Boston, Ind., born 
April 26, 1861. Mr. Hartman is the father of two children: Clementina 
and Charles H. Mr. Hartman and wife are members of the Catholic 
church, and he is a member of the Knights of St. Charles. 

Henry F. Hilgemann, who is a native of Fort Wayne, and has 
resided in the city continuously with the exception of three years and a 
half, was born January 31, 1851, the son of Henry and Frederika Hilge- 
mann, natives of Germany. For five years and a half after he was six- 
teen, he was employed in the Summit City woolen mills. He then held 
the position of shipping clerk three years in the wholesale house of A. S. 
Evans & Co. From 1875 to 1878 he resided at Huntington, Ind., and 
owned a half interest in a woolen mill. Returning to Fort Wayne, he 
was engaged until the spring of 1881 as shipping clerk for the notion 
firm of Hanna, Wiler & Co. For two or three years he was employed 
as general agent for the Chicago installment book company, and in the 
fall of 1884 he embarked in the grocery business at 121 West Jefferson 
street, where he has done a successful business. He has erected a busi- 
ness block at 123 West Jefferson, and now occupies both rooms. This 
additional room was necessary to accommodate his trade, which, though 
on the first day of business it amounted to only $4, increased to $13,000 
in 1888. Mr. Hilgemann was married September 471873, to Lisette F., 
daughter of Frederick and Sophia Bueker. She came from Germany 
with a brother in 1870. They have six children : Franklin H., Charles H., 
Oliver H., Walter H., Harry II. and Victor H., the first and last two of 
whom survive. Mr. Hilgemann and wife are members of the German 
Reformed church. In 1889 Mr. Hilgemann, who is a staunch democrat, 
was elected to the city council, and is now an honored member of that 
body. 

John C. Hinton, a popular and successful restaurateur, proprietor 
of the Boston restaurant at 270^ Calhoun street, a native citizen 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 2C>7 

of Fort Wayne, was for fifteen years connected with the railroad 
interests so important in the history of the city. In 1871 he entered the 
employment of the Pennsylvania railroad company, and for thirteen 
years was a freight conductor, earning a well-deserved reputation for 
efficiency and trustworthiness. In 1886 he left the road and engaged 
in his present business, in which he is quite successful, having made his 
restaurant very popular. He is in politics a republican, is a member of 
the Patriarchal circle and of the Conductors' Brotherhood. He was 
married January 10, 1889, to Anna J. Welton, daughter of J. W. Wel- 
ton, of this city. She is a member of the German Reformed church. Mr. 
Hinton was born October 18, 1852, son of Samuel and Johanna (Smith) 
Hinton. His father is a native of New York, his mother of Germany. 
They came to Fort Wayne at an early day, and yet reside here. 

An enterprising business man of Fort Wayne, John T. Hunt, was 
born in this city, February 16, 1856. His parents, Henry and Ellen 
(Griffin) Hunt, were natives of Ireland, and emigrating, settled in Mas- 
sachusetts. About 1854 they came to Fort Wayne, where the father, 
who was a shoemaker by trade, died in 1856. His widow, who was 
born about 1838, is still living in this city. Mr. Hunt attended the 
Catholic Brothers' school while receiving his education. In 1878 he 
was married to Sarah Trout, who was born in Delaware county, Ohio, 
and they have an adopted son, Albert F. Mr. Hunt has been engaged 
for ten years in the refreshment business, and he also conducted a livery 
and sale stable. He bought his present place of business in 1886. He 
and wife are members of the Catholic church, and he is in politics a 
democrat. In 1886 he was elected a justice of the peace, receiving 
every vote in the township but five. 

In 1852 Frederick and Louisa Kabisch, who became worthy and 
esteemed citizens of Fort Wayne, came to this city from Saxony, their 
native land, with their family. The father died, about the year 1868, 
and the mother in 1882. Their son, Rudolph Kabisch, now the pro- 
prietor of a popular meat market at No. 156 Fairfield avenue, was born 
in Saxony, August 29, 1836. He was in the butcher business three 
years before he learned the plasterer's trade which he learned soon after 
coming to Fort Wayne and worked at it about three years. He then 
turned his attention to the butcher's business and it has been his voca- 
tion ever since. In 1884 he engaged in the business for himself. Mr. 
Kabisch was married in July, i860, to Miss Katharina Elett, who was 
born in Hesse, Germany, and came with her parents to America in 
about 1854. Mr. an d Mrs. Kabisch have six children: Frederick C, 
John P., Louisa, Jeanetta, Rudolph and Katharina. 

Anton Kalbacher is the fifth of ten children of Marx and Ursula 
(Dieringer) Kalbacher, who at the time of his birth, August 24, 1841, 
were living at their native place, Hohenzollern Hechingen, in Germany. 
All the famity are now deceased, save Anton and his sisters, Caroline 
and Matilda. The family emigrated from Germany in 1852, and settled 
at Delphos, Ohio, whence in 1855, they came to Fort Wayne, where 



2o8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

the father died in 1886 in his seventy-eighth year. The mother died at 
Delphos in 1854, at the age forty-three. Anton was employed in a 
orocery store at Delphos, and after coming to Fort Wayne was so en- 
gaged for about seven years, when he entered the employment of 
Beaver & Dunham, flour and feed merchants, with whom he remained 
four years. He then spent two years in the wine and liquor business, 
and then embarked in the trade in flour, feed, grain and produce, in 
which he has since continued, with a marked degree of success, gaining 
a reputation as one of the enterprising men of the city. In 1878 he 
erected his grocery building on Grand street, and formed a partnership 
with John Sheffer. In 1882 he purchased the Sedgwick mills and re- 
moved the business to Columbia street, and sold out to H. W. Bond, in 
1887. In 1882 he became associated with William Potthoff in his 
present business, under the firm name of A. Kalbacher & Co. He is 
a democrat and takes an active part in politics. In 1865 he was married 
to Jane Schobe, born in Fort Wayne in 1845, daughter of Eberhart and 
Maria Angela (Daman) Schobe. Mr. and Mrs. Kalbach have five 
children: Sister Aquineta, of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame, Kate, 
Theresa, Edward and Lenore. Both parents are members of the 
Catholic church. 

Jacob Klett, one of the leading citizens of Fort Wayne, of German 
birth, was born in Wurtemburg in 1831. In his native land he was edu- 
cated, and learned the potter's trade. In 1853 he immigrated, and in 
the following year settled at Fort Wayne. Four years later he entered 
the emplovment of Andrews & Oakley, of Fort Wayne, in their plan- 
ing-mill, and remained with them until i860. He became engaged with 
Clark & Kurd, lumber dealers, in 1861, and continued with the succes- 
sors, Clark & Rhinesmith, and upon the organization of the lumber 
company of the same name in 187 1, he became a stockholder, and 
accepted the position of yard foreman and inspector. Having become 
thoroughly acquainted with the business, he opened a yard on his own 
account in 1877, and beginning without capital, has to a remarkable 
degree prospered in this business. He added in 1889 a large and com- 
plete planing-mill plant, and the establishment is equipped for general 
factory work. Mr. Klett's business experience has extended over thirty- 
one years, and he is one of the leading lumber men of the city. His 
business career has been successful through his adherence to honest and 
straightforward methods and now his word is as good as gold and his 
standing in the business world is unimpeachable. Socially, he has a 
wide circle of friends and acquaintances. Mr. Klett was married July 
6, 1858, to Louisa Sauter, also a native of Wurtemberg, who came to 
this country at about the age of five years, and they have had eight 
children, five of whom are living. His sons, John A. and William B., 
are engaged with their father in the lumber business. 

C. W. Kline, a native of Perry county, Penn., was born October 7, 
1844, son of Benjamin and Catherine (Hicks) Kline, both natives of 
that state. The father died on the old Pennsylvania homestead in 1880, 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 2<X) 

at the age of eighty years, and the mother, who was born in 1803, died 
in about 1870. His paternal grandfather, C. W. Kline, was born in 
Berks county, Penn., and died in the same county. The subject of this 
mention, who was next to the youngest of ten children, enlisted in 
1864 in the Two Hundred and Eighth Pennsylvania regiment, in Com- 
pany F, and served until mustered out in June, 1865. He was after- 
ward engaged in business at various places, five years in Philadelphia, 
and afterward at Youngstown, Ohio, and Virginia City, Nev., return- 
ing to Philadelphia in 1876. In that year he settled at Lancaster, Ohio, 
and remained until 1884, when he came to Fort Wayne and engaged in 
the wine and liquor trade, at 242 Calhoun street. He is a member of 
the German lodge, K. of P., of Fort Wayne. 

An enterprising young citizen and a leading florist, F. J. Knecht, is 
a son of one of the early settlers of this city from beyond the sea. His 
father, Dominick Knecht, a native of Switzerland, came to Fort Wayne 
about 1848, and was for a considerable period engaged in the manufac- 
ture of shingles, and later embarked in business as an undertaker, which 
he followed until his death in 1863, at the age of fifty- five years. His 
wife was Katherine Miller, a native of Germany, who died in 1875, at 
the age of forty-four years. Both were members of the St. Mary's 
Catholic church, and highly esteemed. Of their six children five are 
living. F. J. Knecht was born in this city, September 28, i860. After 
receiving an early education in the St. Mary's Catholic schools, he began 
work in 1875 as a florist, and becoming proficient, in 1885 opened an es- 
tablishment of his own, and removed to his present place on the corner 
of East Wayne and Harmer streets, in 1887. His greenhouse is cov- 
ered by about 3,500 feet of glass, and he uses over half an acre for 
bedding purposes. Making a specialty of cut flowers and bedding 
plants, he finds a ready market in the city. Mr. Knecht was married 
in 1882 to Anna Zahn of this city, and they have two children. He 
and wife are members of St. Mary's Catholic church, and he is a 
member of the Catholic Knights. 

Among the 'worthy German families of the city of Fort Wayne, is 
that of William and Charlotte Koenig, who arrived in this city from Ger- 
many, September 4, 1869. William Koenig was born June 11, 1830, son of 
Ernst and Margaret Koenig. He learned the blacksmith trade in his 
native land, and was married November 30, 1853, to Charlotte, daughter 
of Frederick and Wilhelmina Kammier. She was born May 3, 1831. 
Mr. Koenig's occupation in this city has been that of a boiler-maker. 
He and wife have had five children: William, who married Wilhelmina 
Rodenbeck; Henry, married to Sophia Rodenbeck; Frederick, married 
to Emma Haase; Christian, married to Mary Schweir; and Charles, 
married to Charlotte Haegermann. All of the family are members of 
the Lutheran church. Christian F. Koenig is a well-known grocer, 
having his store at the corner of East Washington and Harmer streets. 
He was born in Germany, December 3, 1859. He received his educa- 
tion at St. Paul's parochial schools and in his youth, worked somewhat 

XIV 



2IO VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

at the boiler-maker's trade and as a newsboy. He clerked in a grocery- 
store two vears, and then worked at the shoemaker's trade six years. 
He engaged in the grocery business January 8, 1883, and has since 
prospered, having a well stocked grocery and an excellent custom. Mr. 
Koenig was married March 7, 1886, to Mary, daughter of William 
Schweir, a native of Fort Wayne, and they have one child, Otto. They 
are members of the German Lutheran church. Mr. Koenig is an enter- 
prising young business man, and deserving of confidence. 

In 1875, August Korn engaged in the grocery business at 194 
Broadway, where he has ever since done a successful business. He 
was born in Germany, May 15, 1849, tne son °^ Jacob Korn. In his 
native land he attended school until he was fourteen, and during his 
youth assisted his father at farm work a part of the time. In Novem- 
ber, 1869, he landed at New York, where, and at Union Hill, N. J., he 
remained three years. At Union Hill he learned the baker's trade. 
From New York he came to Fort Wayne in the spring of 1872. Here 
he was employed three years and a half as a baker. Mr. Korn was 
married in 1874 to Dora, daughter of George and Johanna Jacobs. She 
came with her father from Germany in 1868. Mr. and Mrs. Korn have 
had six children : Mary, George, Mamie, Henry, August and Edward, of 
whom the first four are deceased. They are members of St. John's 
German Lutheran church. 

For several years, John Korn, of Fort Wayne, has been doing a 
prosperous business as proprietor of a meat market at No. 134 Fairfield 
avenue. He was born in Germany, October 21, 1853, the son of Jacob 
Korn. He was but two years old when his mother died. He attended 
school until he was fourteen, after which he learned the carpenter's 
trade. In 187 1 he emigrated to America, and after spending six months 
in New York city he came to Fort Wayne. Six months later he returned 
to New York, but after a few months again came to Fort Wa}me, 
where he has since lived. During the first years of his residence here 
he worked in a stone yard. In 1880 he engaged in the retail meat busi- 
ness, and he has been the proprietor of his present market ever since. 
He was married June 20, 1878, to Lizzie Bender, a native of Fort 
Wayne, born June 20, 1856. Mr. and Mrs. Korn have had five children: 
Clara A., Carrie, Lillie, John W. and Henry A., of whom Clara A. 
died in infancy. Mr. Korn and wife are members of the German 
Lutheran church. 

A well-known citizen of Fort Wayne, Herman Henry Ludwig 
Krohne, was born in Germany, October 27, 1847, the son of Ludwig 
and Mary Krohne. In his youth he clerked in a store in his native 
land three years, and in early manhood served four years in the Franco- 
Prussian war, participating in sixteen battles. In 1874 ne came to 
America and located in Fort Wayne. Here he worked a short time at 
the carpenter's trade, and subsequently for four years he was employed 
as driver on the street car line. In April, 1883, he became one of the 
proprietors of a gun and ammunition store, at No. 79 Calhoun street. 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 21 T 

His partner having since died, he has conducted the store alone. Mr.. 
Krohne was married April 14, 1887, to Lena Mary Rice, also a native 
of Germany, the daughter of William Rice. She came to America 
about 1882. Mr. Krohne and wife have one child, Arthur Henry, who 
was born August 16, 1888. They are members of Emanuel's German 
Lutheran church. 

Henry Frederick William Krusy, a well-known dairyman of Fort 
Wayne, was born on the Atlantic ocean while his parents were on their 
way from Germany to America, September 14, 1845. On reaching this 
country his father, William Krusy, came to Indiana, and he is now a 
venerable resident of Fort Wayne. His mother died before her son 
was a year old. When a small child he was bound out, and during his 
entire early life his home was among strangers, living at different times 
with five families. In early manhood he learned the carpenter's trade, 
and followed it several years, during the last few of which he was a con- 
tractor in Fort Wayne. For the past twelve years he has been engaged 
in the dairy business and is now the proprietor of the City dairy. Mr. 
Krusy was married September 8, 1870, to Sophia Wilhelmina, 
daughter of Christian and Sophia Kramer. She is a native of Fort 
Wayne, but her parents were born and married in Germany, and emi- 
grated to America on the same vessel that brought the parents of her 
husband. They have five children: William P. C, Frederick G., 
Frieda, Alma and Edmund. Mr. Krusy and wife are members of 
St. Paul's German Lutheran church. 

Frederick Lenz, though not long, comparatively, in business, has. 
prospered in his enterprise. He is a native of Germany, born Novem- 
ber 27, 1855, son of Joseph Lenz. His mother died when he was but 
three years old. In 1866 he accompanied his father and step-mother 
to America. On reaching this country the family came directly to 
Fort Wayne, where they have since resided. He quit school at thirteen 
and learned the shoemaker's trade, working at it four years. Between 
the ages of seventeen and twenty-eight he was in the employ of 
the Pennsylvania railroad company, being employed two years in the 
yard and for nine years in the shop oiling line shafts. In June, 1884, 
he engaged in the retail meat business and has ever since been the pro- 
prietor of a market at No. 170 Hanna street. Mr. Lenz was married 
November 28, 1879, to Miss Louisa Mannawich, who is a native of 
Fort Wayne, born May 20, 1861, daughter of Frederick Mannawich. 
They have four children : Frederick, Louisa, George and Oscar. Mr. 
Lenz and wife are members of the German Lutheran church. 

Since the year 1858, John Nicholas Leykauf, a reliable business man, 
has been a citizen of Fort Wayne. He is a native of Bavaria, Germany, 
born May 20, 1830, the son of Nicholas and Catherine Leykauf. The 
latter died when their son was five years old, and the former died when 
he was twelve. He attended school until his fourteenth year, after 
which he learned the baker's trade and followed it in Germany until 
1858, when he emigrated to America. The first work he did here was 



212 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

butchering, which he followed about a year. He then resumed the 
baker's trade. In 1862 he became employed in the Pittsburgh shops. 
He resumed his trade in 1864, and from April of that year until 'Novem- 
ber, 1865, he conducted a bakery business for himself. In 1866, he 
made a visit in Germany, and on his return, resumed work in the Pitts- 
burg shops, and continued there until March, 1872. Since then he has 
conducted a bakery at No. 209 Broadway. Since 1875, he has also 
carried a stock of groceries, and has done a poultry business. Mr. 
Leykauf was married August 24, 1863, to Mrs. Charlotte (Blume) 
Bolman, by whom he is the father of three children: Henry, Elizabeth, 
and John N. By her first husband, Christian Bolman, Mrs. Leykauf 
had these children : Theodore, Christian F., Frederick W., Bertha, Char- 
lotte, Albert, and Otto, all living. Mr. and Mrs. Leykauf are members 
of St. John's German Lutheran church. 

On August 14, 1888, Nicholas R. McNiece, an energetic young busi- 
ness man, became one of the grocery firm of Markey & McNiece, at 
Fort Wayne. He is a native of Porter county, Ind., born January 18, 
1861. His parents, William H. and Elizabeth McNiece, were both 
natives of Pennsylvania. When he was a small child his parents removed 
to Valparaiso, where his bo} 7 hood was spent. At fifteen he accompanied 
his parents to Hobart,Ind., but soon afterward he returned to Valparaiso 
and there learned telegraphy. He took a position as operator at Wana- 
tah, Ind., and continued in that capacity in several of the states during 
ten years. He then, in June, 1886, engaged in the grocery business at 
Lake Elmo, Minn. His store was destroyed by fire in February, 1888, 
and in June, -of that year, he came to Fort Wayne, and subsequently he 
engaged in the grocery business with Albert C. Markey. Mr. McNeice 
was married June 16, 1883, to Miss Delilah A. Hively, a native of Whit- 
ley county, Ind. They have one child, Ora L., born October 17, 1884. 
While a resident of Lake Elmo, Minn., Mr. McNiece served as post- 
master eight months, resigning the position when he was burned out. 

Albert C. Markey, an enterprising young business man of Fort 
Wayne, of the grocery firm of Markey & McNiece, is a native of New 
York'city, born October 18, 1864. His parents, Lawrence and Eliza 
Markey, came to Fort Wayne in 1869, and still reside in this city. Mr. 
Markey's early education was obtained in the Fort Wayne schools, and 
later he pursued the studies of German, French and Latin in Calvary 
college of Wisconsin. During five years of his early manhood he was 
in the employ of different railroad companies, his work being of a cler- 
ical character. For more than three years past his attention has been 
given to the grocery business and he is now one of the members of the 
firm of Markey & McNiece, at No. 356 South Calhoun street. Mr. 
Markey is a member of the Catholic church. 

Peter A. Moran, the well-known ice dealer and prominent young 
citizen of Fort Wayne, is a native of this city, born April 13, 1855. 
His father, Peter Moran, came to America from Ireland, his native land, 
in early manhood, and was married to Miss Rachel A. Neusbaum, in 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 213 

Maryland, April 23, 1846. In 1849 tne Y located at Fort Wayne. The 
father was a tanner by trade, but from 1859 was engaged in the ice 
business until his death, November 17, 1S80. The mother is still living, 
and now makes her home with her son Peter A. The latter was occu- 
pied with his father, and when he died succeeded him in the ice busi- 
ness. It is the oldest enterprise of the kind in the city. Mr. Moran 
was married May 24, 1881, to Miss Mary E., daughter of John and Mary 
(Faut) Baker, the former a native of Germany, and the latter of Balti- 
more, Md. Mrs. Moran was born at Fort Wayne. They have had five 
children: Peter J., Bernard E., Mary M., Gertrude E. and Alphonsus 
H., of whom Gertrude E. died in childhood. Mr. Moran and wife are 
members of the Catholic church. 

A life of persevering industry has given to Frank H. Meyer, a 
respected citizen of Fort Wayne, a well-earned leisure in his later 
years, and a comfortable competency. Mr. Meyer is a native of north- 
ern Prussia, born January 11, 1836. When he was three years old 
his mother died, and two years later he was bereft of his father, August 
Meyer. Finding a home in the family of a relative, he attended school,, 
and then at the age of fifteen began work at the trade of blacksmith. 
After six and a half years at this employment, he left his native land 
and reached New York about October 1, 1857, with $2.50 in his pocket- 
He found a friend to advance the fare to Fort Wayne, but the short 
stop at New York so exhausted his capital that he could afford to take 
but one meal while coming overland, a trip which occupied four days. 
He worked five months in the shop of Daniel Nestel, was occupied a. 
short time on the farm of Frederick Meyer, and then began an engage- 
ment with John Brown which lasted until 1863. In that year he rented 
a shop and began business on his own account. Three years later he 
built his blacksmith, carriage and wagon shop on the corner of Calhoun 
and Superior streets, in which he did business for twenty-two years. In 
the spring of j:8SS he retired from business, having prospered remark- 
ably, and gained a reputation as a reliable and honest man. Probably 
no man who started here as he did, pays a larger tax than he. He 
expects soon to make an extended visit to his native land. He was 
married September 16, 1S60, to Louise Stegman, With whom he first 
became acquainted on shipboard, though they had lived within a mile of 
each other in the old country. She was born October 18, 1834. They 
have six children: Fred H., William H., Charles, Henry, Lizzie and 
John. 

Gottlieb Niemann, grocer at No. 148 Calhoun street, Fort Wayne, 
is a native of Germany, born in the kingdom of Hanover, March 24, 
1843, the son of Gottlieb and Sophia Niemann. His youth was spent 
in his native country, and he was chiefly employed as steward in hotels. 
At seventeen he emigrated 'to America, reaching New York, June 8, 
1862. He came directly to Fort Wayne and went to Wabash, and 
there was employed in a stone quarry three months. In the spring of 
1863 he took a position as clerk in the bakery and store of John B. 



214 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Krudop, of Fort Wayne, but after a few months he became a clerk in 
the grocery store of Heitkamp and Hambrock. Ever since that time 
he has been in the grocery business. For the past thirteen years he 
has been engaged in the business at No. 148 Calhoun street, and he 
possesses a good trade. He is the owner of the building occupied by his 
store, which from its location, is very valuable property. Mr. Niemann 
was married October 18, 1866, to Louisa Rodenbeck, also a native of 
Germany. She is the daughter of Frederick and Maria Rodenbeck, 
with whom she came to America when she was eight years old. Mr. 
and Mrs. Niemann have had five children: Henry Gottlieb Frederick, 
Louisa Sophia, Henry Diederich Richard, Frederick William, and John 
Henry, the last of whom died aged two years. All are members of 
Emanuel's German Lutheran church. In politics Mr. Niemann is a 
democrat. 

One of the best known cigar manufacturers of Fort Wayne, George 
Reiter, was born in Reading, Berks county, Penn., August 21, 1827, son 
of John and Catherine (Kuntzmann) Reiter, both natives of Berks 
county. The mother died in 1835 and the father in 1836. In 1840 
George Reiter went to Hamburg, Penn., and learned the cigar maker's 
trade. After 1844 he was for several years in various cities, but in 1848 
located at Albany, N. Y. He subsequently resided at New York city, 
Suffield, Conn., Peekskill, Baltimore and Philadelphia, where he 
was married. In 1854 he left Baltimore for Cincinnati, Ohio, and six 
months later went to St. Louis, Mo. After a sojourn at Baltimore and 
Suffield, Conn., he went to Westfield, Mass., in 1857, where he remained 
until 1864, and while there his wife died. He then went to Cleveland, 
Ohio, and on May 7, 1866, arrived at Fort Wayne, where he opened a 
cigar manufactory and began making the celebrated "Pony" cigar, 
which is the oldest brand made in the city. He has continued the man- 
ufacture of the " Pony " cigar for twenty-three years. His establish- 
ment is at No. 30 Calhoun street, where he carries on his manufacturing 
business, and also deals at wholesale and retail in a general line of cigars 
of his own manufacture. Mr. Reiter became a member of the Masonic 
fraternity in 1852 in Baltimore. He is a member of the Fort Wayne 
chapter, No. 19, Fort Wayne council, No. 4, and Fort Wayne com- 
mandery, No. 4, K. T. He is also a member of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 
1,547, K. of H., and of Howard council, No. 246, Royal Arcanum. 
Mr. Reiter was married in 1S50 to Mary C. Von Camp, who was born 
in New Jersey in 1828, and died in Westfield, Mass., in 1863, leaving 
four children, of whom George W., Henry H., and Winfield S., survive. 
Mr. Reiter was married in 1874, t0 Mary A. Payne, of Chicago, 111. 

Henry A. Rose, an esteemed and worthy citizen, well known as a 
leading blacksmith of Fort Wayne, is a native of this county, born in 
Adams township, January 27, 1858. His parents, Anthony and Louisa 
Rose, were natives of Germany, and came to America. His mother's 
parents, Christian and Louisa Meising, located in Adams county, Ind., 
at a very early day. At sixteen years of age, Henry A. took up the 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 21 5 

blacksmith's trade, which he has worked at ever since. He has followed 
his trade in Fort Wa} r ne since July, 1878. He was married April 16, 
1882, to Miss Minnie Hartmann, a native of Adams township, and daughter 
of Henry and Kate Hartmann. Mr. Rose and wife have had four chil- 
dren: Henry W., Adolph, Minnie and Herman, of whom Adolph died, 
aged about sixteen months. Mr. and Mrs. Rose are members of St. 
Paul's German Lutheran church. 

Charles Rose a prominent young grocer of Fort Wayne, was born 
in Adams township, Allen county, November 18, 1863. He is the son 
of Anthony and Louise (Miesing) Rose, both natives of Germany. 
The father came to America and settled in Allen county in a very early 
day, and the mother immigrated with her parents and located in Adams 
county, Ind., about 1837. They were married in Fort Wayne, in about 
1849. The father who was a farmer, by occupation, was accidentally 
killed by a hay fork while unloading hay, July 15, 1876. The mother 
now lives at No. 28 Lavina street, Fort Wayne. Charles Rose left 
the farm at fifteen, and clerked in a grocery store one year, after 
wmich he worked four years at the blacksmith's trade. He then en- 
gaged in the grocery trade at Nos. 75 and 77 East Wayne street, 
where he has ever since done a large business. He also deals in flour 
and feed. Mr. Rose was married February 25, 1886, to Dora, daughter 
of county commissioner, Henry Hartmann. They have two children: 
Martha and Ervin. They are members of Emanuel's German Luth- 
eran church. 

A prosperous business man and hotel proprietor at Fort Wayne, 
James P. Ross, was born in St. Joseph county, Ind., March 5, 1836, the 
son of Benjamin and Rachel (Helmick) Ross. In youth he worked 
upon a farm in his native county and attended • the common schools, and 
in early manhood attended the old Methodist college of Valparaiso, Ind., 
six months. He continued upon the farm until his marriage, April 1, 
1862, to Marietta Kingdon. She was born in Allen county, March 22, 
1842, daughter of William and Mary Kingdon. Immediately after his 
marriage Mr. Ross located in Eel River township. He removed to 
Washington township in 1870, where his attention was divided between 
farming, saw-milling and merchandise, until 1880. He also served as 
postmaster about seven years in the village of Wallen. In 1880 he re- 
moved to Kansas City, Mo., where, on the 15th day of April, 1881, his 
wife died. In 1S82 he returned to Indiana and located at Fort Wayne. 
Here he has conducted a meat market ever since, and for the past three 
years he has also been the proprietor of the Columbia House. He is 
now also conducting a grocery and bakery. He was married April 9, 
1885, to Mrs. Mary E. Ayres, who was born near Syracuse, N. Y., 
March 17, 1836. Mr. Ross by his first wife became the father of ten 
children: Wilbert A., Judson"K., Millie Ann, Charles L., Eva Estella, 
James P., Frank S., Jessie R., Benjamin M. and Marietta E., of whom 
Charles, James, Frank and Benjamin are deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Ross 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 



2l6 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Among the leading market proprietors of Fort Wayne should be 
named Nicholas B. Rowe, whose establishment is at No. 189 Broadway. 
He was born in Utica, N. Y., February 12, 1838, the son of Nicholas 
S. and Nancy E. (Smith) Rowe, the former a native of Utica, N. Y., 
and the latter of Johnstown, N. Y. His father died when he was but 
seven years old. He received a common school education, and during 
his youth when not in school he clerked in a grocery store. In 1856 
he went to Lawton, Van Buren county, Mich., where he clerked for 
three years, after which he engaged in the grocery business for himself. 
In 1868, he became superintendent of the Michigan Central iron com- 
pany, and continued in that capacity five years. In 1875 he removed to 
Garrett, Ind., where he did a grocery business and conducted a meat 
market until 1880. In July, 1880, he came to Fort Wayne, where he 
has ever since been the proprietor of a meat market. He was married 
in Lawton, Mich., December 24, i860, to Miss Mary M. Waldo, who 
was born in Erie county, Penn., March 2, 1842, daughter of George W. 
and Susan M. (Prescott) Waldo. They have two children : Mary J. 
and Herbert G. Mr. Rowe and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church; he is a member of the Masonic order, and in politics 
is a republican. 

A worthy citizen of Fort Wayne, Samuel H. Sauvain, came to this 
city when eight years old, from his native county of Wayne, Ohio. He 
was born April 4, 1846, son of Abraham and Mary Ann Sauvain, who 
were natives of Ashart, Switzerland. At the age of fifteen he entered 
upon an apprenticeship at the confectioner's trade, and served three years 
and a half. He then in March, 1864, entered the Union army in Com- 
pany K, Twenty-fifth New York cavalry, under Gen. Custer, and 
served till the close of the war. He was discharged at Hart's Island, 
N. Y., in July, 1865. Returning home he learned the blacksmith's trade, 
and has pursued it with but little interruption ever since. He is the 
inventor of a fire pot upon which he received a patent in 1882, and 
since that time he has spent two years traveling throughout the country 
introducing it. Mr. Sauvain was married in September, 1S70, to Amanda 
L., daughter of John Line. Mr. Sauvain and wife have had five chil- 
dren : Mertie, Clarence, Minnie, Charles R., and HuburtS., the three 
oldest of whom are deceased. He and wife are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church, and he is a comrade of the G. A. R. In politics 
he is a republican. 

A worthy and industrious citizen of Fort Wayne, Matthias Schnei- 
der, was born at Wolfurt, Austria, May 26, 1849. He is tne son of 
Jacob and Juditha Schneider, by whom he was brought to America 
when two years old. They made their home at Findlay, Ohio, but in 
1853, returned to Wolfurt, Austria, where the mother"' died in i860. 
Matthias remained at Wolfurt and between the ages of eight and 
twenty worked in a brick yard, and afterward for two years at the tin- 
ner's trade. In the meantime the father had returned" to America in 
1S62, and settled in Minnesota, but in 1873 he once more returned to 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 2l7 

his native place in Austria, where he now lives in his seventy-seventh 
year. At the age of twenty-two Matthias started out for America 
again. He reached New York, February 2, 1872, and went directly to 
Minnesota where he worked at farming in Brown county two years. In 
1874 he removed to Findlay Ohio, where he clerked in a grocery for an 
uncle twenty months. After four months in Minnesota he worked 
fifteen months at the butcher's trade at Fremont. In September, 1877, 
he went to Sacramento, Cal., being engaged there and at Woodland, 
Cal., ten months. He came to Fort Wayne in August, 1878, and since 
then he has pursued the occupation of a truckman. For five years he 
did all the truck work for Morgan & Beach. Mr. Schneider was mar- 
ried November, 1882, to Mary, daughter of John McCarty. She came 
from Ireland in 1873. Mr. and Mrs. Schneider are members of the 
Catholic church. In politics he is a democrat. 

Henry Charles Schweir, an estimable citizen of German birth, was 
born in Lade Kreismenden, Westphalia, December 20, 1833, son of 
William and Christina Schweir. In his native country he attended the 
regular school until he was fourteen and spent his youth on a farm. In 
1855 he entered the German army, and in 1856, appointed corporal until 
1858, served four years. Upon receiving his discharge, he at once 
started to America and arrived at Fort Wayne, August 26, 1859. Here 
he learned the trade of a boiler-maker, and from 1859 to I 883, was in 
the employ of J. H. Bass, working all the time at his trade. For the 
past six years he has been engaged in the grocery business at No. 176 
Montgomery street, having opened his store at that place May 28, 1883. 
Mr. Schweir was married October 6, 1866, to Catharine E. Earnhardt, 
who was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, January 25, 1846, the daughter of 
Thomas Barnhardt. She came to America with her father and mother 
when she was seven years old. Mr. and Mrs. Schweir have three chil- 
dren: William Gottfried Charles, Catharine Sophia Christina Mary and 
Sarah Charlotte. Mrs. Schweir is a member of St. Paul's German 
Lutheran church. 

In 1853, John Smaltz, having reached his twenty-first year on Feb- 
ruary 20th, left his native county of Hancock, Ohio, and settled in Aboit 
township, Allen county, and engaged in farming and carpentry. He is 
the son of Henry and Christina Smaltz, both natives of Fairfield county, 
Ohio. His paternal grandfather was John Smaltz, and his maternal 
grandfather, Philip Kramer, a native of Fairfield county. In February, 
1865, Mr. Smaltz entered the Union army in Company G, One Hundred 
and Fifty-second Indiana regiment, and served until the close of the 
war, being mustered out at Charleston, W. Va., August, 1865. In 
1872, Mr. Smaltz removed to Fort Wayne, and was occupied at his 
trade several years. He was married May 24, 1854, to Martha, daugh- 
ter of Hamilton Scott, of Hardin county, Ohio. She was born May 9, 
1830. Their only child is Francis M. Smaltz, proprietor of a well-known 
grocery and dry goods store at 307 West Main street, where the father 
has been engaged since 1877. 



2l8 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Francis M. Smaltz was born in Aboit township, April 13, 1855. At 
seventeen years of age he came to Fort Wayne and for five years 
worked at the tinner's trade. In 1877 he engaged in the grocery busi- 
ness, and his whole attention has since been given to the retail trade. 
Since the spring of 1879 ne nas done a successful business at his present 
location, and for the past five years he has also carried a line of dry 
goods. Mr. Smaltz was married April 22, 1877, to Miss Libbie Man- 
chester, of Elkhart, Ind. She is a native of Mahoning county, Ohio. 
They have had two children, Florence M. and Hugh M., the former of 
whom died in childhood. Mr. Smaltz is a successful business man and 
socially stands very high. 

Frank K. Smead, manager of the Union Pacific Tea company, at 
Fort Wayne, was born in Florence, Switzerland county, Ind., February 
14, 1861. He is the son of Charles and Charlotte (Krutz) Smead, 
both natives of Vevay, Ind. At the early age of fourteen, Mr. Smead 
made his way to Denver, Col. He spent eighteen months there, six 
months in Wyoming Territory, and a year in Kansas. During this 
time he was engaged at mining, herding cattle and hunting. Returning 
home he spent one year on the farm, but set out again in 1879, going to 
Kansas City, and there completed a course in the commercial college, 
graduating in 1880. For six months after this he was in the employ 
of W. D. Faunce & Co., of Boston, jobbers in teas and coffees as sales- 
man at Kansas City. Early in 1882 he went to Cincinnati, and entered 
the employ of the Union Pacific Tea compan}^, with which he has since 
been engaged in the capacity of manager. He has been the manager 
of tea stores in Cincinnati, Richmond, Cleveland and Peoria. In the 
spring of 1889, he came to Fort Wayne, and has ably and successfully 
managed the business here. Mr. Smead was married at Cincinnati, 
October 8, 1885, to Mamie A., daughter of Michael Sheridan, a boot 
and shoe dealer of that city. Mrs. Smead was born in Cincinnati, May 
1, 1865. They have had fone child, Stella F., born July 5, 1887, who 
died September 26, 1888. Mr. Smead is a member of the I. O. O. F. 

Since 1856 Jacob Alexander Spereisen has been one of the worthy 
citizens and mechanics of Fort Wayne. He was born in Switzerland, 
November 2, 1833, son of Ursus Joseph and Mary Anna Ida (von Arx) 
Spereisen. In his native country he attended school and served a three 
years' apprenticeship as a blacksmith with his brother. He worked at 
his trade as a journeyman in different places in Switzerland until he was 
twenty-two, at which age he accompanied his father and mother to 
America. The family landed at New York on May 1, 1856, and at 
once proceded to Fort Wayne, where the father and mother spent the 
rest of their lives, the latter dying January 2, i860, and the former 
July 22, 1869. For many years after coming to Fort Wayne our sub- 
ject worked at his trade as a journeyman. In May, 1870, he set up a 
blacksmith shop of his own, which he has conducted ever since. His 
present establishment is at No. 156 Fairfield avenue. Mr. Spereisen 
was married May 24, 1864, to Elizabeth Baker, who is a native of Fort 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 219 

Wayne, born July 15, 1843, daughter of John and Mary (Faut) Baker, 
both natives of Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Spereisen are members of the 
Catholic church. He is a member of the Catholic Knights of America, 
and also of the St. Paul school and Pius benevolent societies. 

For nearly a quarter of a century Gottfried Ernst Spiegel, one of 
Fort Wayne's popular grocers, has been doing business at the rooms he 
now occupies. He first engaged in the grocery business as a clerk at 
the age of fourteen, and on August 1, 1866, became a proprietor at his 
present stand. Mr. Spiegel was born January 4, 1845, in the village of 
Juedendorf, province of Saxony, Germany. He is the son of August 
and Sophia (Wehr) Spiegel, with whom he came to America in 1S57. 
The family landed at New York August 17, after having spent seventy 
days on the ocean. They at once proceeded to Detroit, but about four 
months later came to Fort Wayne, arriving on December 15. The en- 
tire family still resides in this city. Mr. Spiegel was married May 23, 
1867, to Miss Christina Wolf, who was born February 22, 1846, in the 
village of Leutenbach, Wurtemburg, Germany, the daughter of Chris- 
tian and Dora Wolf. She accompanied her mother to America in 1S52, 
her father having died in Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Spiegel have five living 
children: Anna, Minna, August, Tenea and Christian. They are mem- 
bers of the St. John's German Lutheran church. 

John George Strodel, a popular Fort Wayne business'man, was born 
in Bavaria, September 4, 1845. His father, John George Strodel, born 
in Bavaria in 1802, was a butcher by trade, who immigrated and settled 
at Huntington, Ind., in 1855, and there resided until his death, May 6, 
1S77. He was the father of thirty-two children, of whom seventeen are 
living, an interesting fact, for which few if any parallels can be found in 
modern life. The mother of the subject of this mention bore seventeen 
of these children, he being the second. Eight of these are living. She 
was born in Bavaria in 1825, and now resides at Huntington. Mr. 
Strodel was given a common school education, but throughout his sub- 
sequent career has been wholly dependent upon his own exertions. At 
the age of twelve years he came to Fort Wayne, and found work with 
his brother in the butchering business for ten years. In 1866 he engaged 
in the saloon and restaurant business, and has been so occupied ever 
since, being notably successful, and being generally known as an enter- 
prising and popular citizen. In politics he is a democrat. For twenty- 
one years he was connected with the fire department of the city, a long 
and honorable service, from which he withdrew as assistant chief. He 
was married April 8, 1866, to Christina Wuersten, who was born in this 
city July 3, 1847, to "Jacob and Catherine Miller Wuersten, who immi- 
grated from Germany and settled here at an early day. He was the 
founder of Bloomingdale, and died in 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Strodel have 
six children living of eight born: Martha, Pauline, Herman, Otto, Frank 
and Emma. The family are members of the Lutheran church. 

Himerius Leopold Studer, a manufacturer and dealer in mineral 
waters and other popular and refreshing beverages, engaged in the busi- 



220 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ness here in 1871, having emigrated from Switzerland the previous 
year. He has been quite successful, and in 1888 erected the business 
building in which he is now located at a cost, including the lots, of more 
than $7,000. This is on West Main street, Nos. 228, 230 and 232. He 
was born in Switzerland, November 14, 1842, son of Anton and Anna 
Mary (Meyer) Studer. The parents were born in that land, his father in 
1804 and the mother in 1813. The father died in 1864 and the mother 
in 1884, both in their native country. The subject of this mention was 
the youngest of three sons, and received his education in Switzerland. 
He was married February 7, 1875, to Anna Mary Steinhauser, who was 
born in Germany October 13, 1851, and came to Fort Wayne in 1872, 
and they have four children: Anna J., born in 1876; Rosamond, 1880; 
Alma, 1S84; and Bertha, 1886. Mrs. Studer is a member of the 
Lutheran church. 

One of the leading dealers of coal and wood at Fort Wayne, An- 
drew Sullivan, was born in New York state, May 7, 1852. Coming to 
Fort Wayne in 1S69, he soon afterward was occupied in railroading on 
the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago. In 1877 he went to Lawrence 
county, Penn., and was there engaged in the saw-mill business for sev- 
eral years. He returned to Fort Wayne in April, 1884, and then en- 
gaged in the wood and coal business at the corner of Grant and Oliver 
streets, an occupation in which he has been successful. He was mar- 
ried October 26, 1S75, to Mary D. Cole, a native of the state of New 
York. To this union five children have been born, of whom one is de- 
ceased. Mr. Sullivan is a member of the Cathedral congregation, of 
the Catholic Knights, St. Julian council, No. 9, and Catholic benevolent 
legion. In politics he is a democrat. 

One of the successful business men of Fort Wayne, James Summers, 
was born in county Kilkenny, Ireland, August 8, 1835, the second and 
only survivor of six children of Michael Summers. The latter was 
born in Ireland, and there married Ann Delaney, who died in her native 
land. The father came to America and died at Fort Wayne at eighty 
years of age. James Summers came to the United States in 1853, and 
settled first in Vermont, where he resided one year. In 1854 he came to 
Fort Wayne, and for five years acted as clerk at the Rockhill house. 
In 1 861, he engaged in business in this city, and at this has since been 
occupied. Mr. Summers was married in 1863, to Catherine Nelligan, 
who was born in Ireland, and they have five children living out of twelve 
born: Mary, Ella, Anna, Lizzie and Frank. In politics Mr. Summers 
is a democrat. He is a prominent member of the Catholic church, and 
is active in the Catholic Legion and the Catholic Knights of America. 

John P. Tinkham, a prominent dealer in wood and coal at Fort 
Wayne, was born in Delaware county, Ohio, January 13, 1832. His 
father, Isaac Tinkham, a native of Vermont, married Sarah Mapes, a 
native of New York, and about 1820 they became pioneer settlers in 
Delaware county, Ohio. In 1837, they joined the advance guard of 
civilization in Indiana, settling in Adams county, where the father died 



BUSINESS INTERESTS. 22 1 

in 1844. The mother then removed to Whitley county, thence to Lafay- 
ette, and then to Allen county, where she died about 1877- They had 
four children, of whom two survive, the subject of this mention and Benja- 
min F. Tinkham. The latter enlisted in the Twentieth Indiana, in 1861, 
and served three years. He was taken prisoner and confined in 
Libby prison, and was on ship board during the disastrous storm off 
Hatteras Inlet, and suffered all the hardships of war. He is now a 
resident of Fort Wayne. John P. Tinkham spent his early years upon 
the farm of his parents, their last location being near New Haven, and 
after leaving the farm, was employed on packet boats on the Wabash 
& Erie canal during the summers, spending the winters at Fort Wayne 
for five or six years. Afterward he engaged quite extensively in snip- 
ing wood and lumber to Cincinnati, from Fort Wayne by way of the 
canal. This occupied him for several years. About 1874, he opened a 
wood yard at Fort Wayne, which he has since conducted. He was mar- 
ried in 1 86 1, to Mary Parant, who was born in Ohio in 1838, and died 
about 1872, leaving three children of whom two survive, Cora and 
Frank. In 1876, he was married to Matilda M. Eldridge, born in Steu- 
ben county, in 185 1, and they have#five daughters: Mabel, Gracie, 
Blanchie, Nellie and Eva. Mr. Tinkham has been successful in business, 
and is highly esteemed as a citizen. 

Since April, 1868, when he made his home at Fort Wayne, Chris- 
tian Wenninghoff has been extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
cigars, and the wholesale and retail trade. His establishment was for 
many years on Calhoun street, but has been lately removed to 
his present commodious quarters at no West Jefferson. In his factory 
(No. 142), are employed ten men on the average, and his products, 
" Copyright Red Bird," "Xenophon," " Nelson " and " Triple Extra," 
are well known. Mr, Wenninghoff was born at Bramsche, Hanover, 
October 12, 1842. In 1866, having learned the trade of cigar maker, 
he came to the new world, and made his home first at Steubenville, 
Ohio. April 1, 1869, he was married to Amelia Wieman, of Williams 
county, Ohio, and they have seven children: Sarah, Amelia, Lilly, 
Christian, Flora, Arthur and Edgar. Mr. Wenninghoff is a member of 
Emanuel Lutheran church, and a worthy citizen. 

During the past decade Jacob V. Wilkens has been a successful 
business man at Fort Wayne, and one of the proprietors of a meat 
market which does a flourishing business. He was born in Ohio, April 
8, 1857, the son of Chris Wilkens, a native of Germany, and Katherine, 
his wife. He came to Fort Wayne with his parents in 1863. He 
learned the butcher's trade with his father, and this has been his vocation. 
He was married September 3, 1883, to Miss Sarah Sutter, a native of 
Wells county, Ind. He has three children: Grace, Emma Leoni and 
Maud May. Mr. and Mrs. Wilkens are members of the English 
Lutheran church. He is a good business man and a first-class citizen. 

John Wilson, a leading dealer in coal and wood at Fort Wayne, is a 
native of England. He was born at Suffolk, August 25, 1823, and was 



222 VALLEY OF THE .UPPER MAUMEE. 

reared in London, whither his parents moved when he was young. 
The father was a school teacher, surveyor and map-maker, and assisted 
materially in his son's education. At the age of fourteen John was 
apprenticed, an engagement which he abruptly terminated. Then he 
secured a position in a grocery store in London, and afterward was in 
the employ of a wholesale cheese dealer, for whom he traveled. In 
the fall of 1844 he married and engaged in general merchandise .at 
Black Friar's, London, until 1848, when he emigrated with his family 
to Albany, N. Y. In July, 185 1, he made his home in Allen count} 7 , on 
the "Rvder section," in Lake township. He taught school, graded in 
1853 one mile of the Pittsburgh railroad, and next invested in timber 
land and managed a saw-mill, selling the product to the railroad, until 1878, 
when he had cleared 560 acres of land. Leaving his sons on the farm, 
he took a position in the lumber yards of J. N. Coombs, at Fort Wayne, 
and remained exactly four years. Mr. Wilson embarked in the coal and 
wood business in April, 1882, in partnership with Edward Gilmartin and 
B. B. Rossington. A vear later he purchased the interests of those 
gentlemen, and in 1884 his son Walter was admitted to the business, and 
in 1885 his son J. C. became a partner, the firm style now being John 
Wilson & Sons. Mr. Wilson was married first to Harriet Pryor, who 
was a native of Hertfordshire. She died in 1876, leaving three children: 
John C, Walter B. and Mary A., now Mrs. Whitney, and in 1878 he 
was married to Mary Rossington, also a native of England. Mr. Wil- 
son is a member of the Episcopal church, and is a highly esteemed 
citizen. 

Since August 10, 1880, William Wise has been enrolled among the 
busy and successful mechanics of Fort Wayne. He was born near 
Mansfield, Ohio, September 3, 1854, son °^ Henry and Mary (Bosler) 
Wise, the former of whom was a native of Pennsylvania. He was 
reared on a farm and received a common school education. At nine- 
teen he entered upon an apprenticeship at the blacksmith's trade in 
Mansfield, Ohio, and served three years and a half. He then conducted 
a shop at the old Wise homestead, in Richland county, two years. On 
coming to Fort Wayne he first worked a while as a journeyman. But 
in the spring of 1882 he and Mr. Farnin became the owners of a black- 
smith shop on Lafayette street. The partnership was dissolved in the 
following autumn, and on September 22, 1882, Mr. Wise opened up his 
present shop at No. 363 South Calhoun street. Mr. Wise is a member 
of the English Lutheran church. 

A skillful mechanic and worthy citizen of Fort Wayne during the 
past eight years, Joseph F. Zurbuch, conducts a prosperous business at 
No. 387 West Main street. Mr. Zurbuch was born in Mercer county, 
Ohio, April 12, 1861. His father, Xavier F. Zurbuch, came to this 
country with his parents, from Alsace, in 1833, and was married in Ohio 
in 1856, to Elizabeth Rentz, a native of that state. When their son 
Joseph was ten years old they removed to Lawrence county, Tenn, but 
in 1877 returned to Ohio, settling near Carthagena. In 18S0 they came 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 223 

to this city, their present home. On the return from Tennessee, Joseph 
F. Zurbuch found employment at farm work in Mercer county, Ohio. 
In the fall of 1877 he came to Allen county, and for three years he 
served an apprenticeship at the blacksmith's trade at New Haven. In 
the spring of 1881 he came to Fort Wayne where his attention has 
ever since been given to his trade. He has made a specialty of horse- 
shoeing, and for the past four years he has conducted an establishment 
of that kind for himself. He was married November 18, 1884, to 
Christena M. Reinhardt, who is a native of Fort Wayne, born February 
20, 1865, the daughter of John and Louisa M. Reinhardt, both natives 
of Germany. Mr. Zurbuch and wife are members of the Catholic 
church. He is a member of the Knights of St. Charles society. 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 

The architectural improvement of Fort Wayne during the last few 
years has been remarkable, both for the number of new buildings 
erected, and for the elegance and substantial qualities of these addi 
tions to the attractions of the city. Before this era of improvement 
began, and within the memory even of the young men of the city, Cal- 
houn street, the principal thoroughfare, now having the additional dis- 
tinction of being the wholesale street, was a muddy road, bounded by 
poor sidewalks, making pretensions to business at the north end, and 
with a few eating houses and drinking houses at the south depot. Be- 
tween Washington and Baker streets was a motley array of buildings 
too variegated in character to give the street a substantial appearance. 
Here, handsome buildings now stand, which are a credit to the city and 
its people. At the "old Townley corner" the buildings occupied in 
part by George Dewald & Co. have been wonderfully improved, and 
this old seat of trade is not behind more recent business blocks in strik- 
ing appearance. The handsome five-story building of A. C. Trentman, 
60x65 feet frontage, the five-story building of E. A. K. Hackett, adjoin- 
ing the Rich building, distinguished by its handsome cut stone front, the 
attractive four-story building, 50x100, occupied by the wholesale house 
of Bursley & Co., the Fleming building, which so closely escaped 
destruction in the fire of February, 1889, the metropolitan Pixley-Long 
block, erected by George W. Pixley and Mason Long, with front of 
Michigan sandstone, the Fox wholesale block, risen from the ashes of a 
disastrous conflagration, the Schmitz building, the stone exterior of which 
is the most elaborate and ornate of any business building in the city, the 
Rich, Wayne and Aldine hotel buildings, which have supplemented so 
efficiently the entertaining capacity of the older Aveline and Robinson 
hotels — these are some of the more prominent improvements in the 
city's business accommodations. Of the many handsome and luxurious 
residences which have grown up recently, and of those elegantly 
appointed ones that have stood for many years, attesting the good taste 



224 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

and faith of their builders in the future of the city, it would be impracti- 
cable to make detail in this work. The splendid temples of worship 
and other church institutions now adorning the city, are described in a 
more appropriate connection. There remain to mention, the buildings 
of a public character, and of these, and the circumstances attending 
their erection, a brief account will here be given. 

The Government Building. — The Fort Wayne building has been pro- 
nounced by competent judges, the handsomest and best building, size 
and cost considered, that the government has yet erected, yet the work 
was done so honestly and economically that $6,000 of the appropriation 
remained unexpended at the completion of the work. The movement 
for this public work was begun by the citizens during the congressional 
term of Hon. Walpole G. Colerick, and through his exertions, the first 
appropriation of $50,000 was made by congress. The subsequent appro- 
priations were obtained through the efforts of Hon. Robert Lowry, who 
earnestly devoted himself to this enterprise. The total estimate was 
$221,000, of which $34,000 was for the site. The first superintendent 
of the work was the late Col. George Humphrey, who was appointed 
in April, 1884. He was relieved hy the appointment of Christian 
Boseker about the time that the work had progressed as far as the lay- 
ing of the second floor supports. William Moellering was the contrac- 
tor, and faithfully performed the work he undertook. It was occupied 
by Postmaster Kaough on the night of February 14, 1889. The build- 
ing is fire-proof throughout, and the walls are built of Michigan bluff 
sandstone, from the quarries of S. B. Bond, at Stony Point, Mich., a very 
handsome material. The ground plan is eighty- five feet square, and 
the top of the roof is sixty-six feet above the ground. At the north- 
west corner a beautiful bastion tower rises to the height of 115 feet. 
The building affords a working room for the postoffice, 26x80 feet, as 
well as offices, on the first floor, and the second floor contains, besides 
offices of various departments of government service, a court room, 
26x53, elegantly appointed, and furnished with benches and tables of 
solid cherry. This superb building is the pride of the city and a great 
gratification to all who labored for the securing of it. 

Y. M. C. Association Building. — For a number of years a Young 
Men's Christian Association, railroad branch, had flourished in the city 
and furnished a commodious reading room near the depots on Calhoun 
street. But the necessity of an extension of this noble enterprise and 
the organization of a regular association in Fort Wayne of a general 
character, was recognized early in 1886, and the matter was debated in 
the meetings of the executive committee of the railroad department. 
At the suggestion of E. D. Ingersoll, railroad secretary for the inter- 
national committee, a committee consisting of E. A. K. Hackett, E. S. 
Philley and C. H. Newton was appointed to formulate a constitution, 
and Messrs. Ingersoll and D. F. More were added as advisory mem- 
bers. This committee reported a plan of organization to the meeting 
called at the parlors of the railroad association March 18, 1886, at which 



CO 



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a 

m 
□ 

b 

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ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 2 25 

time the organization of the city association was made with ioo 
charter members. The first officers were E. A. K. Hackett, president: 
E. S. Philley, S. R. Smith, W. T. Ferguson, August Detzer, vice presi- 
dents; C. H. Newton, secretary, and J. A. Tyler, treasurer. Trustees: 
J. K. Edgerton, John Ferguson, O. P. Morgan, John H. Jacobs, George 
W. Breckenridge and John M. Miller. The association at once began 
considering the erection of a building as a permanent home for the 
association, and though the project was a vast one for the young organ- 
ization, the brave hearts of its founders were not discouraged. In Jan- 
uary, 1887, it was officially resolved to purchase the lot of J. B. White 
adjoining the Sentinel building, and erect a building 40x100 feet, and 
the plans prepared by Wing & Mahurin were adopted. The work of 
digging for the foundation was begun before the frost was out of the 
ground, and the contract was let to William Moellering. A building 
committee was appointed, who vigorously and efficiently prosecuted the 
work, Hon. A. A. Chapin, chairman; J. W. Cromwell, W. S. Harrison, 
H. C. Schroeder, and George O. Bradley. The corner stone was laid 
with appropriate services, and an address by Dr. Munhall, on June 6, 
1887, and in about a year the building was occupied. It is a handsome 
structure with an attractive stone front, and cost, the lot included, about 
$40,000. It is elegantly furnished throughout, and contains a lecture 
hall, a spacious reading room and ample space for athletic exercises, 
fully equipped with apparatus. On September 16, 1889, a new con- 
stitution was adopted, whereby the two branches of the association in 
the city are brought under the control of a board of directors, of 
which W. D. Page is president; C. H. Newton, vice president and 
H. C. Schroeder, secretary. Of the association just described, E. A. K. 
Hackett, whose untiring energy and popularity have contributed so 
much to the success of the institution, remains as chairman, with 
George B. Shivers, secretary, and James McKay, treasurer. The 
general secretary is D. F. Bower, lately of Reading, Penn., and E. F. 
Gage is physical director. 

The State Institution. — By the state legislature of 1887, there was 
enacted a law for the establishment of a state institution, to be called the 
Indiana School for Feeble-minded Youth, taking the place of a similar 
institution formerly connected with the home for soldiers' orphans. There 
was a lively struggle in the legislature for the location of this new insti- 
tution, and the pluck and perseverance of Fort Wayne citizens was well 
illustrated in the campaign which ended in their victory and the estab- 
lishing of the location at Fort Wayne. A board of trustees was appointed 
of which E. A. K. Hackett, of this city is president. On the 19th of 
May, 1887, they purchased of William L., and Clara L. Carnahan, a 
tract of fifty-four and one-half acres, one and a half miles from the city, 
and on this the erection of a building was begun in the spring of 1888. 
For this and site there was at first appropriated $50,000. The trustees 
decided to erect a building which should be able to adequately meet the 
wants of the unfortunate children, long neglected, and the plans were 
xv 



2 26 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

prepared by Wing & Mahurin of this city. The contract for the main 
building, which was all that could be attempted under the first appropria- 
tion, was let to William Moellering, of Fort Wayne, who finished it in the 
fall of 1888, waiting for the state's financial condition to improve before 
receiving his pay. The contract for building the wings, hospital, cold 
storage building, boiler house and laundry, was let subsequently to 
Brooks Brothers, and the etitire structure, it is expected, will be ready 
for receiving its inmates in the spring of 1S90. The building has a 
400 foot frontage, and has a capacity of accomodating 1,000 children. 
The central portion, or administration building, contains, in addition to 
the various offices, dining rooms, chapel, culinary department, etc. The 
additions to the east and west are dormitories. The building is con- 
structed with particular care to provide those conveniences necessary to 
the character of its occupants, being heated by steam, with a complete sys- 
tem of water-works, and fire protection, an electric-light plant of its own, 
complete sanitary arrangements and fire escapes, and is most thorough in 
its adaptation to the uses for which it is designed. The halls and all 
dining rooms are tiled, and the building is as near fire proof as possible. 
By the last legislature aditional appropriations of $187,000 were made, 
and the building when completed will have cost including land about 
$230,000. 

William Moellering, one of the leading contractors and builders of 
northern Indiana, was born in Prussia, April 7, 1832, the youngest son 
of August and Dorothea (Rackeweg) Moellering. The father, a native 
of Prussia, died there when William was about three years old, and the 
mother, a native of Hanover, died in Prussia about 1844. William 
Moellering obtained a good common school education, and in 1849 emi- 
grated to the United States, making the voyage in sixty-three days. 
He reached Fort Wayne, which has since been his home, in August, 
1849. In 1850 he began the trade of stone mason and brick layer, and 
three years later, had so thoroughly perfected himself that he began the 
business of a contractor, in which he has since been so successfully 
engaged. He is also one of the most extensive brick manufacturers of 
the city and has extensive stone quarries at Wabash. Mr. Moellering 
has erected many well-known public buildings in this part of Indiana, 
among them, six of the public school buildings in Fort Wayne, St. Paul'i 
cathedral, 1886, St. Paul's Lutheran church in 1888, the United States 
court-house and postoffice at Fort Wayne, and he is now building the 
State School for Feeble-minded Youth, near the city. He has been 
very successful in business, and occupies a high rank among the enter- 
prising men of the city. He is a member of the Evangelical Lutheran 
church, and in politics is democratic. Mr. Moellering was married in 
1854, to Anna Hambrock, who was born in Germanv in 1834, and came 
to Fort Wayne in 1851. They have ten children: William F., Eliza, 
Minnie, Henry F., Anna, Sophia, Charles E., Mathilda, Edward and 
Clara. 

In the year 1884 J. F. Herber embarked in business as a carpenter 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 2 27 

at Fort Wayne, and in 1888 began contracting, in which he has been 
quite successful, having a good custom and employing a number of men. 
He was born in Marion township, October 3, 1862, the son of Nicholas 
and Mary (Hoffman) Herber, both of whom were born in Germany. 
The father immigrated in about 1850, came directly to Allen county, and 
buying a farm in Marion township began farming. He is now one of 
the prosperous farmers of that township. His wife came to America in 
1832, and her father was Gunderum Hoffman, was one of the pioneers 
and a well-to-do farmer of Marion township. She died in 1S75, at the 
age of forty-six years. Both parents were members of the Catholic 
church. To them nine children were born, eight of whom are living. 
Their son, J. F., was reared on the farm until his seventeenth year, when 
he began working at the carpenter's trade. He owns a handsome two- 
story frame residence on South Wayne street, on a forty-foot lot. Mr. 
Herber is a member of St. Mary's Catholic church. 

Sanford Rich, owner of Rich's Hotel, is a native Indianian, born in 
Washington township, Rush county, September 30, 1840. His father, 
Joseph Rich, was born in Adams county, Ohio, August 1, 1818, the son 
of John Rich, a native of North Carolina, who was one of the pioneers 
of Adams county, Ohio, settling there in 1804. He died in that county 
at middle age, and his widow removed to Fayette couuty, Ind., about 
1824. When Joseph was about seventeen years of age he removed to 
Rush county, and was there married in 1839 to Melinda Lightfoot, who 
was born in Kentucky in 1822. In 1847 he moved to Wells county, 
and settled in what was known as the Indian reserve, when there were 
only about a dozen families living in the township. His occupation was 
farming and stock dealing. He died in Wells county, December 12, 
1877, his wife having passed away in 1854. They had five children, of 
whom Sanford Rich is the oldest. The others are: Edwin, born in 
1842; Permelia, born in 1844; Angeline, born 1848; and William, born 
1 85 1. Sanford was raised on the farm, and obtained his early educa- 
tion in the pioneer schools of Wells county. The first school-house at 
which he attended was known as the Uniontown school-house, and was 
the first erected in Union township, Wells county. His father donated 
the ground and was one of four men who put up the building in 1848. 
The first teacher was John Mulrine. In 1864 he came to Fort Wayne, 
and for about two years was engaged in the meat business, afterward, 
in the fall of 1865, returning to Wells county, where he was occupied 
in farming and stock dealing until his return to the city in 1873. Until 
1S80 he was again engaged in conducting a meat market, at Fort 
Wayne, but in the year named he removed to Chicago, and there fol- 
lowed the same business for seven years, doing a business of nearly 
$100,000 a year. Through )ut his career he has maintained a reputa- 
tion as a shrewd and careful business man, and an upright and worthy 
citizen. He is now a resident of Fort Wayne, where in 1885 he built 
Rich's Hotel, which is one of the leading and most popular hotels of 
northern Indiana. In politics he is a democrat; and he is a member of 



2 28 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

the Masonic and I. O. O. F. orders. He was married in 1863 to Elizabeth 
E. Walker, born in Rush county, in 1839, daughter of William Walker, 
a pioneer of that county. Mr. and Mrs. Rich are prominent members 
of the Christian church. 

The Wayne Hotel, built by J. C. Peters, in 1887, is famous over the 
land as a strictly first-class hotel, with perfect appointments and thor- 
oughly equipped with all those many provisions of comfort which the 
civilization of to-day has devised for the convenience and pleasure of 
the wayfaring public. The building is of brick and stone, four-stories 
high, with an area of 110x150 feet, and contains 128 furnished rooms 
for guests. On the ground floor are the office, lounging room, wash- 
room, bar and barber shop, five sample rooms, ample dining rooms, and 
a large lobby, all richly frescoed and decorated, and furnished with an 
exquisitely tiled floor. There are three capacious entrances, two ele- 
vators and wide stairways, and four fire escapes, to make entrance and 
exit comfortable and safe under all possible circumstances. To provide 
for comfort, there are two parlors with fireplaces, though the building 
is heated by steam; and the Hess electric system of call and return call 
extends throughout the house. Ample sample rooms on the second floor 
are ready for the many commercial travelers who make their headquar- 
ters here. The best ventilating and sanitary engineering have found 
scope in the Wayne, and the furniture is of a high order of elegance. 
In the respects named the house is first class, but an essential feature of 
a successful hotel has not yet been mentioned — its management. This, 
in the hands of W. M. McKinnie & Co., the active partner being Captain 
Henry McKinnie, leaves nothing to be desired in the tout ensemble of the 
Wayne Hotel. Capt. McKinnie has the sole control, and to him the 
unparalleled success of the establishment is due. Under his careful 
supervision the service is uniformly satisfactory, the cuisine is all that 
the most fastidious could wish for, and all guests receive the most cour- 
teous attention. Capt. McKinnie is also interested in the management 
of the Hotel Anderson, at Pittsburgh, the Manhattan Beach and Oriental 
hotel at Coney Island, and the Niel Hotel at Columbus, Ohio. 

Christian Boseker, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, and well- 
known throughout northern Indiana, was born in Saxony, Germany, May 
8, 1 841. His parents, Peter Boseker and wife, were natives of Saxony, 
and five years after the birth of Christian came to the United States, 
settling at Fort Wayne in June of 1846. Here the father followed his 
occupation, that of miller. The parents passed away after gaining the 
esteem of their acquaintances in their new home, the father in 1857, and 
the mother in 1865. Christian Boseker is the youngest son among eight 
children, four of whom survive. He received his education in the com- 
mon schools, and in 1859 began work at the trade of carpenter in the 
employment of A. C. Beaver, with whom he remained until the out- 
break of the war of the. rebellion. In the summer of 1S61 he enlisted 
in Company E, Thirtieth Indiana volunteer infantry, and served until 
March 28, 1863, when he was discharged on account of physical disa- 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 229 

bility. Returning to his home, he resumed the carpenter's trade in the 
fall of 1863, and in 1864 he entered the employment of J. D. Silver and 
was his foreman in the construction of the DeKalb county court-house. 
He embarked in the business of contracting in 1865, forming a partner- 
ship with Jacob Forbing, which continued until 1868. The executive 
ability and genius for construction manifested by Mr. Boseker in these 
early years of his career made him prominent as a builder, and he soon 
began to engage in the construction of public buildings involving the ex- 
penditure of large sums of money. In 1868-9 ne engaged in the remod- 
eling of the Allen county circuit court room. He subsequently built the 
court-houses of Defiance county, Ohio, and Adams county, Ind., and the 
Allen county jail. Leaving this business for a season he embarked with 
J. B. White, in the fall of 1875, in the manufacture of wheels, in which 
he continued for eight years. His next work was the completion of the 
Masonic temple, which had been commenced in 1881, but for lack of 
funds was not completed. This work was finished by Mr. Boseker in 
the fall of 1884. During this year he also took the contract for the 
erection of the First Presbyterian church, which he completed in 1885. 
In September of the latter year he was appointed by President Cleve- 
land superintendent of the erection of the government building at Fort 
Wayne, which was completed in April, 1889. In 1889 Mr. Boseker 
took the contract for building the Wells county court-house, which is to 
be completed in the fall of 1890. In politics, Mr. Boseker has always 
been a democrat, casting his first vote for Gen. McClellan. In 1881 he 
was elected water- works trustee for one year, and in 1882 was elected 
for three years. In 1888 he was elected to fill the unexpired term of 
J. F. W. Meyer, and in 18S9 he was again elected for three years. He 
has taken an active part in political affairs and in the improvement of 
the city. In 1888 he purchased the Fort Wayne Journal, the proprie- 
torship of which he held for eighteen months, then disposing of it on 
account of his other business. Mr. Boseker was married September 
28, 1863, to Cornelia Hinton, who was born in Fort Wayne in 1843. 
To them two children have been born, Lida E. and Harry C. 

Frank B. Kendrick, a well-known and popular architect, took up 
the study of architecture in Philadelphia, in 1869, under the direction of 
B. D. Price. In the fall of 1871 he began the practice of his profession 
at Lancaster, Penn., and continued there until May, 1874. He then 
spent three years at Salem, Ohio, and one year at Springfield, and in 
February, 1879, came to Fort Wayne, where he has since resided and 
successfully pursued his profession, being also engaged for eight years 
in contracting, in partnership with Alfred Shrimpton. During that 
period they built the residence of H. J. Trentman, in 1880, the Catholic 
library in 1881, the addition to St. Augustine Academy, the "Nickel 
Plate " depots, the Wayne Hotel, St. Vincent's asylum, and many other 
conspicuous residences and public structures. In 1888, Mr. Kendrick 
withdrew from the business of contractor. He is a valued citizen, and 
is in politics a republican. He was born at Lancaster, Penn., August 



23O VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

13, 1850, son of W. G. and Louisa Kendrick, natives of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, respectively. The father, who was born in 181 5, for ten 
years subsequent to 1837, followed the life of a sailor. For three years 
he served as a captain in the Union army, under Gen. George H. Thomas, 
and was honorably discharged after the battle of Chickamauga. The 
mother, whose maiden name was Stoddard, was born in Philadelphia 
about 1830. Frank B. is the oldest of seven children, and received his 
early education in the schools of Lancaster. He was married in 1874, 
to Miss L. Souders, who was born in Pennsylvania, and they have one 
child, Sallie. 

William Geake, senior member of the firm of William & J. J. 
Geake, the well known cut stone contractors of Fort Wayne, was born 
at Bristol, England, June 26, 1849, the son of Martin T. and Sarah 
(Hill) Geake, both natives of England. The family emigrated to 
Canada, in August, 1854, and returned to England in 1858, where they 
remained. William returned to America on May 2, 1868, and after 
making a stay at Oswego, N. Y., in the following November came 
west to Toledo, Ohio, where he learned the stone cutting trade. He 
then spent the time between 1868 to 1873 following his trade in Boston, 
Chicago, and various other cities, and in the latter year settled at Toledo 
and began contracting in cut stone work in partnership with J. J. Geake, 
his present partner. From Toledo he went to Petoskey, Mich., where 
he took up a homestead of 160 acres of land, and was one of the first 
white settlers of that region. After spending six years there, he located 
permanently at Fort Wayne. Before bringing his family here, however, 
he had come to Fort Wayne and was foreman of the work of erecting 
the Masonic temple. The firm of William & J. J. Geake was re-es- 
tablished here in 1882, and the business has grown remarkably, now 
giving employment to thirty to forty skilled workmen. Evidences of 
their skill are to be seen in the Hall block, Toledo, the finished stone 
work of the Masonic temple, the First Presbyterian church, the Y. M. 
C. A. building, and the lodge entrance at Lindenwood cemetery, the 
St. Paul's Cathedral church, Pixley and Long block and the Nathan 
and Rothschild residence, Fort Wayne, the court-house and the Michigan 
Central railway depot at Kalamazoo, Mich., the large stone residence of 
C. C. Bloomfield, Jackson, Mich., stone residences of A. B. Robinson, 
Jackson, Mich., and C. H. Brownell, Peru, Ind., National bank, Peru, 
Ind., and the court-house at Columbia City, Ind., now building. Mr. 
Geake is a member of the Summit City lodge, F. & A. M., No. 170. 
He was made a Mason in 1871, passed through the chapter in 1872, 
Knight Templar commandery in 1882, Scottish Rite in 1882, the chair of 
Worshipful Master of Summit City lodge, and has filled all the chairs 
of subordinate lodge. He was for three years H. P. of Fort Wayne 
chapter, No. 19, and Eminent Commander of Fort Wayne comman- 
dery for nearly three years, and T. P. G. M. of Fort Wayne lodge of 
Perfection, and A. & A. S. R., northern Masonic jurisdiction of Fort 
Wayne. He received the thirty-third degree on the 17th of September, 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 23 1 

1889, at New York city. He is also a member of the Royal Arcanum, 
and Sons of St. George, of which he was first president. Mr. Geake 
was married November 5, 1874, to Alice E. Clayton, of Toledo, Ohio. 
To them seven children have been born — three boys, four girls, all of 
whom are living. 

J. J. Geake, member of the firm of Wm. & J. J. Geake, proprietors 
of extensive stone works at Fort Wayne, learned the craft of stone cut- 
ter with his father, while his family were residents of Canada. After 
being engaged in the business about six months they removed to Toledo, 
in 1865, and he then began taking contracts for stone work of all kinds, 
which business he has subsequently pursued. The first firm of which 
he was a member was that of Kilt & Geake, the next Simmons & Geake, 
and in 1873 he formed a partnership with a cousin, William Geake. 
This was afterward dissolved by the removal of William to Michigan, 
but in July, 1879, J- J* removed to Fort Wayne, and his cousin 
having also made his home here, the old firm was re-estab- 
lished in 1882. Their firm is very prominent in the trade, the 
field of operations extending throughout Indiana, Ohio and Mich- 
igan. The works employ twenty to thirty skilled masons, are supplied 
with all the best appliances, and much of the work is done by 
steam power. All forms of ornamental as well as plain stone work 
is produced, and such buildings as the Y. M. C. A., Masonic temple, 
First Presb}'terian church, and many others, show the quaHty of the 
work of the firm. Mr. Geake was born in Onondaga county, N. Y., 
February 6, 1836, the son of Edward and Susanna (Jenkins) Geake, 
who were natives of Devonshire, England, and emigrated to this country 
in 1832. In 1842 they removed to Canada, and in 1865 to Toledo, where 
the father died in 187 1 and the mother in 1870. Mr. Geake was mar- 
ried March 8, 1861, to Rebecca H. McClear, of Ireland, who was born 
in 1841, came to Canada with her parents when a child, and died Janu- 
ary 4, 1888, leaving seven children living, out of nine born. 

William H. Kendrick, a prominent stone, brick and pressed brick 
contractor at Fort Wayne, began learning the trade of brick and stone 
mason in Lancaster, Penn., and finished it at Springfield, Ohio. In the 
latter city he began the business of a contractor in 1881, taking all 
kinds of brick construction. He came to Fort Wayne in 1886, and here 
engaged in the same business making a specialty of construction in 
pressed brick. He also began contracting in stone work in 1888. His 
business is extensive and he does all the pressed brick work in the city. 
Among the handsome buildings he has constructed are Trentman's on 
Calhoun street, and Fox's building, which he is also rebuilding. Mr. 
Kendrick is a member of the International bricklayers' association, and 
and at its meetings in 1888 and 1889 at Boston and Cleveland, he was 
the representative of northern Indiana. Mr. Kendrick was born in Lancas- 
ter, Penn., July 14, 1857, and his childhood and youth were spent there 
until 1875, when he removed to Springfield, Ohio. He was married in 



232 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

1 88 1, to Susie Kulp, daughter of Levi Kulp, a contractor of Springfield, 
Ohio, and they have had one daughter, who is deceased. 

One of the successful and practical contractors of Fort Wayne is 
Alfred Shrimpton. He is a native of London, England, born October 
2, 1836, son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Smith) Shrimpton, natives of that 
city. The parents, who were both born in 1811, immigrated in 1837, 
and first settled in New York city, afterward removing to Hamilton 
county, Ohio, where they now reside. The father is a cabinet-maker 
by trade, but has been carrying on farming for twenty years. The 
mother is a daughter of Capt. Smith, of the East India company's ser- 
vice. Mr. Shrimpton attended school in New York, and at the age of 
fourteen, began an apprenticeship of seven years in carpentry and stair 
building. In 1857, he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and worked at his trade 
until 1 861, when he enlisted in the Second Kentucky regiment, and was 
honorably discharged, and on account of physical disability, was unable 
to re-enlist. On his return from the service, he was engaged in build- 
ing and re-fitting opera-houses. In the spring of 1880, he came to Fort 
Wayne, and shortly afterward engaged in contracting and building, in 
partnership with F. B. Kendrick, which association continued until Feb- 
ruary, 18SS. Since then he has been doing business alone. He is a 
worthy citizen, and is one of the leading contractors of the city. In 
politics he is a republican. 

James M. Henry, prominent among the contractors and builders of 
Fort Wayne, was born in Parkersburg, W. Va., March 5, 1856. His 
father, Gabriel Henry, was born at Steubenville, Ohio, in 1837, and 
when quite young was taken by his parents to West Virginia, where 
they farmed near Parkersburg. He followed steamboating on the Ohio 
river about fourteen years, as an assistant pilot. Afterward he learned 
the carpenter's trade and was for a number of years engaged for a 
Pittsburgh company in erecting derricks, putting up machinery and 
opening oil wells in the oil region. In 1865 he removed to Noble county, 
Ind., and purchased a farm, to which he has since given his attention. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Sophia McKinzie, was born in Will- 
iamstown, W. Va., in 1837, her parents being natives of Glasgow, 
Scotland. James M. Henry passed his early years on the farm, and 
attended the country schools, then the schools at Marietta, Ohio. He 
began the trade of a carpenter at Kendallville, and was there engaged 
until July 3, 1882, when he came to Fort Wayne and entered the employ- 
ment of Kendrick & Shrimpton. He was foreman of the establishment 
of that firm until 1887, when he formed a partnership with E. T. Liburn, 
in general contracting and building. They have a large and increasing 
business. Mr. Henry is a member of Summit City lodge, F. & A. M., 
Fort Wayne chapter, being at present high priest: Fort Wayne council, 
No. 4, the grand lodge of Perfection, and the Royal Arcanum. He 
was married April 7, 18S6, to Laura Hoover, of Wabash, Ind., and they 
have two children. 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 233 

A prominent contractor and builder, Ernest F. Liebman, senior mem- 
ber of the firm of Liebman & Henry, became a resident of this city in 
1865. He then learned the trade of a carpenter, and subsequently for 
several years had charge of the erection of public buildings for various 
contractors, being so engaged at Decatur, Defiance, Wabash, LaGrange, 
and elsewhere, gaining during that time much valuable information and 
experience, so that he is to-day one of the most competent men in his 
profession. In 1881 he formed a partnership with Charles Boseker, but 
a year later engaged in business on his own account and so continued 
four years. The present partnership, with James M. Henry, was formed 
April 1, 1887. Among the principal buildings he has erected are R. T. 
McDonald's residence, several houses for Mrs. M. Hamilton, Mrs. W. 
Williams, the Rothschild and Nathan residences. Mr. Liebman is a 
native of Saxony, born in 1845, the son of William and Emma Liebman, 
who immigrated to New York in 1850, and are still residents of that city. 
He received his education in the German and English schools of New 
York. He is a member of the Masonic order, Knight Templar and 
Scottish Rite, of the I. O. O. F., Royal Arcanum, and politically is a 
democrat. Mr. Liebman was married in 1874 to Catherine Try, of 
Circleville, Ohio, and they have two daughters. 

The family of Caspar and Barbara (Hoffman) Krock is associated 
with the earliest German settlement in the Maumee valley. The par- 
ents came to America in 1837, and settled in Marion township the same 
year, upon a farm. The father enlisted in 1863 in the National army 
and being discharged in the fall of 1864, on account of illness returned 
home to die shortly afterward. The mother had died in 1849. The 
children were five in all; three sons and two daughters. One of the 
sons, John Krock, now a prominent contractor and builder at Fort 
Wayne, was born in Marion township, June 4, 1845. He remained on 
the farm until his nineteenth year, and attended the free schools and the 
Catholic school at Hessen Cassel. In 1863, he went to Springfield, 
Ohio, and remained about eighteen months, returning to Fort Wayne to 
begin the carpenters trade. Eighteen months later he went again to 
Springfield, and resided there four years, and then returned to Fort 
Wayne, and engaged in carpentry. Nine years he spent in the employ 
of the Fort Wayne steel plow works. In 1882 he began contracting, at 
which he has continued. He was married at .Springfield, Ohio, July 29, 
1869, to Mary Dahman, of Fort Wayne. To their union twelve child- 
ren have been born, four of whom: Annie J., Mary, Emma and Matilda, 
are living. Mr. and Mrs. Krock are members of St. Mary's Catholic 
church. 

Ernst Breimeier, one of the leading contractors and builders whose 
work has adorned Fort Wayne, is a native of Westphalia, Germany, 
born April 24, 1837. In 1855 he came to America alone and located at 
Chicago, and having completed his school studies, and learned his trade, 
in his native land, he immediately obtained work, and was engaged in 
that city four years. In i860 he removed to Fort Wayne, and three 



234 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

vears later began contracting, which has been his occupation to the pres- 
ent time. Among the buildings he has taken important building con- 
tracts upon, are: Emanuel Lutheran church, German Reformed church, 
Concordia college, new addition to St. Joseph's hospital, Orphan's home, 
Trentman's, De Wald's and Bursley's business buildings. Mr. Breimeier 
was married in 1S61 to Sophia Eliza Fos, who died in 1863, leaving one 
son, Ernst, jr. In 1865 he again married to Julia Gerke, who was born 
in this city and died in 1881, leaving five sons: Louis, Gustave, Her- 
man, Frederick and Theodore. In 1884 Mr. Breimeier was married to 
Eliza, daughter of Capt. Koch, and they have had two daughters, Bertie 
and Julia. Mr. Breimeier and wife are members of the Emanuel Luth- 
eran church, and he is a director of the Concordia cemetery. 

One of the early carpenters of Williamsport, Allen county, was 
James M. Griffith, a respected citizen, who came there from Adams 
county in 1857, and during his residence was the postmaster. He came 
to Fort Wayne in 1863, and resided here until about 1874, when he 
moved to near Decatur, Ind., but returned here in 18SS to reside with 
his son. His wife, Margaret Comfort, was born in 1814 and died in 
1874. He was born in 1813, was a native, as was his wife, of York 
county, Penn., and after their marriage they moved to Ohio, and in 
1854 to Adams county, Ind. In Washington county, Penn., November 
13, 1842, their son, Levi Griffith, now a prominent contractor and builder 
at Fort Wayne, was born. His childhood was spent in Ohio, where he 
received his education in the public schools. At sixteen years of age 
he began learning the carpenter's trade at Williamsport, and when about 
nineteen years old began work at Fort Wayne, which has ever since 
been his home. He began contracting with W. S. Patten in 1S69, and 
was engaged with him about four years, and since then has been alone 
in the business of general contracting and building. Mr. Griffith is a 
prominent citizen, is a republican in politics, and in 1887-8 served on the 
city council for the sixth ward. He is a member of Summit City lodge, 
No. 170, F. & A. M., chapter No. 19, council No. 4, commandery 
No. 4, K. T., lodge of Perfection, Princes of Jerusalem, the consistory 
at Indianapolis, and Howard council, R. A. Mr. Griffith was married 
in the fall of 1865, to Sarah A. Morton, who was born in Adams county, 
and they have had five children, four of whom survive. 

Fred H. Boester, carpenter, contractor and builder, with office at 
164 Griffith street, Fort Wayne, is well known as an enterprising citizen. 
He was born in Hanover, Germany, September 9, 1841, son of August 
and Mary (Huge) Boester. June 1, i860, he started from his native 
land for America, and came directly to Fort Wayne after landing. Here 
he set in to learn the carpenter's trade, and becoming a master of his 
craft, began contracting in 1873, an d at this he has been quite success- 
ful. Mr. Boester is a member of the German Lutheran church, and in 
politics is a democrat. He was married in 1866, to Frederika Neuer, 
who was born in this city in 1847. Seven children have been born to 
them, of whom five are living. 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 235 

Frederick Miller, of the firm of Miller & Scheie, contractors and 
builders, began to acquire a trade at the age of fifteen, when in his 
native land, Germany, commenced to learn the bricklayer's craft. This 
was his occupation for a considerable period, part of the time in this 
city, whither he came when he immigrated in 1866. For fifteen years 
his business has been that of a contractor, and he has been a member of 
the firm with which he is now connected for ten years. He has built 
some of the best residences in the city, and one of his most important under- 
takings is the erection of the new works of the Fort Wayne Jenney 
electric light company. He is an honorable and capable man, highly 
esteemed by the community, and is a practical builder, with a thorough 
knowledge of his work in all of its details. He is ranked as one of the 
leading contractors. Mr. Miller was born in Germany, October 3, 1841, 
son of Frederick Miller and Mollie Plenge, both natives of Germany. 
His father was born in 1806, and is living in his native land, where the 
mother, who was born in 1816, died about 1869. Six of their children 
are living, of whom Frederick is the oldest. He was married in 1869 
to Louisa Menze, who was born in Germany in 1848, and they have nine 
children: Frederick, Lizzie, Mary, Herman, Sophia, Charles, Clara, 
William and Arthur. Mr. Miller is in politics a democrat, and he and 
family are members of St. Paul's German Lutheran church. 

While in his native country, George Jaap, now one of the leading 
contractors in cut stone, learned his trade, and upon arriving at New 
York in 1873, he engaged in contracting in masonry. Two years later 
he removed to Allegheny, Penn., afterward spent fourteen months at 
Canton, Ohio, and then went further west, and was engaged for two 
years in the cattle business, making his home with an uncle, Andrew 
Ritchie, a wealthy cattle raiser at Fayette county, Iowa. In 1S81 he 
became engaged with Pierce, Morgan & Co., contractors at Lafayette, 
Ind., in the erection of the county court-house. He was afterward fore- 
man in the construction of the court-house at Terre Haute, and then 
came to Fort Wayne in 1885. Going first upon a farm in this county 
for two years, he returned to the city, and in May, 1888, began contract- 
ing, purchasing the business of Heniy Paul & Co., on Columbia street. 
He does a good business, contracting and dealing in lime and cement, 
with office and yards at Nos. 79 and 81 East Columbia street, and gives 
employment to an average force of four stone cutters and four laborers. 
Mr. Jaap was born at Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland, in 1855. He was 
married in July, 1884, to Mary Dignan, of this city, and they have had 
four children, three now living. He is a member of Fort Wayne Tem- 
ple, No. 1, Patriotic Circle; Liberty Assembly, No. 2,315, Knights of 
Labor; No. 101, Pheonix lodge, K. P., and Caledonian Society, Fort 
Wayne branch. 

In 1868 John McMullen came to Fort Wayne, having emigrated from 
his native land in the previous year. He began an apprenticeship as a 
carpenter at once, and advancing rapidly in his trade, began contracting 
in 1876. He also furnished designs and drawings for buildings, and in 



236 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

all branches of his business has been quite successful. He was born in 
county Antrim, Ireland, April 10, 1844, the son of Michael and Mary 
(Duncan) McMullen. The father died in 1S59, an< ^ m J 875 Mr. 
McMullen brought from Ireland his mother, two sisters and two brothers, 
who, with the exception of one brother who went to Australia, aU reside 
in the city. Mr. McMullen was married in 1876, to Elizabeth Franks, 
of Fort Wayne, who died in 1878, leaving one child, who died a month 
later. He is a member of the congregation of the Catholic cathedral. 

Particularly in his specialty of bridge abutment building, Herman W. 
Tapp ranks with the leading contractors and builders of Fort Wayne. 
He was born in Berlin, Germany, December 14, 1856, the son of Ferdi- 
nand and Wilhelmina (Siedschlag) Tapp. The family emigrated to 
the United States in i860, and resided at Chicago until 1865, when they 
removed to Fort Wayne, their present home. The father is a bridge 
contractor, and is engaged with his son Robert W., under the firm name 
of F. Tapp & Son. Herman W. Tapp studied in childhood at the Luth- 
eran schools, the Clay street public school and the Fort Wayne com- 
mercial college. At the age of fifteen years he began work as a stone 
cutter, and pursued that trade about six years, then engaging in con- 
tracting. Mr. Tapp is a member of Wayne lodge, No. 25, F. & A. M., 
Fort Wayne chapter, No. 19, R. A. M., and Fort Wayne commandery 
K. T. He is also a member of Harmony lodge I. O. O. F. Mr. Tapp 
was married in 1879 to Lizzie M. Winter, who was born in Allen county 
in 1857. To them three daughters and one son have been born: Ruth, 
Fred, Bessie and Elsie. Mrs. Tapp is a member of the .Third Presby- 
terian church. 

A well known contractor of Fort Wayne, Peter Hensel, is a native 
of the south of Germany, born January 15, 1845. In his native land he 
learned the trade of brick and stone mason, and in 1867 emigrated to 
America, and came to Fort Wayne in July of the same year, where his 
hopes of prosperity have been amply realized. He worked at his trade 
in this city until 1S77, and then embarked in contracting for brick and 
stone construction, at which he has since been engaged, and a large 
number of first class buildings display his handiwork. Mr. Hensel was 
married in 1869, to Caroline Dissellhot, a native of Prussia, and to them 
six children have been born. Mr. Hensel is a member of the German 
Reformed church. 

Among the prosperous contractors and builders should be named 
Fred. Bandt, who is a native of Prussia, born December 11, 1850. He 
came to the new world in 1872, and reached Fort Wayne September 
10, 1872. He had learned his trade in his native land, and this occupied 
him after reachiug Fort Wayne until 1879, when he began the business 
of contracting. Among the buildings which show evidence of his skill 
are Sidel's block, Fleming's block, part of the Kerr Murray shops, 
Olds' wheel works, etc., and a number of business houses, and numer- 
ous residences, such as the Dewald and William Diyer residences. 
Mr. Bandt was married in 1876 to Wilhelmina Bock, who was born in 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 237 

Prussia, and came* to America in 1870. To them have been born seven 
children, of whom five are living: William, Fred, Charles, Louisa 
and Gustave. He and wife are members of the Emanuel Lutheran 
church. 

A well known contractor in masonry at Fort Wayne, Frederick 
Rippe, was born in Bremen, Germany, on May 5, 1845. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native country and began the trade of 
brick and stone mason when fifteen years of age. This he followed in 
the old country until 187 1, and then emigrated and came directly to 
Fort Wayne, where he has since resided. He began contracting about 
1879 an d was so occupied about three years. He was foreman for 
Henry Paul for five years and then resumed contracting. He was mar- 
ried in 1872, in Fort Wayne, to Adelheit Beyer, and to them seven chil- 
dren have been born, four of whom are living: Mr. and Mrs. Rippe 
are members of St. Paul's Lutheran church. Their children that are 
living are: Henry, Lizzie, Louis and Charles. 

Among the enterprising men of Fort Wayne engaged in contract- 
ing and building, a creditable place is occupied by Henry A. Hoffman, 
who embarked in the business in 1879. ^ r - Hoffman's father, Peter 
Hoffman, was a native of Germany, who was brought to Ohio in child- 
hood by his parents, who afterward removed to Adams county, Ind., 
where Peter Hoffman married Mary Fuhrman, of the same nativity. 
There their son Henry A., was born, November 15, 1847. In 
1853, the family came to Allen county and settled at Mechanicsburg, a 
suburb of Fort Wayne, the father having rented the farm he had entered 
in Adams county. Peter Hoffman was employed at Fort Wayne as a 
carpenter until his death about 1855, and his widow then returned to 
the Adams county farm, where she now resides. These parents left 
seven children, one besides Henry A., residing in this city. The latter 
received his education in the Lutheran schools here and in Adams county, 
and at nineteen years of age began work as a carpenter's apprentice, 
and speedily became one of the leading men in his calling. He has been 
a resident of Fort Wayne since his fifteenth year, with the exception of 
a period during 1869-70, spent in the western states. He was married 
in 1874, to Emily Bly, of Adams county, and they have four children: 
Susan, Ellen, Louis and Anna. Mr. Hoffman and family are members 
of the Lutheran church. 

John H. Coolman, contractor, a valued citizen of Fort Wayne, was 
born at Medina, Ohio, in 1850, and came to Fort Wayne when quite 
young, his parents making their home in Allen county in the same year. 
His father, William Coolman, a native of Ohio, being a farmer by occu- 
pation, purchased a farm four miles north of the city, where he lived 
until his death in 1863. After the death of his father, John H. Coolman 
returned to Ohio, and there learned his trade. He engaged in contract- 
ing in 1871, and has done an extensive business. From 1877 to 1879, 
he was in California, and was there engaged in the same business, and 
in 1S81 made his home at Fort Wavne. Mr. Coolman was married in 



238 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

1874, to M ar y J. Corderay. He is a member of the Cathedral Catholic 
church. 

John Suelzer, one of the prominent contractors of Fort Wayne, 
embarked in that business in the spring of 1882, and since then has built 
the Berghoff brewery, since the fire, St. Paul's Catholic church, the 
asylum for feeble-minded children, the Catholic church at Peru, school- 
houses in Columbia City, and Wabash, and Louis Fox's building. He 
was born near Cologne, on the German bank of the Rhine, November 
26, 1853, the son of Peter and Elizabeth (Neuhauser) Suelzer. He lost 
his mother when he was twenty-three weeks old, and his father when 
he was six years of age, so that he was at an early age dependent upon 
his own resources. When he was fifteen he learned the carpenter's 
trade, and at nineteen emigrated to the United States. Landing at New 
York, he immediately purchased a ticket for Dallas, Texas, at which 
place he spent twenty-two months. He was afterward engaged at 
Conway, Ark., Morrillton, Memphis, Cario, Cape Girardeau, Mo., and 
Kankakee, 111., before coming to Fort Wayne. In September, 1881, he 
went to Germany and was married January 31, 1882, to Catherine 
Suelzer, who was born April 8, 1856, and then returned to Fort Wayne, 
which has since been his home. Mr. and Mrs. Suelzer, and their chil- 
dren, Agnes, Mary, John, Bertie and Annie, are members of St. Peter's 
Catholic church. 

John T. Crawford, contractor and builder at Fort Wayne, residing 
on the corner of Butler and Clinton streets, was born five miles west 
from Fort Wayne, on June 14, 1S54, and is the son of James and Rachel 
(Mood) Crawford, both of whom were natives of Ohio. The parents 
came to Allen county in 1S43 and located on a farm in Aboit township, 
and were among the pioneers of that region. The father died in 1883 
at the age of fifty-seven years, and the mother died in 18S5 at the age 
of fifty-three years. John T. Crawford was reared on the farm and 
attended the country schools. He came to Fort Wayne in 1S78 and 
finished the carpenter's trade, and worked at the same until 1884, when 
he began the business of contractor and builder, at which he has since 
continued, meeting with success. Mr. Crawford was married in 1S78 
to Clara E. Crawford, who was born in Lowell, Ind., and to their union 
three daughters have been born: Ettie May, Nellie Blanch, and Alma 
Ethel. Both Mr. and Mrs. Crawford are members of the First United 
Brethren church. 

A leading contractor and builder of Fort Wayne, Charles H. 
Schaper, was born in Adams township, Allen county, July 8, i860, the 
son of Goodlet and Louisa (Weese) Schaper. His parents, who are 
natives of Germany, on coming to this country, settled first at Fort 
Wayne and then removed to Adams township, where they have since 
resided. Mr. Shaper was reared on the farm, and received his early 
education in the country schools. He began the learning of the trade of 
carpenter in about 1878, and in 1881 he removed to Fort Wayne, and 
finished the acquirement of the trade. He worked as a carpenter until 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 239 

1884, and then began taking contracts, and being successful has since 
been engaged as a contractor. He did the carpenter work on the 
Fort Wayne Jenney electric light works, and was engaged in the re- 
building in 1889 and has been engaged on man)' other buildings, notably 
St. Paul's Lutheran church, the new Lutheran school building, and the 
large barn for Ryan Bros., and makes a specialty of heavy buildings, 
framing barns, etc. He employs on the average, fifteen men. 

Well known as a contractor in the construction of brick and stone 
work, is Ambrose W. Kintz, member of the firm of Pratt & Kintz, of 
Fort Wayne. He was born in Ohio, February 22, 1842, the son of 
Alexander and Phoebe (Echenrode) Kintz. His parents were both 
of German descent, but natives of this country, and became residents of 
Allen county in 1844, first settling on a farm near the city. The father 
is a practical brick-mason, having followed that trade most of his life, 
and in 1846 he came to this city. He is now a resident of the ninth 
ward, in his seventy-first year, and his wife is aged sixty-nine. Mr. 
Kintz was reared in the city, attending the public schools, and when 
about seventeen years of age, learned the trade with his father. In 1885 
he began contracting, and in 1886 formed the partnership with Benjamin 
Pratt. They are actively engaged in general contracting in brick and 
stone construction. In 1862 Mr. Kintz enlisted in Company E, Fifty- 
fifth regiment Indiana volunteers, and served both in that regiment and 
in the Ninety-first Indiana. He was married in 1874 to Lucia Miller, of 
Fort Wayne, and to them three children have been born : Daniel, Frank 
and Lulu. Mr. Kintz is a member of Fort Wayne lodge, K. of P., and 
of Sion S. Bass post, G. A. R. 

One of the old settlers of Fort Wayne was Henry Schroeder, who 
was one of the pioneer marble cutters of the city, and a worthy and 
highly esteemed man. He was the proprietor of a marble yard for a 
number of years. He died in 1870 and his wife, Barbara Weipert, 
passed away nine years afterward. They were both natives of Ger- 
many. Herman C. Schroeder, son of the above, born at Fort Wayne, 
February 3, 1857, is the eldest of five children born, all of whom are 
living with one exception. He was educated in the Lutheran schools, 
and learned the carpenter's trade with Frederick Hostmeyer. He 
worked at his trade until 1888, then embarking in the general contract- 
ing business, at which he is successful to a notable degree. Mr. 
Schroeder was married in 1885 to Anna Osterman, of Allen county, 
and they have one daughter, Lizzie. He and wife are members of the 
Lutheran church. 

Frederick Kraft is a member of one of the early German families, 
that of Ernst and Louisa (Eichkoff ) Kraft. Ernst Kraft came to Allen 
county about 1842 or '43, and worked on the old Wabash & Erie canal. 
He next purchased a piece of land of forty acres in Marion township, 
and in 1845 he returned to Germany and moved his family to his new 
farm home. He followed farming the balance of his life, and added to 
his original tract about fifty acres. His death occurred in 1849, in his 



240 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



fifty- fourth year, and the mother died in 1879 m ner seventy-third year. 
To them five children were born, four of whom survive. One of these, 
Frederick Kraft, who was born in the south of Germany, January 28, 
1841, is now a prominent contractor and builder. He received his edu- 
cation in the Lutheran schools, and remained on the farm until his twen- 
ty-fourth year, during the winters learning the carpenter's trade. In 
1865 he removed to Fort Wayne and went to work at his trade. In 
1870 he began contracting, at which he has been notably successful. 
Among the buildings which Mr. Kraft has erected are the Trentman 
block, Sidel's block and Bursley's block, on Calhoun street, Pixley & 
Long block on Berry street, L. M. Ninde's building on Berry and Har- 
rison streets, two foundry buildings for Mr. Bass, and the Olds' wheel 
works and man}^ others. He was married March 5, 1865, to Lizzetta 
Mauzan, who was born in Allen county in 1848, and died in 1868, leav- 
ing one son, Henry, who has since died. He was married a second 
time, March 8, 1872, to Sophia Henning, who was born in Germany in 
1850. To this union eight children have been born: Louisa, Charles, 
Minnie, William, Louis, Emma and Sophia. Fred, the fifth child, died 
in 1883. Mr. and Mrs. Kraft are members of the Lutheran church. 

Among the worthy German families that have become valued resi- 
dents of Allen county during the past forty years, is that of Christian 
and Mary (Huxoll) Gallmeier, who came to this country in the spring of 
1850, and settled on a farm in Adams county. They passed their lives 
happily, the mother dying August 14, 1874, anc ^ tne father December 3, 
1887. Their son, Ernst Gallmeier, was born November 10, 1849, was 
about six months old when the parents settled in this county, and he 
grew up upon the farm, gaining his education in the public and Lutheran 
schools. In 1866 he came to Fort Wayne, and began learning the car- 
penter's trade, which has since been his occupation in this city. Mr. Gall- 
meier was married May 1, 1879, to Minerva Waldo, of Fort Wayne. 
He and wife are members of St. Paul's Lutheran church. Mr. Gall- 
meier is one of the capable and enterprising men in his business, and is 
a good citizen. 

A well known contractor and builder of Fort Wayne, William Gall- 
meier, was born in North Germany, May 6,. 1845, and emigrated to the 
United States in 1865. He was educated in the public schools of Ger- 
many, and then learned the carpenter's trade. Upon arriving in America, 
he located in Fort Wayne and obtained work at his trade. In 1872, he 
began contracting, forming a partnership with Frederick Korte, with 
whom he has continued in business. Mr. Gallmeier- was married in 
1870, to Eliza Meier, who was born in Hanover, Germany. To them 
nine children have been born, four of whom are dead. The living chil- 
dren are: Louisa, Frederick, Mary, Clara and Annie. Mr. Gallmeier 
and family are members of St. Paul's Lutheran church, of which he has 
been one of the trustees since about 1884. 

One of the successful contractors of Fort Wayne, Gregory Lauer, 
first engaged in contracting in the spring of 1884, and is doing a good 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 24I 

business, employing four men. Mr. Lauer is a native of German)' - , 
born October 21, 1850, to John G. and Maggie (Hargerreiter) Lauer. 
The next year the father emigrated to New York to find a new 
home for his family. He settled in New York and sent for his wife, 
who started with her three children to join her husband, but she 
was taken sick at Havre, France, and died, leaving the children, the 
eldest of whom was sixteen, to make the voyage alone. After five 
years' residence at New York the father and children came to Allen 
county, where he purchased a farm about ten miles south of Fort 
Wayne. After twenty years of farming he sold his place and removed 
to the city, where he now lives. Gregory Lauer left the farm in his 
eighteenth year, and began learning the carpenter's trade at Fort 
Wayne. September 8, 1874, he was married to Catherine Trampe, a 
native of this county, and they have had seven children: George, 
Catherine, Gustave, Christina, Jesse (deceased), Jacob and Gregory. 
Mr. Lauer and family are members of the St. Mary's Catholic church. 

One of the successful contractors and builders of Fort Wayne, Fred- 
erick Korte, was born in Westphalia, Germany, October 25, 1847. He 
emigrated to America in 1865, and came at once to Fort Wayne, where 
he learned the carpenter's trade, and worked at the same until 1872, and 
then began contracting in partnership with William Gallmeier, with 
whom he has since continued in business. They have erected numer- 
ous buildings in the city, including both business and dwelling houses, 
and have met with much success. He was married May 6, 1870, to 
Sophia Berghorn, a native of Germany, and to them ten children have 
been born, six of whom survive: William, Elizabeth, Minnie, Sophia, 
Henry, and Ernst. Mr. Korte and family are members of St. Paul's 
Lutheran church, and in politics he is a republican. 

Formerly a partner of Frederick Roth and S. Keller in the stone 
cutting business, and now engaged with the firm of Roth & Keller, 
Christian Keefer, of Fort Wayne, is well-known as one of the masters 
of his craft. He was born in Preble township, Adams county, Ind., 
March 4, 1845, the son of John N. and Sophia (Gabel) Keefer. His 
parents were natives of Prussia and came to Indiana in 1838 among the 
early settlers, settling first in Adams county. In 1861 they removed to 
Fort Wayne, where they died, the father in 1864 and the mother in 
1874. To th^ese parents three children were born, of whom one son is de- 
ceased. Christian Keefer was reared in Adams county, and came with 
his parents to this city in 1861. The next year he went west, and for 
nine months drove the stage and carried the United States mail between 
St. Joseph, Mo., and Council Bluffs, Iowa. Then returning to Fort 
Wayne he began learning the stone cutter's trade, which has since 
been his occupation. In 1870 he formed the partnership above referred 
to, under the title of S. Keller & Co., which was subsequently changed 
to Keefer & Roth. He retired from the firm in 1882. Mr. Keefer 
was married in 1873 t0 Louisa King, of Fort Wayne, and to them a son 
and daughter have been born, Edward and Emma. Mr. Keefer in 

XVI 



242 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



politics is a liberal democrat, and he is a member of Concordia lodge, 
No. 228, I. O. O. F. 

John W. Muldoon, practical painter, located at No. 12 East Berry 
street, Fort Wayne, is a native of this count}', born in Marion township, 
Auo-ust 11, 1858. His father, Patrick Muldoon, a prominent man among 
the early settlers, was born in Ireland in 1827, and immigrated to this 
country, and was for a while engaged in contracting, then for some 
time in the milling and grocery business at Williamsport, subsequently 
beinw occupied in agriculture, until his death, which occurred February 
19, 1864, in Allen county . He was married on Jannary 30, 1851, to 
Margaret Killen, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1833, and now 
resides at 280 East Lewis street, this city. They have seven children, 
of whom four are now living, John Muldoon being the youngest. At 
twelve years he came to Fort Wayne, and when eighteen began to learn 
the painter's trade. When twenty-one years old he went to Chicago, 
and a year later returned to this city, and was for a year and a half in 
the employment of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad, 
as fireman. In 18S4 he resumed the painting business, and is now doing 
a good business, employing eight men, and has an extensive reputation 
as a skillful and accurate painter. Besides the general business he gives 
considerable attention to the finer branches of his art. He removed to 
his present location in March, 18S9. He is a democrat, politically; is a 
member of the Catholic church, and of the Catholic Knights of America; 
and socially is one of the popular young men of the city. 

Joseph H. Brimmer has been engaged in sign painting, giving atten- 
tion also to the finer departments of his art, such as the painting of pic- 
tures, banners for societies and the like, in Fort Wayne, since 1872, 
when he came to this city from Chicago, where for one year he had been 
occupied in his profession. He is now regarded as one of the leading 
artists in his line in this part of the state. Mr. Brimmer was born in 
Lancaster, Penn., February 13, 1850, son of Joseph and Mary (Hutch- 
inson) Brimmer, natives of that state. His father, born in 1808, died in 
1885; his mother now resides in Pennsylvania at the age of seventy- 
three. They had ten children, of whom three are living, Joseph being 
the second of these. In 1865 he began learning sign painting, and in 
1868 embarked in the business, removing in 1871 to Chicago. He is a 
worthy citizen; politically is a republican; fraternally is a Mason of the 
degree of Knights Templar; and he and wife are members of the 
English Lutheran church. He was married in 1875 to Rhoda E. 
Buckles, a native of Ohio, and they have had these children : John E., 
Mary E. and Clara L., living, and one Joseph H., jr., deceased. 

Henry Hild, a well known carriage and sign painter, has been a resi- 
dent of Fort Wayne since 1872, and has during that period achieved 
substantial success in his business and is held in esteem as a worthy and 
valuable citizen. He was born March 8, 1846, at Pittsburgh, Penn. 
His father was a native of Germany, born in 181 3, who came to 
America in 1837, followed teaching as a profession, and died at Pitts- 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 243 

burgh in 1S69. He married Elizabeth Marquardt, born in 1809, anc ^ 
died in Iowa, November, 1888, and they had five children, of whom three 
survive, Henry being the second of these in age. In 1862 Henry Hild 
began learning the painter's trade in Pittsburgh, and followed it there 
until 1872. In 1870 he was married to Caroline Schust, who was born 
in Germany in 1848, and came to this comnrv when an infant with her 
parents, who settled at Fort Wayne. They have three children, Albert 
D., Otto G., and Emma W. Mr. Hild is a republican, and he and wife 
are members of the German Lutheran church. 

Among the worthy citizens of German birth should be mentioned 
Henry Schultz, a well known contractor and plasterer. He was born in 
Prussia, November iS, 1840, and immigrated to the United States in 
1864, coming directly to Fort Wayne from New York. While in the 
old country he learned the trade of mason, but after arriving in this country 
he engaged in plastering, to which he has since given his attention. He 
began contracting in about 1879. Mr. Schultz was married in 1869 to 
Henrietta Brink Kroager, who was born in Prussia. To their union ten 
children have been born, eight of whom survive: Louisa, William, Caro- 
line, Sophia, Henrietta, Katie, Henry, Frederick and Albert. Mr. 
Schultz and family are members of St. Paul's Lutheran church. 

In the business of slate and tin roofing and manufacture of tin and 
galvanized iron work, John Baker, of Fort Wayne, is conspicuous. 
He was born in this city April 24, 1849, son °^ Conrad and Bridget 
(O'Donnell) Baker. The father was a native of Germany, and was 
born in 1821. He emigrated to America and afterward came to Fort 
Wayne. He was a shoemaker by trade, and followed that occu- 
pation for a number of years. He served as street commissioner of 
Fort Wayne iwo years, and was afterward in the saw-mill business at 
Decatur, Ind. His death occurred in this city, April n, 1884. His 
widow, who was born in Ireland in 1821, and was married to him at 
Pittsburgh, Penn., now makes her home on West Berry street, this city. 
John Baker was reared in Fort Wayne, and was educated in the Catho- 
lic schools. In 1865 he set in to learn the slate roofing and tin and gal- 
vanized iron work, and has followed" that trade ever since. He began 
contracting in 187 1, forming a partnership with John H. Welch, with 
whom he continued in business until December, 1886, when the firm 
was dissolved, Mr. Baker buying the business. In February, 1887, he 
sold out to T. O. Gerow, and subsequently re-engaged in business, and 
continues at contracting. Mr. Baker was married September 14, 1875, 
to Fanny Welch, who was born in Ohio. Both are members of the 
Catholic cathedral. 

In 1858 Robert Ogden, who had just immigrated from England, 
came to Fort Wayne, and embarked here in the business of plumber, 
which had been the trade of his father and grandfather in the old coun- 
try and which he had thoroughly learned. In October, 1859, he re- 
moved to Dayton, Ohio, and in 1870 returned to this city, which has 
since been his home. He conducts a large plumbing buiness, with his 



244 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

establishment at No. 26 East Berry street, and has achieved an honor- 
able reputation. He was the first plumber to establish himself in Fort 
Wayne. Mr. Ogden was born near Manchester, England, Januar}- 9, 
1825, to John and Alice Ogden, and when a small boy began learning 
his trade with his father. He has been three times married. His pres- 
ent wife, to whom he was married July 3, 1888, is Agnes H., daughter 
of John Fowles, of this city. She is a member of the First Presbyter- 
ian church. Mr. Ogden is a member of the Episcopal church, and is a 
prominent Mason, being a Knight Templar and a member of the lodge 
of Perfection. He is also connected with the Sons of St. George. He 
is a republican, and a charter member of the Morton club. He stands 
high in both business and social circles. 

James D. Madden, a prominent plumber of Fort Wayne, was born 
in county Deny, Ireland, March 25, 1856, the son of Patrick and Rose 
(McGuigan) Madden. He was reared in his native land until he reached 
the age of seventeen, when he came to America, and shortly after reach- 
ing this country entered upon an apprenticeship with Hoolihan & Barry, 
of Philadelphia, with whom he spent five } r ears learning the plumbing 
business. In the spring of 1878 he opened a plumbing establishment 
on the corner of Second and Vine streets, Philadelphia, and two years 
later came to Fort Wa}me. He is now the proprietor of a handsome 
plumbing establishment at 101 Calhoun street, and enjoys a large cus- 
tom. He is industrious in business, is full of energy and enterprise and 
possesses more than ordinary tact and ability. He married in Philadel- 
phia, February 12, 1877, to Ellen Crilly, who died August 22, 1877. 
He was married to Hannah Lyons, his present wife, September 9, 1882, 
by whom he has three children: Lawrence, Rose and Patrick Henry. 
Mr. Madden and wife are members of the Catnolic church. In politics 
he is a republican. 

Among the leading plumbers of the city is enrolled C. W. Bruns, one 
of the enterprising young business men of Fort Wayne. He was born 
in this city, November 24, 1S65, the son of William and Rosa Bruns, 
who reside at 130 Gay street. He. received his early education at the 
German Lutheran schools, and between the ages of fourteen and seven- 
teen, learned the trade of painter. At the age of eighteen he gradu- 
ated from the Fort Wayne business college, and then turned his atten- 
tion to plumbing. He spent a year and a half with the firm of 
McLachlin & Bovven, and was then employed four years as bookkeeper 
for Robert Ogden. In the fall of 1888 he opened a plumbing and gas 
fitting establishment at 166 Calhoun street, and is laying substantial 
foundations for business success. 

M. Baltes, a well-known German citizen of Fort Wayne, and a man- 
ufacturer of white lime and dealer in lime, stone, cement, sewer pipes, 
fire brick, clay, etc., at No. 3 Harrison street, residence at No. 63 Har- 
rison, was born in Prussia in 1836. In 1S54 he emigrated, landed at 
New York city, and came at once to Indiana and for several years 
worked in the neighborhood of Huntington. He next engaged in wheat 



ARCHITECTURAL GROWTH. 



245 



dealing, and subsequently in the marble business at Huntington. In 
1861 he settled at Fort Wayne, and engaged in contracting, and dealing 
in lime, brick, stone, etc., and continued at contracting until about 1879, 
when he abandoned that branch of the business, since when he has car- 
ried on his manufacturing and mercantile business. The lime kilns 
situated at Huntington were built in 1868, and have a capacity of 2,500 
bushels per day. The stone quarries of Mr. Baltes are also located at 
Huntington, and produce large quantities of all kinds of building stone. 
Mr. Baltes has figured conspicuously in the politics of Allen county. 
He has taken a prominent part in city public affairs, has served in the 
common council, and is at present a trustee of Saint Mary's church. Mr. 
Baltes was married in 1862 to Miss Margaret Gabele, of Fort Wayne, 
and to this union one child was born. Mrs. Baltes died in 1863, and her 
child died a month later. In 1865 Mr. Baltes was married to Caro- 
line Gabele, and they have had four children, two of whom survive, Clara 
and Edward. 

Walter S. Harrison, sign and ornamental painter, was born at St. 
Louis, Mo., July 5, 1853, son of Dr. Abram W. Harrison, who was born 
in Greenville, Tenn., in 1800, graduated at the Indiana medical college 
at Indianapolis, in 1842. He was the first freight agent at that city for 
the Bellefontaine railroad, and was appointed postmaster at Laporte, 
Ind., during the administration of President Jackson. In 1859, he 
removed to St. Louis, amd there practiced medicine until 1862, when 
he became a surgeon in the U. S. army, being first stationed at Jeffer- 
son City, and afterward at the Washington hospital at Memphis, Tenn., 
where he remained until the close of the war. He was a prominent 
Mason. ♦ He died at Chillicothe, Mo., April 13, 1867. In 1851 he mar- 
ried Priscilla C. Bush, born in Rockingham county, Va., in 1832, who 
came to Indiana with her parents in 1834, an( ^ settled in Boone county. 
She died December 5, 1888, at Indianapolis. Of this marriage Walter 
S. is the only child living. He learned his trade with George Peisch 
& Bro., at St. Louis, and in 1877, engaged in the business at Indian- 
apolis. In 1885 he came to Fort Wayne, where he has been success- 
ful, and also gained a reputation as an active and public spirited citizen. 
His business location is at No. 32 East Columbia street, and 134 Broad- 
way, and he is a member of the firm of Hull & Harrison. He is a mem- 
ber of the Y. M. C. A., one of the building committee, and one of the 
members of the first and second board of directors. Of Summit City 
lodge, No. 36, A. O. U. W., he was the organizer, and is a past master- 
workman of that order. He is of that lodge, past chancellor, and a 
member of Fort Wayne lodge, No. 116, K. of P., and past chief of 
Knights of the Golden Eagle and member of Wayne Castle, No. 2. He 
and wife are members of the Baptist church, of which he is the clerk, 
and he is secretary of the Fort Wayne Baptist association, composed of 
eighteen churches of that denomination. He was married September 
11, 1879, to Mary L. Moore, who was born at St. Louis in 1859, an< ^ 
they have two children : Edgar J. and Edna L. 



246 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Joseph W. Cromwell, a lumber dealer and prominent citizen of Fort 
Wayne, Ind., was born at Newburg, Orange county, N. Y., in 1825. 
When twenty-one years of age he went to Maryland and lived for ten 
vears in Frederick City, being engaged in the lumber business. Going 
next to West Virginia, he was a citizen of Fairmount, that state, during 
the war. While at Fairmount he had a government contract for fur- 
nishing walnut gunstocks for Springfield rifles, and in the year 1863 that 
section being invaded by Confederate forces, his mills were burned by 
the rebels, destroying in the neighborhood of 25,000 or 5°5 000 g un 
stocks, which with the mill were a total loss to him. He was provost 
marshal of the district', including Fairmount, and had several narrow es- 
capes, and was captured at one time but paroled. In 1870 he made his 
home at Fort Wayne, where he has since resided. After coming here 
he was interested for five years in the lumber business with Hoffman 
Bros., and then began for himself. In connection with his son he owns 
a mill in the Indian territory, handling black walnut timber exclusively. 
Mr. Cromwell has been treasurer of the Y. M. C. A. since its organiza- 
tion, and was one of the building committee. He has given a large 
share of his time and money to that work during the past fifteen years. 
He is a prominent advocate of temperance, and in all respects a worthy 
citizen. His church connection is with the First Presbyterian church, of 
which he is an elder, and for several years he was president of the Allen 
county Sunday School Union, and also for the district composed of Allen, 
Huntington and Wells counties. Mr. Cromwell was married in Mary- 
land, and losing his wife married again in West Virginia. He has three 
sons: William O. is a student; Clarence W., is in Indian territory, and 
Joseph C. is in the lumber business in Fort Wayne. 



BANKING HOUSES. 

The sound financial basis on which business is conducted in Fort 
Wayne, is due no doubt in a considerable degree, to the general conn* - 
dence in the safe management of the banks. There has never been a 
bank failure in this city, and there has never been a time of financial 
depression when there was any alarm for their perfect solvency or any 
demand for deposits that was not fully and promptly met. 

The first bank and for a long time the only one in the city, was the 
Fort Wayne branch of the State Bank of Indiana, which was established 
here in August, 1835. Its president was Allen Hamilton, known and 
respected everywhere for his integrity, who was succeeded in 1841 by 
Samuel Hanna; the cashier was Hugh McCulloch, late secretary of the 
treasury. These men were the founders of the banking system of Fort 
Wayne, which was built upon the strong foundation stones of integrity, 
fair dealing and thorough and exact knowledge of finance. The charter 
of this bank expired January 1, 1856, when it was re-organized as the 
branch of the Bank of the State of Indiana, with Hugh McCulloch, pres- 



BANKING HOUSES. 247 

ident, and Charles D. Bond, cashier. In 1865 it was merged in the 
Fort Wayne National bank, with Jesse L. Williams president, and 
Jared D. Bond, cashier. The Old National bank is the successor of the 
Fort Wayne National bank, and although the name is changed the busi- 
ness has continued from as far back as 1835. The First National bank 
was organized in 1863, by J. D. Nuttman. In 1883, at a meeting of the 
directors, Mr. O. A. Simons was elected president. Mr. Simon's sudden 
death in 1887, demanded another election of officers, and J. H. Bass was 
chosen president; Hon. William Fleming, vice president; Lem R. Hart- 
man, cashier; W. L. Pettit, assistant cashier. 

Upon the retirement of Mr. Nuttman from the presidency of the 
First National bank, he immediately opened a private bank under the 
name of Nuttman & Co. Mr. Oliver S. Hanna is cashier. The bank 
enjoys a splendid reputation. 

Stephen B. Bond was admitted to partnership in the banking house 
of Allen, Hamilton & Co. in 1855, and in i860 Charles McCulloch was 
also admitted as a partner. 

The firm was dissolved on July 1, 1874, an< ^ ^he Hamilton National 
bank was immediately organized to succeed to its business. Charles 
McCulloch was elected president; John Mohr, jr., cashier, and Joseph 
D. Mohr, assistant cashier. The first board of directors which has 
remained almost unchanged, was Charles McCulloch, Jesse L.Williams, 
Montgomery Hamilton, William Fleming, Frederick Eckert, August 
Trentman and Edward P. Williams. 

The officers of the Old National bank are S. B. Bond, president; O. 
P. Morgan, vice president; J. D. Bond, cashier, and James C. Wood- 
worth, assistant cashier. 

The combined capital of the three National banks is about one mil- 
lion two hundred thousand dollars, and the deposits in round numbers 
two million of dollars. The paid in capital stock of the Hamilton 
National bank is $200,000, of the First National bank, $300,000, and of 
the Old National bank, $350,000. The stockholders of these banks are 
the active business men of the city, and they will see that there is no 
suffering from lack of bank accommodation. 

The Merchants' National bank was organized on March 15, 1865, 
and was chartered on May 1, 1865. The first location was on the north- 
west corner of Berry and Calhoun streets. It was afterward removed 
to the northwest corner of Main and Calhoun streets, where it re- 
mained until discontinued. Peter P. Bailey was the first president, and 
D wight Klinck, cashier. In July, 1868, S. C. Evans was elected presi- 
dent, and Dr. John S. Irwin was elected to succeed Dwight Klinck, who 
had resigned. In February, 1873, Dr. Irwin resigned and C. M. Daw- 
son was elected to succeed. The bank had an authorized capital of 
$300,000, and a paid up capital of $100,000. 

For many years Isaac Lauferty has been engaged as a private 
banker in the Aveline House block, but discontinued business in the 
spring of 1889 because of ill-health. 



248 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Hon. Hugh McCulloch. — In the latter part of May, 1833, Hugh 
McCulloch was examined by the judges of the supreme court of Indi- 
ana and licensed to practice law in all the courts of the state. He had 
chosen his profession but had not decided where he would locate. 
Alhough northern Indiana was mostly a wilderness, he was advised to 
go north, and in a few weeks afterward he began the practice of law 
at Fort Wayne. For a short time he filled the position of judge of the 
common pleas court, but fate had decreed that he was not to continue 
a lawyer. In the winter of 1833 and 1834 tne State Bank of Indiana 
was chartered, and when the branch of that institution was established 
at Fort Wayne, he was appointed cashier and manager. Although he 
had no practical experience in banking, and had not yet decided to 
abandon the profession which he had chosen, he went to work with a 
determination to establish the bank upon a good financial basis and then 
resign. This resolution, however, was overcome by circumstances. He 
became interested in the business in which he had made a temporary 
venture, and was soon made one of the active directors of the bank, 
and meeting four times a year with the managers of the other branches, 
at Indianapolis, he formed acquaintances that materially assisted him 
toward future promotions in life. The State Bank of Indiana, although 
established in a new state, and committed to the charge of inexperi- 
enced men, was a very successful institution, and in addition to helping 
materially in the improvement of the state, it secured to the common- 
wealth a net profit of nearly three millions of dollars, which became 
the basis of her large and well-managed school fund. The Bank of the 
State of Indiana commenced business January 1, 1857, as a successor 
to the State bank, and Hugh McCulloch was chosen president of all the 
branches, with headquarters at Indianapolis. The business of this in- 
stitution was equally successful until the national banking system was 
established, when, congress having passed a law taxing the circulation 
of all state banks, it went into liquidation. In 1863, Salmon P. Chase, 
then secretary of the treasury, offered to Mr. McCulloch the position of 
comptroller of the currency, and being appointed by President Lincoln, 
he assumed the organization of the national bank bureau of the treasury 
department, and the management of the national banking system. 
Within less than two years the state banks throughout the country were 
superceded by the national, and all was accomplished without any dis- 
turbance to the current business of the people. The labors of the first 
comptroller of the currency were severe and incessant, but in later days 
he could well feel rewarded in the knowledge that he was instrumental 
in establishing the best system of banking that this country or any other 
has ever seen. When Mr. Lincoln's second cabinet was formed Mr. 
McCulloch was the leading name mentioned in business and financial 
circles for the position of secretary of the treasury, on account of his 
recognized ability and success as a financier, and in March, 1865, he 
became the chief of the treasury department. He immediately 
announced his policy to be : First, to raise money by loans to pay the 



BANKING HOUSES. 249 

soldiers of the great Union army, and all other demands upon the treas- 
ury; second, to fund and put in proper shape all obligations of the 
government; third, to take the first steps toward an improvement 
of the value of the paper currency, with the ultimate view of 
a return to specie payment. The war had just ended, vast 
sums were due from the government and the responsibiity of the 
management of the treasury department was enormous, and the work to 
to be done greater than that of any secretary from that time to the 
present day. The work was well done, and the policy adopted by Mr. 
McCulloch was steadily pursued by succeeding secretaries until gold, 
silver and paper currency became of equal value, in conducting the busi- 
ness of the countr}*. For twenty-five years Mr. McCulloch did not 
lose a day from rigorous attention to business. His health being good, 
his body robust, his active mind was always at work upon the problems 
and financial questions of the day, even when he was not at his desk. 
During his administration over one thousand millions of short-time debts 
of the United States were funded into long-time bonds and therefore 
required no attention for twenty years, except in payment of the annual 
interest. In 1870 Mr. McCulloch went to London as the resident and 
managing partner of the banking house of Jay Cooke, McCulloch 
& Co. Immediately (it could almost be said) did the business 
of this firm grow into large proportions, so that in a year's time 
no foreign firm was doing a larger or more profitable business with 
this country. Mr. McCullough was a partner in the London house only, 
and therefore could give no advice concerning the management of busi- 
ness in America. Had he been consulted he certainly would have ad- 
vised the firm of Jay Cooke & Co. against attempting to furnish means 
for building so great a. railroad system as the Northern Pacific. This 
was a project that would have tested the resources of a government, 
and the natural result was the failure of Jay Cooke & Co., and the 
financial panic of 1873. Having established good credit abroad, Mr. 
McCulloch kept the London firm from going down in the general 
wreck. As the interests of the American partners had to be withdrawn, 
the banking firm of McCulloch & Co. was established, which continued 
for a number of years, until on account of advancing age, Mr. McCul- 
loch determined to retire from active business, and return to his home 
in the United States. He owned a farm about eight miles from the city 
of Washington, and as no part of his varied life had been so thoroughly 
enjoyed as the small part of it which had been spent on the farm; he 
hoped to spend his remaining years in the cultivation and improvement 
of his land. The resignation of Walter Q. Gresham, then secretary of 
the treasury, in. 1884, to become circuit judge of the United States, 
induced President Arthur to request Mr. McCulloch to accept the man- 
agement of the treasury department a second time, and help him close 
up his administration. When Mr. Cleveland became president, March 
4, 1885, Mr. McCulloch again retired to private life, but he takes a deep 
interest in public affairs and political and economic questions of the day. 



25O VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

In politics Mr. McCulloch has always been conservative. He never 
sought office, nor was elected to one. His experence in public life has 
led him to conclude that a protective tariff is detrimental rather than 
beneficial to the best interests of the country. To quote his own words, 
he believes that what is needed by our manufacturers (to say nothing 
about our farmers, whose wants are becoming powerfully pressing) and 
will become more and more needed as their productive power increases, 
was wider markets for their manufactured goods, the very markets of 
which they have to a large extent been deprived by the measures that 
have been thought necessaiy to secure for them the control of the mar- 
kets at home. Combinations to limit supplies and maintain high prices 
are the necessary outgrowth of our protective tariff. In his opinion a 
tariff for revenue only, and as largely as may be practicable upon luxu- 
ries, is the only protection this country needs. Mr. McCulloch, in the 
winter of 1887 and 1888, wrote a book entitled, "Men and Measures of 
Half a Century," which contains brief sketches of the prominent men 
that he became acquainted with, the political events and measures of the 
countrv, with his views upon them from a non-partisan standpoint. He 
is at the time that this article is written eighty years old, but in good 
health and enjoying the reward of a well spent life. He was married 
March 15, 1838, to Susan Man, of Plattsburgh, N. Y., and on March 
15, 1888, they celebrated their golden wedding, surrounded by their 
four children, their grandchildren, and a large number of relatives and 
friends. Charles McCulloch, their oldest son, was born September 
3, 1840, at Fort Wayne. He went into the bank of the State of Indiana, 
at an early age, afterward became a member of the banking house of 
Allen Hamilton & Co., and later was elected president of the Hamilton 
National bank. 

In the group of strong and enterprising men who are prominent in 
the histoty of Fort Wayne, a notable one was Allen Hamilton. He was 
a native of Ireland, born in the county of Tyrone, in the year 1798, the 
son of Andrew Hamilton, an attorney, and his wife, Elizabeth Allen, a 
woman of noble qualities of mind and heart. Young Hamilton, at the age of 
eighteen, while listening to the recountal of the experiences during a 
visit to America, by a gentleman of some talent, determined to seek a 
new home in the western world. Accordingly, in July, 1817, having 
acquired sufficient means, he set sail for Quebec. A few days after ar- 
rival he was taken with ship fever, and for six weeks was confined to 
oed with this maladv. When convalescent he sought a milder climate, 
but before he could go further than Montreal he was taken with a re- 
lapse, and upon his recovery found himself with very little monej 7 left. 
He was compelled to sell part of his wardrobe to obtain funds to make 
the journey to Philadelphia, which, however, he found it necessaiy to 
make in large measure on foot. Arriving there without means and 
friends, pale and weak from illness, he wandered about the streets in 
search of employment. He was finally attracted by a notice of laborers 
wan'ed, posted on the door of a store, and though he had already been 



BANKING HOUSES. 25 1 

refused a position as porter, he applied at this place, and by good fortune 
found a good Quaker, who promised his assistance. A few days later 
young Hamiltnn found himself in possession of a clerkship, with a sal- 
ary of $100 a year and board. With an increased salary he remained 
there until the spring of 1820. He had a cousin, James Dill, previously 
a general in the army, and learning that Dill resided at Lawrenceburgh, 
Ind., Hamilton journeyed to that place, and found his cousin holding the 
office of clerk of the circuit court. An arrangement was soon made 
whereby the young man entered that office, writing six hours a day for 
his board and the use of the library as a student of law. There he 
formed the acquaintance of many men of note, among them Jesse L. 
Holman, one of the first judges of the supreme court of Indiana, and 
later associate justice of the United States district court, to the oldest 
daughter of whom Mr. Hamilton was subsequently married. In 
1823 Mr. Hamilton was induced by Capt. Samuel C. Vance to visit 
Fort Wayne, at which the latter was appointed register of the land of- 
fice, and the young law student concluded to remain here and perform 
the duties of deputy register while he pursued his reading. But per- 
ceiving that the country was thinly populated and that the law therefore 
was not a profitable occupation, he turned his attention to commerce, 
and purchased a small stock of goods on credit. His trade, which was 
principally with the Indians, was prosperous, and he soon enlarged his 
stock, and becoming associated with Cyrus Taber, he advanced rapidly 
in wealth and influence. Mr. Hamilton was largely indebted to the In- 
dians for his start in business as he often averred, but his dealing with 
them was such that he always had their confidence and esteem, and he 
was especially liked by the Miamis, who confided their business to him. 
Chief Richardville, during his later years, entrusted his affairs to 
Mr. Hamilton, and never ventured upon any matter for himself 
or his tribe, without first consulting with his friend. Immense sums 
of money were frequently placed in his charge by the Indians, 
and large amounts were often disbursed by him to them. During the 
administration of Gen. Harrison, he was appointed agent for the Miamis, 
a position he held from 1841 to 1844, and during this period he dis- 
bursed $300,000 to $400,000 to the red men, to the satisfaction of both 
them and the government. His association with Richardville was 
marked by many a jocular contest. On one occasion Mr. Hamilton, 
riding a fine horse, passed the chief in front of the store of Hamilton & 
Taber, when the Indian exclaimed, " I strike on that horse, Mr. Ham- 
ilton," using a phrase common with the Indians when they wished to 
intimate their desire for anything as a gift of friendship. Mr. Hamilton 
at once turned the horse over to the chief, and waited for his revenge, 
which came while riding with Richardville along the Wabash, in sight 
of Indian reservations. Then he "struck" for a section of beautiful 
land, the deed for which the chief made without a murmur. In 1824 
Mr. Hamilton received the appointment as sheriff, for the purpose of 
organizing Allen county, an office he subsequently held two years by 



2 52 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

election. In 1S30 he was chosen county clerk, and held the office seven 
years. He was appointed as secretary of the commissioners to nego- 
tiate a treaty with the Miamis, and was tendered the same place in 
1838, but declined the office. In 1840, though politically opposed to the 
administration of Van Buren, he was appointed one of the commission- 
ers to treat with the Miamis for the extinguishment of their land titles 
in Indiana, and their removal to Kansas, and in that position he rendered 
the government valuable service. Of the important constitutional con- 
vention of 1850, Mr. Hamilton was a, member, being elected by a large 
majority over a very popular democratic competitor, and as chairman of 
the committee on currency and banking, he was an important and valued 
member of that famous body. In the summer of 1857 he visited his 
old home and other places in Europe, and soon after his return in 1858 
he was elected to the state senate, and was a member for four years, 
worthily representing the people of northeastern Indiana. He had been 
for several years president of the branch bank of Indiana at Fort 
Wayne, and the name of Allen Hamilton is still perpetuated by the 
Hamilton National bank, of which he was president until his death. He 
continued to devote himself to his large business interests until 1864, 
when he died at Saratoga, N. Y., August 23rd. His widow, a sister of 
Congressman W. S. Holman, was spared for many years, to witness the 
wonderful development of the city she was so long associated with, and 
died August 16, 1889, at the age of seventy-nine years. Mrs. Hamil- 
ton was born in 18 10, and she was married to Mr. Hamilton at Aurora, 
in 1827. In the same year her residence at Fort Wayne began, first at 
the old fort, and subsequently in the Hamilton mansion, which was 
erected in 1838, and with its beautiful grounds, occupied an entire 
square. In religious and social affairs Mrs. Hamilton took a leading 
part, and the narration of the virtues and many acts of kindness and 
benevolence of this noble woman would tax the narrow limits of this 
sketch. Her elder son, Andrew Holman Hamilton, was a member of 
the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth congresses, and now manages the estate. 
The other surviving children are Montgomery Hamilton, Mrs. Samuel 
Wagenhals, Mrs. H. M. Williams, and Miss Margaret V. Hamilton. 

Charles D. Bond, formerly one of the foremost bankers of Indiana, 
was also prominent as a citizen of Fort Wayne. He was born at Lock- 
port, N. Y., October 13, 1831, the eldest son of Stephen B. and Adelia 
L. (Darrow) Bond. The father, at one time prosperous, incurred finan- 
cial disaster through indorsements made for others, and brought his 
family to the west in 1842. They settled first at Fort Wayne, but after 
remaining here two years went to Wisconsin. In 1S46 th,e family again 
made their home at Fort Wayne, and in the following year the father 
died, leaving Charles D. Bond at the age of sixteen the main support of 
his mother and three younger brothers, without friends or means. On 
the return to the city Mr. Bond obtained employment with Hon. Peter 
F. Bailey, then engaged in merchandise in Fort Wayne, but a short time 
afterward he accepted a position in the postoffice under Postmaster 



BANKING HOUSES. 253 

Samuel Stophlet. Several years later he became a bookkeeper in the 
branch of the State bank at Evansville, of which Mr. Rathbone was 
president, a position he held for about a year, when anxious to return 
home he secured a position in the Fort Wayne branch of the State 
bank, of which Hon. Hugh McCulloch was then cashier. He entered 
upon his duties as bookkeeper and assistant teller, succeeding his brother, 
Stephen B. Bond, who took the position of cashier with Allen Hamilton 
& Co. September 25, 1855, Mr. Bond was elected teller to succeed M. 
W. Hubble, and on October 26, 1856, he became cashier of the Bank 
of Indiana, which succeeded to the business of the branch of the State 
bank, and opened for business January 2, 1857. Of this, Mr. Bond 
became a director. In 1865 when the business was adapted to the 
national banking act, under the title of the Fort Wayne National bank, 
Mr. Bond was elected president, a place he held until his death. Thus, 
at the age of thirty-four he stood at the head of the financial interests 
of Fort Wayne. Many public and private enterprises also had his 
assistance, among which may be mentioned the Fort Wayne gas-light 
company, the Fort Wayne, Jackson & Saginaw and Grand Rapids & 
Indiana railroads, Fort Wayne organ company, Citizens' street railroad 
company, and others. He was one of the four partners of the banking 
house of Bonds, Hoagland & Co., of Peru, and of the Citizens' National 
bank of that place. Of the Lindenwood cemetery company he was one 
of the incorporators and foremost promoters. Mr. Bond was married 
March 27, 1854, t0 Lavinia Anna, daughter of the late Charles W. 
Ewing, and seven children were born to them. He was a man of deep 
religious convictions, and at an early age became a member of the Trin- 
ity Episcopal church. Of this he was for many years a member of the 
vestry, and also superintendent of the Sabbath-school. Mr. Bond died 
December 7, 1873, from the effects of an exposure to a rain storm in 
November preceding. 

Isaac Lauferty, who has recently retired from an active business 
career of forty-five years' duration in the city of Fort Wayne, has been 
throughout that time intimately connected with its business history, and 
especially with the important financial operations during a large part of 
that extended period. He was born on the boundary line between 
France and Germany, August 2, 1820, of French parentage. His father, 
Lazarus Lauferty, was born in 1769, son of Frankel Lauferty, a native of 
France, born about 1 730, who was a quarter-master in Napoleon's army, and 
a very wealthy man. He died on the Franco-German line, at one hundred and 
four years of age. Lazarus Lauferty was one of Napoleon's life guards, and 
was a man of imposing stature, six feet in height. He was a merchant, 
and in later life was a citizen of Philadelphia, whither he emigrated in 
1846, until his death, which occurred while he was on a visit to this city. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Sarah Rothschild, was lost at sea 
while coming to this country, May 6, 1846, at the age of seventy-two. 
Of the seven children of these parents, Isaac Lauferty was the voungest, 
and is the only one now living. He came to the United States in 1839. 



254 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

He engaged in merchandise at Wilmington, N. C, in 1842, but in 1844, 
came to Fort Wayne, and here continued in mercantile pursuits at the 
corner of Columbia and Clinton streets, until 187 1, when he established 
Lauferty's bank, with which he was actively connected, making it one 
of the prominent institutions of the city, until 1889. Mr. Lauferty was 
married in 1848, to Betty Munchweiler, who was born at Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, December 11, 1824, and they have four children: Alexander 
S., Sarah, Blanche and Agatha. The family are members of the 
Hebrew church. Mr. Lauferty has been a Mason since 1852, and in 
politics is a democrat, but before 1856 was an old line whig. 

MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 

A land office was located in Fort Wayne in the summer of 1822, 
and the land immediately about the fort enclosure was sold by the agent 
to John T. Barr and John McConkle, the latter a wealthy citizen of 
Piqua, Ohio. The original plat of the town was surveyed by Robert 
Young of Piqua, in August, 1822. It is designated in the latter day 
maps as the " original plat," and was recorded in the office of the re- 
corder of Randolph county, at Winchester, and subsequently at Fort 
Wayne, in recorder's record A, page 316, of the records of Allen county. 
It contains 118 lots with three streets, running north and south on a va- 
riation of 3 30' west of magnetic north, namely: Calhoun, Clinton and 
Barr, and five streets running at right angles to the same variation, 
namely: Wayne, Berry, Main, Columbia and Water streets. The pub- 
lic square was laid off on this plat with Court street on the east side of 
the same. The name of Water street has since been changed to Supe- 
rior street. 

The county addition was laid out by the commissioners and recorded 
in recorder's record A, page 315. It contained seventy lots and frac- 
tional lots. Its position is immediately east of and adjoining the orig- 
inal plat; the lots were laid off on either side of Lafayette street between 
Berry street and the St. Mary's river, continuing Water, Columbia, Main 
and Berry streets from the original plat. 

Next, Cyrus Taber laid off an addition of forty lots including all of 
the military tract lying between the south boundary of said tract and the 
canal. Main and Berry streets were continued through the county addi- 
tion. The remains of the fort reservation, by an act of congress, had been 
set apart for the benefit of the canal and with other lands at Logansport 
and subsequently sold at public auction. 

Ewing's addition was laid off by G. W. and W. G. Ewing. It con- 
tains thirty-four blocks or fractional blocks of 278 lots, including all 
fractional lots. Cass, Ewing and Fulton streets were laid out to run 
north on a magnetic bearing of 15 30' west. Jefferson, Washington, 
Wayne, Berry, Main and Pearl streets, continued west from the original 
plat. Lewis street was laid out south of Jefferson street and was the first 
street to be established running due east and west. 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 255 

Judge Samuel Hanna, platted and recorded Hanna's first addition, 
containing 299 lots and fractional lots. Clinton, Barr, Clay, Monroe aud 
Hanna streets were laid out on a magnetic bearing of north 15° 30' west. 
Wayne, Washington and Jefferson streets were continued west from the 
original plat. Madison street was laid out north of, and parallel with, 
Jefferson street, and running from Barr street east. 

Rockhill's addition, which includes a principal portion of the city 
lying west of Broadway, was the next large addition. It contained 182 
lots and fractional lots. This addition extended north to the canal and 
on either side of Market street, now Broadway; between Main and Berry 
streets, a space was left for market purposes. The original plat and the 
additions named comprise the first five wards of the city. The number 
of wards is now ten. 

The incorporation of Fort Wayne as a town, dates from September 
7,]i 829, when an election^was held and it was certified to the board of county 
commissioners, by William N. Hood, president of the meeting, and 
John P Hedges, clerk, that a majority of two-thirds of the persons 
present favored the plan. 

Accordingly, on the 14th of the same month, at the house of Abner 
Gerard, esq., the first town election was held, which Benjamin Archer, 
president of said election, and John P. Hedges, clerk, certified as result- 
ing in the choice of Hugh Hanna, John S. Archer, William G. Ewing, 
Lewis G. Thompson and John P. Hedges, as trustees for one year. 

The town government differed little from that of other young places. 
The town funds were meager; of public buildings none warranting the 
name. The streets were not improved and were of the muddy and 
impassable character of the ordinary country road. The needs of the 
thrifty town soon outgrew the usefulness of this primitive manner of 
government and the subject of a city charter and the corporate powers 
it should contain were matters of frequent and earnest discussion. 

The original city charter was written by Hon. Franklin P. Randall and 
was carefully compiled to meet the requirements of a better government. 
It was submitted to the legislature of Indiana at its session of 1839-40, 
and was passed on February 22, 1840. It provided for the incorporation 
of the city of Fort Wayne, and for the election by the people of a 
president, or mayor, and six members of the board of trustees (or com- 
mon council), and the election of general officers by said board or 
council. 

City Officers. — The first officers were: mayor, George W.Wood; 
recorder, F. P. Randall; attorney, F. P. Randall; treasurer, George F. 
Wright; high constable, Samuel S. Morss; collector, Samuel S. Morss; 
assessor, Robert E. Fleming; market master, James Post; street com- 
missioner, Joseph H. McMaken; chief engineer, Samuel Edsail, and 
lumber measurer, John B. Coconour. 

The first common council consisted of William Rockhill, Samuel 
Edsail, Thomas Hanneton, William S. Edsail, Madison Smiltser and 
William M. Moon. Of all these gentlemen there now survives but one, 



256 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Hon. F. P. Randall. He is actively engaged in the insurance business, 
and his enjoyment of his green old age is shared by his fellow citizens, 
who have learned to respect and love him. 

Hon. George W. Wood was twice elected mayor, and resigned on 
Julv 5, 1841. Subsequent mayors were: Joseph Morgan, Henry Lotz 
(two terms), John M. Wallace, M. W. Hurford (three terms), William 
Stewart (five terms), P. G. Jones, Charles Whitmore (two terms), Sam- 
uel S. Morss (two terms), Franklin P. Randall (five terms), James L. 
Worden, Henry Sharp, C. A. Zollinger (five terms), Charles F. Muhler 
( two terms) and Daniel L. Harding, the present incumbent. 

The first board of health was in 1842, and consisted of Dr. John 
Evans, Dr. William H. Brooks and Dr. Bernard Sevenick. 

The seal of the city of Fort Wayne was designed by Hon. F. P. 
Randall about 1858. Upon its face are a pair of scales; under the scales 
are a sword and Mercury's wand inverted, crossed at their points. 
Above the scales is the word in a semi-circle, Ke-ki-on-ga,. the Indian 
name of Fort Wayne, and around the outside edge are the words " City 
of Fort Wayne." 

The present city officers are: Mayor, Daniel L. Harding; treasurer, 
Charles J. Sosenheimer; marshal, Henry C. Franke; assessor, Charles 
Reese; city attorney, Henry Colerick; civil engineer, Charles S. Brack- 
enridge; chief of police, Frank Wilkinson; chief of fire department, 
Henry Hilbrecht; street commissioner, Dennis O'Brien; weigh master, 
Patrick Ryan; market master, William Ropa; pound master, Fred 
Woehnker. Secretary board of health, Dr. S. C. Metcalf. Trustees of 
water works, Christian Boseker, J. Sion Smith, Charles McCulloch. 
Trustees of public schools, John M. Moritz, O. P. Morgan, E. A. Hoff- 
man. City commissioners, J. Dickerson, A. F. Glutting, U. Stotz, 
George Fox, P. H. Kane. Councilmen — -First ward, William D. Meyer, 
John C. Kensill; second, Fred Schmueckle, Maurice Cody; third, H. A. 
Read, Joseph L. Gruber; fourth, George W. Ely, H. F. Hilgemann; 
fifth, Henry Hilbrecht, Louis P. Huser; sixth, F. W. Bandt, Robert 
Cran; seventh, Peter J. Scheid, George P.Morgan; eighth, John Smith, 
H. P. Vordermark; ninth, Louis Hazzard, Charles F. Haiber; tenth, 
V. Ofenloch, William Bruns. 

The Police. — The city was without a police force until 1863, the 
people having no other protection than the sheriff and his deputies, the 
city marshal and his assistants and a few constables. In May of that 
year a police force was established, and consisted of a captain, a lieu- 
tenant and two patrolmen from each ward. Their hours of service were 
fixed at twilight to daylight. 

The first chief was Conrad Pens, a German sailor. The others in 
their order of service were: William Ward, Fred Limecooley, Patrick 
McGee, Detrick Meyer, Michael Singleton, Hugh M. Deihl, Eugene B. 
Smith and Hugh M. Diehl, again. The latter resigned in June, 1889, 
and Lieutenant Frank Wilkinson was appointed by the police commis- 
sioners to fill the vacancy. Patrolman Leonard Fuchshuber was appointed 




c 




rJC^Xhw 




MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 257 

lieutenant. Within the last year the offices of deputy marshals have 
been abolished and the five officers who are subject to the directions of 
the marshal are known as da)- policemen. The present marshal is Henry 
Franke. 

The first police station was established in a small brick building 
on the east side of Court street, opposite the court-house. An office 
occupied the front room communicating with a cell room in the rear fitted 
with three iron cages. Upon the upper floor were two rooms in which 
female prisoners, but oftener tramps, were confined. The station was 
removed two years since to better quarters in the Ban* street market 
house. 

The night force consists of the chief, lieutenant, eighteen patrolmen, 
two drivers of the patrol wagon with a day and a night clerk at head- 
quarters. The marshal and five patrolmen are on duty in the daytime. 
Important aids to the efficiency of the department is supplied by the new 
police patrol and telegraph system, which cost the city nearly $3,000. 
It consists of twelve sentry boxes, located in different portions of the city, 
each electrically connected with headquarters and each supplied with a 
telephone. The direction of the whole force from the central office is 
thus made easy, and the patrol wagon which supplements the system, 
is at the ready call of an officer who may need assistance or who may 
by this means, send his prisoners to the lockup without leaving his beat. 

Fire Department. — The fire department of Fort Wayne, like that 
of all cities, had its origin in the volunteer companies. The depart- 
ment was organized in 1856. Prior to that time there were two inde- 
pendent companies, one called the Anthony Wayne, organized in 1841, 
and the other called the Hermans, organized in 1848. The Anthony 
Wayne company owned a Jeffries " gallery engine " and a two-wheel 
hose cart. The engine house was on the north side of Clinton street, 
north of Main street. 

The Hermans' engine house was on the west side of Clinton street, 
north of Berry. It contained a side brake Button engine and a two- 
wheel hose cart. Each company had a fair supply of leather riveted 
hose. 

The Hermans' was succeeded by the Alert engine and hose com- 
pany, which used all of the Hermans' apparatus until January 13, 1868, 
when it was given back to the city and the company reorganized as an 
independent hook and ladder company known as the Alerts. 

The Mechanics' engine and hose company was organized August 
7th, 1856. 

On December 3, 1848, the common council defined the fire limits as 
bounded on the east by Barr street, on the west bv Harrison street, on 
the south by Main street and on the north by the canal. 

The first steam fire engine was purchased from Pittsburgh, Penn. 
With a hose reel the expenditure was $3,000. The engine was of the 
Amoskeag manufacture, and was second-hand, but was in a very service- 
able condition. This was in the summer of 1867, and in September of 

XVII 



258 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

the same year, a company called the Vigilants was organized to operate 
the new purchase. This engine is still in service. Various purchases 
of hand-engines, pumps, etc., more experimental than satisfactory, were 
made from time to time. In the spring of 1872, the city purchased of 
George Hannis, Chicago, at a cost of $2,300, the hook and ladder truck 
which has been in active service ever since. 

In the fall of 1872 a notable addition was made to the apparatus by 
the purchase of a fine rotary steamer from the Silsby manufacturing 
company. It was called the Anthony Wayne, and cost $4,800. . It was 
originally designed as a reserve engine to be used only in case of large 
conflagrations. 

In 1 861 there was purchased from the Silsby company, a rotary steam 
fire engine which was named the Frank Randall, and later from the 
Clapp & Jones factory, was purchased another steamer, called the 
Charley Zollinger, both in honor of the mayors of the city at the times 
of purchase. 

The second ward engine house, at the northeast corner of Court 
and Berry streets, was built in the summer of i860, and shortly after- 
ward the old engine house which stood in the rear was demolished and 
the ground was partially occupied by an extension of the new structure 
to provide accommodations for the increasing amount of apparatus. 

On August 15th, 1875, tne national fire alarm telegraph service was 
introduced with fifteen boxes, eight miles of wire and other apparatus 
at a cost of $5,000, and nine years afterward, the Gamewell system was 
substituted, giving vastly greater satisfaction. The number of boxes 
were increased and keys were placed in the possession of responsible 
persons in various parts of the city. It is a peculiarity of the boxes that 
a key when once used cannot be released except by the use of the private 
key of the chief engineer. This effectually prevents the turning in of 
false alarms at least more than once by the same person. 

In 1875, tne present system of unhitching horses by electricity and 
the suspension of swinging harness in front of the apparatus was 
inaugurated. The men and horses were perfectly drilled and severe 
discipline was introduced in all branches of the service. Sleeping rooms 
were flitted up in the second story of the engine house and the firemen, 
instead of tumbling down flights of stairs to answer a night ring, slid 
down brass rods to the lower floor and the well trained horses having 
been electrically released from their stalls, were found in their places. 
A few snaps of the swinging harness were made, and the department 
was off to the scene of the fire in an incredibly short time, the boiler 
containing water heated by a stationary lamp which warmed it while 
the engine stood in its accustomed place. 

Two years ago a handsome hose wagon was added to the apparatus. 
It is a vast improvement over the old reel and can be worked with much 
less effort. From time to time liberal purchases of hose have been 
made until now there seems only to be lacking an extension ladder which 
will be of the greatest service should fires break out in the tall buildings. 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 259 

At first water was supplied to the department by laying long lines of 
hose to the canal, and later, the system of fire cisterns was inaugurated. 
These reached, in 1876, the number of thirty- four. All were abandoned 
and rilled up upon the completion of the water-works system. 

The names of the principal volunteer organizations which have done 
excellent service for the city are, the Alert engine company, the Torrent 
engine and hose company, the Eagle engine and hose company, whose 
hand engine was stored in the Broadway market house, the Vigilant 
engine and hose company, the Mechanics' engine and hose company, 
the Protection engine and hose company, which succeeded the old 
Wide- Awake engine and hose company, and the Hope hose company. 

The various chief engineers of the fire department were: L. T. 
Bourie from 1856 to 1858; George Humphrey, 1858 to i860; O. D. 
Hurd, i860 to 1861; Joseph Stellwagon, 1861 to 1862; L. T. Bourie, 
1862 to 1S63; Munson Vangeison, 1863 to 1866; Henry Fry, 1S66 to 
1867; Hiram Poyser, 1867 to 1868; Thomas Mannix, 1868 to : 873; 
Frank B. Vogel, 1873 to 1874; Thomas Mannix, 1874 to l8 75> and Frank 
Vogel, 1875 to 1879. 

Mr. Vogel was the last of the chiefs under the volunteer system. It 
was succeeded in 1881 by the paid fire department, of which Henry 
Hilbrecht was appointed chief engineer. He has held the position ever 
since, and with such satisfaction to the people that his successive candi- 
dacy before the common council has met with no opposition. John Mc- 
Gowan is first assistant, and John Becker, second assistant. 

Besides these officers two full paid men are attached to each piece of 
apparatus, as follows : two steamers, three hose carriage and one ladder 
truck. Then there six "minute men" on half-pay attached to each of 
the three hose carriages. They are expected to respond to every alarm 
and to carry the hose under the direction of the chief engineer and his 
assistants. These men are really subjected to the greatest danger of 
any of the firemen. 

The growth of the city has for many years made it apparent that the 
fire department could not be handled with advantage from a single sta- 
tion, and after repeated recommendations by the chief engineer the city 
in 1885 built at a cost of $3,000, a handsome engine house in the seventh 
ward, from which the great manufactories of that district may be easily 
reached. With a perfect S}^stem of water-works and a well-trained de- 
partment, the city now has good fire protection. 

Water-works.— As early as 1875 the necessity of a system of water 
supply was thoroughly canvassed, and in the spring of 1876 the common 
council decided to establish water works in Fort Wayne. Moses Lane, 
an hydraulic engineer, was engaged to prepare and submit plans and 
specifications. These were submitted by him, and referred to the proper 
committee. Before this committee reported the canal owners presented 
a proposition, in the form of a carefully written contract, to construct 
water-works under the Lane plan, using the canal feeder as a source. 
This proposition required the expenditure of $380,000 for the construe- 



26o • VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

tion of 2 1. 1 8 miles of pipe and the erection of a stand-pipe five feet in 
diameter and 200 feet in height. The majority of the common council 
as then constituted, was in favor of this proposition, but certain citizens 
obtained a temporary restraining order, and before the final adjudication 
an election was held, and the issue presented in the several wards of the 
city being as to the adoption or rejection of the Lane plan, not one can- 
didate who favored that plan was elected. 

On the 15th day of May, 1879, the common council authorized the 
trustees of the water-works to employ any competent hydraulic engineer 
whom they might select. They employed J. D. Cook, of Toledo, who, 
on the 5th day of July, 1879, submitted plans and specifications. The 
water-works committee and a majority of the council opposed the Cook 
plan because it contemplated the construction of a reservoir, and the 
question as to the adoption of the plan was, on the 5th day of August, 
submitted to a popular vote. In order that the people might vote intel- 
ligently, the plan was printed and published in pamphlet form in the 
German and English languages, and a copy given to every voter in the 
city. The Cook plan was adopted, by a majority of 2,533, the total vote 
being 3,094 for, and 561 against, it. 

The common council ratified the decision of the people and ordered 
the construction of the water-works as they are now, except as to reser- 
voir and supply. There were in 1888, 29.9 miles of pipe, two engines 
and 239 fire hydrants, of which twenty-four are Lovvry hydrants, at a 
total cost of $262,930. 

Mr. Cook's salary was fixed at $2,500 a year, and the trustees were 
to receive $150 a year. 

On October 21, 1879, the following contracts were let: Two engines 
and four boilers from Holly & Co., Lockport, N. Y., $30,500. Pipe 
and pipe laying, R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia, $126,380.17. 
Valves, Ludlow Valve Co., Troy, N. Y., $3,377.30. Hydrants, Mat- 
thews Hydrant Co., of Philadelphia, $8,490. Reservoir construction of 
building, etc., on the Olds' property, John Langohr and M. Baltes, 
$59,627.36. Engine house, Moellering & Paul, $8,490. 

The whole footed up $236,865.36. Mr. Cook's estimate was 
$270,000, and after deducting the aggregate contracts from the 
estimate of Mr. Cook, there was $33,134.36 left for contingencies. 
Ground was broken in the fall of 1880, and the construction of the 
works, as originally planned, was carried forward and completed with 
the exception that the elevated reservoir, in the seventh ward, has not 
yet been finished, although such a course is strongly recommended by 
the commissioners, the work to be resumed in the spring, the same to 
cost not to exceed $20,000. 

A source of supply that should be adequate in quantity and of 
wholesome quality was a subject of contention that was warmly fought 
over in the city council, in the room of the water-works commissioners 
and in the columns of the public press. Many favored pumping water 
from the St. Joseph river. The owners of the feeder canal sought to 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 20 1 

sell that property to the city, and it was urged that the canal being 
some twenty-five feet higher than the St. Joseph river, would not only 
furnish the needed water, but would supply the power to force it through 
the mains. A third source of supply and the one which was finally 
adopted, was Spy Run, a brook which enters the city from the north 
and falls into the St. Mary's river a short distance east of the Clinton 
street bridge. The water of the run was said to be superior in quality 
to that of the other sources under consideration, but of the sufficiency of 
the supply there were grave doubts. Nevertheless by the side of this 
brook, at a point just east of North Clinton street, the city erected its 
pumping house, equipped it with a costly low pressure engine, capable 
of pumping three millions of gallons in twenty-four hours, a fine high- 
pressure engine, a battery of boilers, etc. 

Between the pumping house and Spy Run, a great basin was scooped 
out of the gravel, and several strong springs were struck at the bottom. 
From the run to this basin, influent pipes, fitted with rock filters were 
laid; some twenty miles of pipe were put down and the contractors for 
the reservoir worked with amazing zeal in raising the great clay 
embankment into which it was designed to force the water, and from 
which it would gravitate back and down as needed by the consumers. 
The elevation of the reservoir was so great that it was estimated that 
water from this source could easily be thrown upon the highest buildings 
in the principal part of the city by making a mere hose connection. 
The very first summer's drought that followed the completion of the 
works and the general use of the water demonstrated fully the inade- 
quacy of the supply, and water had to be obtained from the canal own- 
ers by tapping the aqueduct over Spy Run. This additional supply was 
never positively refused, and in cases of extreme drought when a con- 
flagration would have found the fire department helpless, it was always 
to be had, but the relation between the canal owners and the city govern- 
ment became strained and other means of re-inforcing the inconsiderable 
volume of water of Spy Run were sought. A long pipe was finally laid 
from the pumping basin to the St. Joseph river, and a large rotary pump 
was set at work forcing water into the pumping basin from the Rudisill 
pool, being that level of the river above the Rudisill dam. This plan 
proved to be only a temporary relief. The same interests that had 
sought to sell the canal feeder to the city, owned the Rudisill dam, 
and it was cut, and in the early summer, with a water famine staring 
the citizens in the face, the board of commissioners were brought to face 
their most serious perplexity. 

As a last resort, in 1888, a series of wells were bored. They were 
put down along the channel of Spy Run, below the pumping basin, 
and pump connection was made with them as fast as they were com- 
pleted. The water in the pumping basin was falling rapidly under the 
steady consumption from the parched city, and it had actually fallen 
to but a few inches above the top of the big suction pipe when a few of 
the wells were made to yield and a strong stream of pure wholesome 



262 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

water began to add its steady volume to the basin. It was welcomed 
by the citizens as the traveler across the desert welcomes a well or river. 

These wells are eight inches in diameter and are driven to an aver- 
age depth of fifty-two feet. They are thirty in number, and are all con- 
nected with a great suction pipe which leads directly to the big engines 
in the pumping house. Eight millions of gallons in twenty-four hours 
is a fair estimate of the amount supplied by the six wells first connected 
with a temporary suction pipe and when all have been so connected at 
least forty millions of gallons can be regularly relied upon. So fully 
satisfied are the water-works commissioners of the adequacy of this 
supplv of pure spring water that they are now seriously considering the 
advisability of drawing the water from the pumping basin and cement- 
ing its bottom and sides so that none of the Spy Run water, once so 
much longed for, may enter. Thus has the problem of watei supply 
for this growing city been settled at a great cost, but it is believed to the 
entire satisfaction of the consumers forever. 

During the summer of 1889 a large addition was made to the pump- 
ing house at an expense of $16,000, and a triple expansion, low pressure 
Gaskill pumping engine, costing $30,500, has been put in service. This 
giant piece of machinery is warranted to pump 6,000,000 of gallons in 
twenty-four hours. 

It was unfortunate that the original plan of pipe distribution was not 
on a scale sufficiently large for all demands, and many of the mains have 
been taken up and replaced by larger ones. Then, too, the growth of 
the citv and the establishment of manufactories in the outlying wards, 
has demanded a general increase of the pipe service until now there are 
thirty-one miles of mains in the streets and alleys. When the reservoir 
shall have been completed and the direct pressure system will be aban- 
doned, the expense of operation will be greatly curtailed, and as 
perfect and economically managed water-works will be found in Fort 
Wayne as in any city in America. 

After many changes in the board of trustees, the Void board," Messrs. 
McCulloch, Monning and Boseker was re-elected in 1889, because of 
the great popular confidence in their management of affairs, and Mr. 
Frank Iten remains as inspector. This gentleman supervises all the ex- 
tensions and repairs of water mains, which the city never lets to con- 
tractors, and it is said that no work he has approved has ever needed 
subsequent renewal. The water-works with all improvements up to the 
summer of 1S89, have cost the city $269,000. 

Daniel L. Harding, mayor of Fort Wayne, was born January 8, 1843, 
in Kings county, Ireland, son of Robert and Dorethea (Minchin) Hard- 
ing, natives of Ireland. The father was born about 1793, and died in 
1867, and the mother, who was born about 1801, died in 1847. Both 
passed their lives in their native land. Prior to coming to America Mr. 
Harding was engaged for five years in civil engineering, and this he 
continued after emigrating in 1S66, for eight months, in the employ of 
the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville railroad. He then went to 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 263 

Omaha, and was engaged two years on the Union Pacific railroad, until the 
road was completed. He remained in the active practice of this profes- 
sion in various parts of the country until 1877. He then embarked in the 
real estate and insurance business in Fort Wayne, and has been so engaged 
ever since, except one year spent in England. In this business he has 
been quite successful and has won the confidence and esteem of the com- 
munity. In politics he is a republican. In 1880 he was elected justice 
of the peace and re-elected in 1886. In the spring of 1889, Mr. Hard- 
ing was prevailed upon to accept the republican nomination for mayor, 
although there had been but one republican mayor elected since the 
organization of the city, and that was twenty-two }^ears previous, and 
the regular democratic majority was about 2,000. The democrats nomi- 
nated C. F. Muhler for re-election, and the canvass which followed was 
very spirited, resulting in the election of Mr. Harding by a majority of 
909. Mayor Harding signalizing his election by a proclamation demand- 
ing the rigorous enforcement of the laws regarding the closing of the 
traffic in intoxicating liquors on the Sabbath day, and this and the good 
results which followed, elicited laudatory comment in all parts of the 
country. Mayor Harding is prominent in Masonic circles, having been 
made a Mason at Tullamore lodge, Ireland, in 1865. He is also a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O. F. and K. of P. He was married in 1869 to Mary 
A. Fleming, who was born in Ireland in 1850, and came to the United 
States in 1869. Thev have four children: Robert F., Emily, Grace and 
Edith. 

Rudolph C. Reinewald, city clerk of Fort Wayne, is a native of this 
city, born March 22, 1857. He is the oldest son of William F. and Lousie 
(Reffelt) Reinewald, who were born in Germany, the father in Blah- 
sheim, Russia, and the mother in Bramshe, Hanover. They came to 
this'country in 1855, and settled in Fort Wayne, and have resided here ever 
since. The father found employment in the Wabash shops, where he 
has been engaged during the past thirty-two years. Both parents are 
living, and in 1882 they celebrated their silver wedding. To them 
twelve children have been born, of whom nine are still living, five sons 
and four daughters: Rudolph C, John M., Henry W., William H., and 
George A. Reinewald, Mrs. William Bevesforden, Mrs. Charles Ostman, 
and Lotta and Mamie Reinewald. Rudolph C. Reinewald was educated 
in the Emanuel German Lutheran schools, and later took a business 
course in the Fort Wayne commercial college. At the age of fourteen 
he entered the employment of C. Wenninghoff, as an apprentice in the 
cigar trade. Subsequently, he began the manufacture of cigars for him- 
self. Through his business career he became widely known and 
respected, and his friends urged him to make the race for the office of 
city clerk, which he did, but was unsuccessful in obtaining the nomina- 
tion. In 1887 he again became a candidate for the same office, and was 
defeated by a small majority. In May, 1889, he was urged to make 
the race again, and this time was successful in securing the nomination 
over a number of candidates for the same office, and at the election on 



264 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Mav 7th, he was elected by an overwhelming majority of 1,853 votes, 
the largest majority of any candidate on the democratic ticket, receiving 
a total vote of 4,078, the largest vote polled by any candidate at the 
election. Mr. Reinewald was married October 21, 1886, in this city, to 
Mary A. Meeks, of Greenville, Ohio, who was born in Huntington, Ind. 
Her father, Jeremiah Meeks, is still living at Greenville, Ohio. Mr. and 
Mrs. Reinewald are members of the Emanuel Lutheran church. 

Charles J. Sosenheimer, city treasurer of Fort Wayne, was born in 
Philadelphia, Penn., February 21, 1854, the son of John and Mary A. 
(Miller) Sosenheimer. The father was born in^Germany, May 20, 1815, 
and coming to America in 1848 and settled at St. Mary's, Penn., finally 
making his residence at Fort Wayne in 1880. Charles J., when twelve 
years of age, served an apprenticeship at the tinner's trade with his father, 
and five years later he went to Crestline, Ohio, and was engaged with 
his brother one year. He then returned to Pennsylvania and worked 
with his father one }^ear. At the end of that time he went to Crestline 
again and purchased a third interest in a hardware store, in which busi- 
ness he was successfully engaged for four years. But becoming dissat- 
isfied, he sold out his interest and removed to Fort Wayne with the 
intention of going into the hardware business. But sickness in his fam- 
ily prevented, and he obtained employment at the Wabash railway yards 
at $1.50 a day, and after four days went to the Pittsburgh shops at $1.60 
per day, in the tin and copper department. He was promoted from time 
to time until he gained the position of assistant foreman under S. C. 
Henderson, which place he has held since. In 1887 Mn Sosenheimer was 
nominated for city treasurer on the Union Labor ticket and was defeated, 
but in 1889 he entered the campaign as the democratic candidate for the 
same office, and having been nominated by a majority of ninety-four was 
elected by a majority of 1,026. He took possession of this office in 
September, 1889. He speaks both the English and German languages 
fluently, is well educated, and bids fair to be a popular officer. Mr. So- 
senheimer was married May 4, 1875, to Emma A. Myers, of Crestline, 
Ohio, and they have four children : Alice, Charles, Frederick and Lillian. 
He and wife are members of the Cathedral Catholic church. 

Diedrich Meyer was first elected to a position on the police force of 
the city of Fort Wayne in 1866, and he served twelve years, five of 
which were spent in the capacity of jailor. The faithfulness and ability 
he had displayed in important positions led to his appointment May 12, 
1 88 1, as deputy marshal. He held this position three years, nearly, and 
then, upon the resignation of Marshal Frank Falkner, Mr. Meyer was 
appointed to fill the vacancy, and in 1884 was elected marshal, and 
re-elected in 1887. He has been a trustworthy and popular official. 
Mr. Meyer has long been a democrat, and cast his first presidential vote 
for Stephen A. Douglas. He is a native of Germany, born July 15, 
1829, son of John and Margaret Meyer, who spent their lives in that, 
their native land. Diedrich was the youngest of seven children, of 
whom three are living. He was educated in German)-, and there learned 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 265 

the miller's trade. In 1S56 he immigrated and settled in Fort Wayne, 
and was for a time engaged on the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago 
railroad, and then for two years at boating on the Wabash & Erie canal. 
He was married in 1882 to Lucretia M. Munson, who was born in 1845 
in this city. He and wife are members of the Lutheran church. 

Dennis O'Brien, street commissioner of the city of Fort Wayne, was 
born in county Wexford, Ireland, March 25, 1834. His father, William 
O'Brien, was born in 1782, and married Mary Brady. In 1852 the 
family came to America, and settled at Huntington, Ind., where the 
father died in 1865, and the mother in 1873, at the age of ninety-three 
years. The youngest of their four children now living is the subject of 
this mention. On coming to America he was first employed in railroad 
work, and for twelve years was in the employment of the Wabash & 
Erie canal, being for eight years foreman of the state boat. Since 1865 
his residence has been at Fort Wayne. In politics he is a democrat, 
and in 1877 his integrity and industry were recognized by election to 
the position which he has held continuously ever since. He was mar- 
ried in 1872 to Nancy Sheridan, who was born in this county in 1846. 
They have seven children: John D., William P., Robert E., Frank B., 
Albert, Helen M., and Annie. Mr. O'Brien and family are members of 
the Catholic church, and he is a member of the Catholic Knights. 

The functions of weigh-master and wood-measurer of Fort Wayne 
have been efficiently discharged since 1875 by one person, Patrick Ryan. 
He is a native of Ireland, born March 15, 1832, the fifth of nine chil- 
dren of James and Johanna (Bohan) Ryan. His parents were natives 
of the Emerald Isle, the father born 1774, died 1845; his mother born 
1782, died in quarantine below Quebec, 1847. In the latter year Mr. 
Ryan settled in Massachusetts, and remained there fifteen years, coming 
to Fort Wayne in January, 1862. While in the east he had learned the 
trade of shoemaker, and this he followed here until 1875, with the ex- 
ception of one year in military service. He enlisted in 1864 in the 
Ninety- first Indiana infantry, and was honorably discharged in 1865. 
Mr. Ryan is a -worthy and popular citizen; is a democrat in politcs, and 
he and family are members of the Catholic church. He is a Catholic 
Knight and member of St. Joseph and St. Patrick benevolent societies. 
He is a strict temperance man and has been a member of Father 
Matthew's society since 1873. Mr. Ryan was married in 1853 to Mar- 
garet Sheedy, who was born in Ireland in 1832, and they have had four- 
teen children, of whom eight are living: Mary E., James, Hannah, 
Patrick H., Margaret A., Agnes, John and Joseph. 

Christopher F. Hettler, now assistant purchasing agent for the 
Pennsylvania company, was born in Hohenhaslach, county Vaihingen, 
Wurtemberg, Germany, April 1, 1834. He received a liberal education 
in that country, and in 1857 he emigrated to the United States, landing 
at New York city August 8 of that year, and then proceeded to Preble 
county, Ohio, where he remained until the fall of 1861, when he came 
to Allen county and for one year lived at New Haven, and then in 1862 



266 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

located in Fort Wayne and accepted a position at the Pennsylvania 
shops. Considered by Gov. O. P. Morton as being a true, loyal Ameri- 
can citizen, he was appointed recruiting officer at Fort Wayne in 1864, 
in which position he enlisted a large number of recruits. In Septem- 
ber, 1864, he selected a company from these recruits, of which he was 
commissioned captain, and his command was assigned to duty as Com- 
pany C, One Hundred and Forty-second regiment, and was given place 
in the army of the Cumberland. The regiment was mustered out July 
14, 1865, after which Captain Hettler resumed his position with the 
Pennsylvania company, and since 1871 he has been assistant purchasing 
• agent for that company. Since 1862 he has been prominent among the 
citizens of Fort Wayne, and has taken a leading part in public affairs, 
whenever he could work for the general good. From 1873 to x 882 he 
represented the second ward in the city council, and during his service 
he was ever on the alert to obtain the greatest possible advancement 
for the city with the lowest possible per cent, of taxation. He was in- 
strumental in the introduction of the fire alarm telegraph system and 
other improvements for the fire department. In 1876 he delivered the 
first speech in the interest of city water-works and in which he advo- 
cated the idea that the city should build, own and control her system of 
water-works instead of their being in the hands of private companies. 
The question came before the people in 1879, an< ^ received a majority 
vote of 2,533 as against a minority vote of 561. Mr. Hettler has held 
the position of treasurer of the Fort Wayne building and loan fund and 
saving association, the largest organization of the kind in Indiana. He 
is a prominent member of Harmony lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., Sion S. 
Bass post, No. 40, G. A. R., and Fort Wayne saengerbund. Captain 
Hettler was married March 26, 1861, to Catherine Furthmiller, then of 
New Haven, but was born in Stark county, Ohio, August 26, 1840, and 
they have one son, Herman Henry, born June 17, 1862, now exten- 
sively engaged in the lumber trade in Chicago. Mrs. Hettler is a mem- 
ber of the W. R. C, the Evangelical association and is an active, 
energetic member of various charitable and benevolent interests. Mr. 
Hettler possesses an untiring energy and in all his business transactions 
he has been very successful. Though of foreign birth he is thoroughly 
American in all his views and emphatically advocates allegiance only to 
that grand old flag, the stars and stripes. 

Henry Hilbrecht is a native of German)', born January 4, 1828, the 
son of Diedrich and Louisa Hilbrecht. In his native country he attended 
school until he was fourteen, after wnich he learned the trade of a black- 
smith. In 1848 he emigrated and after spending three days in New 
York and a week in Buffalo, came to Fort Wayne where he has now 
been known as an upright and useful citizen for more than forty years. 
Here he found employment as a blacksmith, an occupation, which owing 
to his knowledge of the locksmith's trade, he soon was proficient in. 
He followed blacksmithing for a period of thirty years. Since 1878 he 
has served two years as deputy trustee, three years as deputy assessor 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 267 

and two years as trustee of Wayne township, and with these exceptions, 
has led a quiet retired life. Mr. Hilbrecht was married August 16, 
1848, to Miss Sophia Mesing, a native of Germany who came with her 
parents to America when a child. They have had five children : Henry, 
Lisette, Louisa, Sophia and William, of whom only Henry and Louisa 
are living. Mr. Hilbrecht is a member of Emanuel's German Lutheran 
church. Mrs. Hilbrecht, who was also a member of that church, died 
December 24, 1879. ^ n politics Mr. Hilbrecht is a democrat. He was 
elected a member of the city council in the fifth ward in the spring of 
1888, and at present holds that position. In public life as in private, he 
is the same reliable, trustworthy man in whom the people place full con- 
fidence. In 1873 Mr. Hilbrecht visited his native land, where he spent 
about three months with his father and other relatives and friends. 

William D. Meyer was born in Germany in 1848, the son of Conrad 
and Louisa Meyer. His childhood and youth were spent in Germany, 
where he was raised on a farm and taught the shoemaking trade. In 
1867 he immigrated to America, and made his home at Fort Wayne. 
Here for one year he was engaged in teaming, and during eleven years 
following worked at his trade, conducting a shop of his own during the 
latter eight years of that period. In 1881 he engaged in the grocery 
business to which his attention has since been given. In politics Mr. 
Meyer is an ardent and influential member of the democratic party, and 
in 1887 he was elected to the cit}^ council from the first ward, an office 
which he holds at present. Mr. Meyer was married in 1869, to Mary 
Dicke, a native of Germany, who came to this country in 1867. They 
have three children: Louise, Henry F., and Mary. Mr. and Mrs. 
Meyer are members of St. Paul's German Lutheran church. „ 

The present representative of the second ward in the city council is 
Frederick Schmueckle, a worthy citizen. He was born in Wurtemburg, 
Germany, January 3, 1839, °^ P aren ts who lived and died in their native 
land. The father, Gottlieb, was born in 1800, and died in 1877, and the 
mother, whose maiden name was Fredericka Ferber, was born in 1S05, 
and died in 1880. The eldest son of their three living children is Fred- 
erick, who received his education in Germany, and at the age of four- 
teen years began work at the tanner's trade, which was his occupation 
until 1859, when he emigrated to the United States. He resided for one 
year at Milwaukee, Wis., and then came to Fort Wayne, which has 
since been his home most of the time. He is now engaged in the hotel 
and restaurant business, and doing well. In politics he is a democrat, 
and in 1S88 he was elected to his present position on the ticket of that 
party. He is a member of Goethe lodge, K. of P. Mr. Schmueckle 
was married in 1867 to Mary Edringer, of Chicago, who died in 1870, 
leaving one child, Albert. In 1873 he married Louise Clemens, a native 
of Germany, by whom he has one child, Frederick. 

Among the leading men of the city council of Fort Wayne should be 
named George W. Ely. He became a citizen of Fort Wayne in 1863, 
engaging at that time in the grocery business, which he conducted until 



268 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

1875. In 1884 he was elected to the council as an independent, from the 
fourth ward, and in 1S86 was re-elected, but on account of a contest occu- 
pied a seat in that body only five months. In 1888 he was again elected. 
Mr. Ely was born at Ovvego, N. Y., June 22, 1836, son of Daniel and 
Lois (Kelsey) Ely, natives of New York. The father was born in 
1802, served as postmaster at Owego, by appointment of President 
W. H. Harrison, was colonel at one time in the militia of the state, 
and died at Owego in 1845. The mother was born in 1S11 and died 
at Wooster, Ohio, in 1887. George W. was the third of five children, 
of whom three are living. He received a common school education, 
and at fourteen years of age removed to Wooster, Ohio, and entered a 
clothing store as clerk. In 1S63 he was married to Theresa R. Ander- 
son, who was born in Ohio, August 11, 1842, daughter of Calvin and 
Rebecca Anderson, old settlers of this city. Mrs. Ely is a member of 
the First Presbyterian church. 

William Doehrmann, a successful business man of Fort Wayne, is 
also worthy of note as a prominent member of the city council, to which 
he was first elected for the eighth ward in 1881, and has since been 
three times re-elected. He is the oldest member in }^ears of service, is 
chairman of the committee on finance, and is also a member of the board 
of police commissioners. He is a deservedly popular citizen. Mr. 
Doehrmann is a son of Conrad and Minnie (Zwick) Doehrmann, who 
immigrated from Germany and settled in Adams county fifty years 
ago. He, the fifth of their children, was born in Preble township, 
Adams county, December 27, 1850. After receiving a common school 
education he came to Fort Wayne and began clerking in a grocery 
store. Five years later he became a grocer on his own account, at 
Decatur, and after two and a half years, in 1875 returned to this city 
and has continued in the business. In 18S0 he was married to Sophia 
Schroeder, born in Marion township, February 8, 1862, to William and 
Caroline (Kroemer) Schroeder, natives of Germany. They have four 
children: William C, born 1881; Frederick H., born 1884; Martin H., 
born 1886, and Alma C. M., born 1889. Mr. Doehrmann and wife are 
members of the St. Paul's German Lutheran church. 

Peter J. Scheid, assistant foreman of the machine shops of the Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company, was born in Lancas- 
ter, Penn., October 18, 1847. He attended the public schools there, and 
began learning the trade of machinist when fifteen years old with Nor- 
ris Bros. In 1863 ne enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Nine- 
ty-fifth Pennsylvania infantry, for three months, and afterward enlisted 
in the Seventy-ninth regiment, and served to the end of the war. He 
then returned to the establishment where he had begun his trade, and 
finished it. In 1867 he secured a position in the shops of the Pennsyl- 
vania company, at Pittsburgh, and in 1869 came to Fort Wayne. After 
many years' faithful service he was made assistant foreman in 1881. Mr. 
Scheid is prominent as a citizen and as a member of the democratic 
party, and was elected to the city council for the seventh ward in 1881, 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 269 

again in 1884, and again in 1S88. He is a member of the church of the 
Holy Trinity, of Wayne lodge, F. & A. M., and of Sion S. Bass post, 
G. A. R. Mr. Scheitl was married in 1867, to Mary Ruck, of Lancas- 
ter, Penn., and they have had seven children: Frank, William, George, 
Clark, and Lotta (deceased), Crover C. and Cecilia. 

Henry Hilbrecht, chief of the the Fort Wayne fire department, was 
born in this city, August 26, 1849. His father is Henry Hilbrecht, now 
a resident of this city, who was born in Germany in 1828, and married 
Sophia Mesing, a native of the same country who died in 1878. The 
senior Hilbrecht came to this city in 1848, and was by occupation a 
blacksmith, but is now retired. The subject of this mention is the elder 
of two children now living. He was educated in the Lutheran schools, 
and then for sometime worked at the blacksmith's trade, after which he 
was engaged as a machinist about nine years. In 1873 ^ e became a 
member of the fire department, and since 1S75 has been in continuous 
service. He soon became distinguished for bravery and efficiency, and 
was elected chief of the department. He was married in 1876 
to Christina Dreibelbiss, of this city, born in 1854, and they have two 
children, Clara and Flora. The family are members of the St. Paul's 
Lutheran church, and he is in politics a democrat. 

The position of inspector of the Fort Wayne water-works has been 
held since their establishment by Frank Iten, who has in that capacity 
rendered the city valuable service. He had previous experience, having 
been appointed to a similar position for the city of Dayton, Ohio, at the 
age of twenty-eight, holding the same for five years. Subsequently, he 
was engaged in business at Ada, Ohio, for over two years, and then for 
three years at Tiffin, returning to Fort Wayne, which is his birth-place, 
in 1879. Mr. Iten was born December 14, i84i,son of Scott and Cath- 
erine (Wagner) Iten. The father, who was a native of Switzerland, 
emigrated to the United States in 1827, and soon afterward became one 
of the pioneers of Fort Wayne. He was engaged in the flouring busi- 
ness some time, and died in 1S48. His widow now resides in the city, 
in her eighty-sixth year. They had seven children, of whom four sur- 
vive. Frank Iten was educated in the Catholic schools, and at twenty- 
one years of age learned the steam and gas fitting trade with A. Hatter- 
sley & Co., with whom he remained until he removed to Dayton, 
excepting his service in the war of the rebellion. He enlisted in 1861 
in the Thirtieth regiment, and went through three years' faithful and 
patriotic service. In 1865 he was married to Sophia Young, of this 
county, who was born in 1845, and died at Tiffin, November 25, 1S79, 
leaving three children who are yet living. He was married November 
24, 1 88 1, to Mary A. Daly, of Sanpierre, and they have had three chil- 
dren, one of whom survives. Mr. Iten and wife are members of the 
Catholic church, and he of the Catholic Legion. 

As deputy in the city clerk's office for eight years, from 1875 t0 
1883, and as secretary of the city water- works, which position he has 
held since Jaduary 1, 1888, P. J. McDonald has rendered the city care- 



27O VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ful and efficient service. He is a native of the city, born December 22, 
1858, son of Philip and Catherine (Summers) McDonald, who were 
natives of Ireland and immigrated and settled at Fort Wayne at an 
early date. They were married in this city, and had two children, both 
of whom are living. Philip McDonald conducted a grocery store in the 
city a number of years, and served one term as deputy for Sheriff Mc- 
Donald. He died in 1862 at the age of thirty-six, and his wife died in 
1873 at the age of forty-one. P. J. McDonald was married in August, 
1885, to Gertrude E. Donally, of Wooster, Ohio, and they have two 
children. Mr. McDonald is a member of the Catholic church, and of 
the Catholic Knights of America. He received his education in the 
Brothers' schools and at Notre Dame university, attending that institu- 
tion in 1873-4. After serving eight years as deputy city clerk he spent 
a short time in the west, and on his return was for a short time again 
employed in that office. 

J. Sion Smith, one of the trustees of the water-works of Fort Wayne, 
is a native of Salem, Livingston county, Ky. He was born August 3, 
1S49, the son of W. B. and Emily J. (Bass) Smith, the former of whom 
was born in Virginia in 181 5, and the latter, a sister of J. H. Bass, of 
Fort Wayne, was born in Kentucky in 1832. The family came to Fort 
Wayne in August, 1865, and two years later, Mr. Smith, who had by 
this time obtained a good common school education, engaged in the coal 
and iron business under the firm name of Bass & Smith. He was thus 
occupied until 1876, after which, for two years, he conducted a flouring- 
mill at VanWert, Ohio. Returning to Fort Wayne, he took his present 
position at the Bass foundry and machine works, which he has since 
held. Mr. Smith is influential as a citizen and is interested in the 
advancement of the city. In politics he is a pronounced democrat, and 
he was elected by his party as councilman for the sixth ward, a position 
he held from 1883 to 1885. Upon the death of the late Henry Monning 
Mr. Smith was elected to fill out the unexpired term of the former in 
the important office of trustee of the water-works of Fort Wayne. Mr. 
Smith is a member of the Masonic order. He was married in 1870 to 
Alice Shoaff, who was born in this city in 1853, and they have two chil- 
dren : Claude S. and Maude M. 

The post of engineer at the water-works is occupied by Warren 
Carpenter, who is a thorough master of his calling. He was born at 
Lafayette, Ind., October 20, 1852, and after receiving his education in 
the city schools, entered a carriage shop in 1871 to learn the trade of a 
painter, but in the early winter of the next year he took a position as 
fireman on the Wabash railroad. This he held for five years, then being 
promoted engineer, and assigned a locomotive. He remained with the 
Wabash until the great strike of 1876, in which he was prominently 
engaged. He afterward accepted a position as locomotive engineer 
with the Chicago & Atlantic railroad, and was next employed as engin- 
eer of a planing-mill in this city. In 1883 he was appointed assistant 
engineer of the water-works, and in June, 1886, appointed first engineer 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 27 1 

for the period of three years. He was married in 1877 to Catherine 
Hinton, who was born in Fort Wayne in 1855. They have one son, 
Wilbur Garfield, born in 1879. Mr. Carpenter is the son of Augustus 
and Caroline (Williams) Carpenter, natives of New York, who came 
to Indiana in the thirties and settled in Lafayette, removing thence to 
Delphi, Logansport, and Chicago, successively, returning afterward to 
Lafayette, and thence coming to Fort Wayne in 1872, where the mother 
died in 1875. The father removed and now resides at Butler, Ind., an 
invalid, having been paralyzed by a sunstroke in 1884. 

An assistant engineer of the city water works, A. H. Franke has 
done efficient service for several years. He is a native of this county, 
born in Madison township, April 6, 1853, son of Henry and Mary Berg 
Franke, natives of the same village of Prussia, where they were mar- 
ried. They came to America in 1840, and settled on a farm in Madison 
township. The mother still lives there, but the father died December 
24, 1879. They are reckoned among the worthy early settlers, to 
whom the present advancement is so much indebted. Their son, A. H., 
received his education in the German free schools, and at the age of fif- 
teen came to Fort Wayne and worked at the shoe business for thirteen 
years. He then became engaged in the water-works, first as fireman 
for five years and then was promoted to his present position in 1885. 
Mr. Franke was married June 9, 1881, to Miss Scherer, who was born 
in this city April 12, 1857, and died September 30, 1882, leaving one 
child. January 6, 18S4, he married Louisa Schafe Schaper, of this 
county, born September 30, 1856, and they have two children, one of 
whom is living. Mr. and Mrs. Franke are members of the Lutheran 
church. 

Since July, 1883, Thomas Baxter has faithfully served the city as one 
of the skilled employes at the water-works. He was born in Eng- 
land, January 16, 1859, son of Joseph and Phoebe (Foster) Baxter, both 
natives of England, who brought their families to America in 1861, and 
came directly to Fort Wayne. Joseph Baxter was an engineer, and fol- 
lowed that calling until his death, which occurred in 1887, he being then 
sixty-two years old. The mother is still living at the age of fifty-nine 
years, and resides in Fort Wayne, on Spy Run avenue. Tb these parents 
thirteen children were born, of whom three sons and three daughters 
survive, and reside in Fort Wayue. Thomas Baxter was married in 
Fort Wayne, and was educated in the public schools. At the age of 
seventeen years he entered the plow factory of J. K. Edgerton, where 
he remained five years. He was next in the employ of T. R. Pickard 
& Sons, three years. In July, 1883, he entered the city water-works as 
night fireman, and after three years was promoted to day fireman, and 
holds that position at present. He was married February 5, 1885, to 
Emma, daughter of John Smith, born in Fort Wayne in i860, and they 
have one daughter: Edith M., who was born March 19, 1886. Mrs. 
Baxter is a member of Emanuel Lutheran church. 

George A. Schust, night foreman at the Fort Wayne water-works, 



272 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

was born in Fort Wayne, December 19, 1854, tne son °^ George A. and 
Mary (Betzler) Schust. His parents were both born in Germany, the 
father in 1827 and the mother in 1830. The father emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1849, and coming directly to Fort Wayne, has since made this 
city his home. He has been engaged as a carpenter, and for thirteen 
years was steward of Concordia college. His wife came to America 
about 1S52. To them eleven children were born, of whom eight are 
living. George A. Schust was reared in this city, and received his edu- 
cation in the Lutheran and public schools. In 1872 he entered the 
carpenter shops of the Wabash railroad, and was engaged there until 
1886, when he took his present position. Mr. Schust was married 
November 30, 1885, to Minnie Krannichfeld, a native of Buffalo, N. Y. 
They have had two children, of whom a daughter, Hedwig, is living. 
Mr. Schust and wife are members of the St. Paul's Lutheran church. 

Hugh M. Diehl, ex-chief of police of Fort Wayne, was born at 
Philadelphia, October 21, 1844. His father, Charles H. Diehl, was 
born in Northampton county, Penn., in 1819, and now resides in Phila- 
delphia, where he was in business many years as a contractor and 
builder. He married Mary C. Martin, who was born in Ireland in 1819, 
came to America at the age of nineteen years, and died in 1865. Hugh 
M. was the second of their eight children, all of whom are living. He 
received his education in the schools of his native city, and in i860 went 
to Scranton to learn the trade of a machinist. His work was, however, 
interrupted in 1861 by the war of the rebellion. His father enlisted in 
Company C, Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania, and served three and a half 
years. The son also enlisted in the same month of the outbreak of 
war, in Company C, Eighth regiment, and served three months, the time 
of enlistment. He then came home and worked at his trade until July, 
1863, when he again enlisted, as a ninety-day man, in Company H, 
Thirtieth Pennsylvania, being honorably discharged at the close of his 
term of enlistment. After a short time spent at Scranton he went to 
Philadelphia, and in 1865 removed to Chicago, and in January, 1866, to 
Fort Wayne, where he has since resided. Until 1876 he was employed 
in the shops of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad company. 
In the latter year he was appointed chief of police of Fort Wayne, and 
in 1878 elected marshal on the independent ticket. In 1881 he was 
again chosen chief of police and held the position until 1889. His serv- 
ice in this important capacity was marked by fidelity and efficiency, and 
he has become one of the most popular men in the city. He is prom- 
inent as a Mason, which order he joined in 1874, entering the Scottish 
Rite in 1886, and becoming a Knight Templar in 1887. Mr. Diehl was 
married in 1867 to Ada Jones, a native of New York, and they have 
three children, Lillie, Alice and Fred. 

Frank Wilkinson, chief of police of Fort Wayne, was born in Troy, 
N. Y., May 1, 1836. His father, William, was born in Ireland, of Eng- 
lish parents, and married Joanna Quinlin, a native of the same county 
(Cork). They immigrated in 1830, and settled at Troy, N. Y., where 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 273 

they remained until 1838, coming then to the village of Fort Wayne. 
Here the father died in 1848 and the mother in 1878. Five of their 
children are living, the oldest being Frank. At this city, which has 
been his residence more than half a century, his first occupation was as 
fireman for the Pennsylvania railroad company. He then engaged in 
business for nine years, and on June 8, 1876, was appointed lieutenant 
of the police force, a position which he held until appointed chief upon 
the resignation of Hugh M. Diehl, in June, 1889. He has been a pop- 
ular man in his social, business, and official relations, and will doubtless 
fill his present position with credit. He was married in July, 1878, to 
Margaret H. Gordon, a native of Scotland, and they have four children: 
Josie, Ella, Edith and Frank. He is a prominent democrat, a member 
of the Catholic church and of the Catholic Knights of America. 

From 1871 to 1875, the position of chief of the Fort Wayne police force 
was held by Michael T. Singleton. He was born in county Cork, Ireland, 
November 1, 1841, the son of John and Ellen (Dannahy) Singleton. In 
1854 he came witlf his mother to America, and his father and the 
younger children followed two years later and joined them at Fort 
Wayne whither they had come from New York city in 1855. The 
father and mother spent the remainder of their lives in this city, the lat- 
ter dying in February, 1881, and the former January 29, 1883. Their 
son Michael, during his youth attended school, worked as a driver of a 
canal boat, and also as the driver of a cart on the Pittsburgh railway. 
During three years he was employed as an assistant at gas fitting. For 
three years and a half following this he served in the capacity of jailor. 
In 1865 he became a member of the city police force. He was elected 
chief of the force in 1871, and served as such four years. From 1876 
to 1882, he operated a truck line. On the 10th of May, 1883, he 
resumed his position on the police force, which he has since held. Mr. 
Singleton was married October 26, 1862, to Catharine, daughter of 
Michael and Catharine Myers. She is a native of Kentucky. They 
have three children: Michael, John P. and Michael T., the first of 
whom died in infancy. The others are both grown and are promising 
young men. Mr. Singleton and family are members of the Catholic 
church. 

One of the oldest and most trusty members of the Fort Wayne 
police force, Patrick O'Ryan, is a native of Ireland, born January 17, 
1837. He is the son of Patrick and Anna (Eagan) O'Ryan, both 
natives of Ireland, the father born in i8i4,the mother in 1819. The family 
immigrated in 1840, and lived for eleven years at Philadelphia, remov- 
ing then to Covington, Ky. The father died in Fort Wayne in 1882, 
and the mother now resides in Cincinnati. Of their thirteen children 
Patrick O'Ryan is the eldest, and only two others are living. In 1859 
•he came to Fort Wayne, and here followed the carpenter's trade which 
he learned with his father, until 1876, when he accepted a position on 
the police force. For eleven years he has served on the night division 
and three years on the day division, and he is regarded as one of the 

XVIII 



274 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

best men who are serving the city in that capacity. He was married in 
1861 to Mary Maddigan, who was born in Ireland in 1844, and they 
have eight children living: John, James, Anna, Mary, Katie, Frank, 
Flora and Genevieve. Mr. O'Ryan and wife are members of the Cath- 
olic church. He is a charter member of the Catholic Knights, and was 
the first vice president of the order in this city. 

John Trautman, an old and valued member of the Fort Wayne police 
force, was born in Stark county, Ohio, October 23, 1835. He is the 
son of George and Mary M. (Lehrman) Trautman, who were natives 
of Germany, but came to America in 1833 and were married soon after- 
ward. In 1836 they came to Allen county and settled in Marion town- 
ship, the father also conducting a blacksmith shop, and in this John 
Trautman received a partial knowledge of that trade as well as farming. 
He worked at the trade in 1858 in Menominee, Wis., and after- 
ward at St. Louis, Mo. In the spring of 1859 he returned home, and 
after two years on the farm, came to Fort Wayne, where he has resided 
since 1862. He worked in the Pittsburgh shops six years, followed 
teaming seven years, and on June 11, ^876, took a position on the Fort 
Wayne police force, a place he has honorably filled ever since. He was 
married October 8, 1864, to Mary Guttermuth, a native of Adams 
county, Ind. They have had eleven children: George, Emma, Henry, 
Louisa, Rebecca, Jacob, Gertie, John, Sarah, Mary, and Samuel, all 
living except Rebecca, who died, aged three days. Mr. and Mrs. 
Trautman are members of St. John's German Lutheran church. 

Since March, 1881, Frederick Wahrenburg has been one of the 
efficient, brave and honorable members of the Fort Wayne police force. 
He is a native of Prussia, born January 21, 1852. His parents, Henry 
and Sophia (Martin) Wahrenburg, were born in the same country, and 
there the father died when his son Frederick was about five years old. 
The mother is now a resident of this city. Mr. Wahrenburg has been 
a citizen of Fort Wayne since 1866. He took up the trade of carpenter, 
and was for nine and a half years in the employment of Koch & Hum- 
phreys, subsequently carrying on his trade by himself. He was mar- 
ried in 1875, to Mary Summers, a native of Fort Wayne, and they have 
six children living: Sophie, Fredrick, Maria, Henry, Ernst and Christina. 
He is a member of the Lutheran church, and in politics he is a demo- 
crat. Subsequent to the death of his father, his mother was married to 
Diedrich Martin, who for many years has been janitor of Emanuel's 
Lutheran church. Previous to this engagement he was employed by 
the Wabash railway company for over thirteen years. His married life 
has now been thirty years, and he has had four children, the three sur- 
vivors of whom are residents of the city. 

John Slater, of Fort Wayne, assessor of Wayne township, was born 
in Litchfield, Staffordshire, England, June 28, 1837, the son of Joseph 
and Elizabeth (Wood) Slater, both natives of England. The father 
died in 1S66, in his fifty-sixth year, but the mother is still living, resid- 
ing in England, and is now in her seventy-sixth year. John Slater was 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 275 

reared in England, and after attending the common schools, began an 
apprenticeship at the blacksmith trade. In 1857 he emigrated to the 
United States, and came direct to Fort Wayne, reaching this city on 
June 15. James Baxter, with whom he began an apprenticeship in 
England, had preceded him to Fort Wayne, and had located at Heller's 
Corners, and Mr. Slater at once joined him and after working for him the 
two formed a partnership at blacksmithing, and continued in business 
together for two years, when Mr. Baxter retired, and Mr. Slater con- 
tinued for two years for hinself. In 1862 he removed to the city and 
entered the service of the P., Ft. W. & C. railroad company, in the 
blacksmith department. In 1868 he went into the employ of J. H. Bass, 
where he remained until 1872, and then entered the Wabash shops. In 
1873, while in the employ of the Wabash shops, he returned to his old 
home in Litchfield, England, on a visit, taking with him his son Willie, 
then only twelve years of age. After a visit of four months in England, 
Mr. Slater returned to Fort Wayne, and was in the Wabash shops, until 
1886, and then returned to the Pittsburgh shops, where he is employed 
at present. In 1886, Mr. Slater was nominated by the republicans for 
the assessorship of Wayne township, and was elected by a majority of 
between 600 and 700, notwithstanding the democrats had a majority of 
2,000 in the township. He was the first republican elected in the town- 
ship in a straight out fight, which speaks volumes for his popularity. 
During the strike on the Wabash railroad in 1885, Mr. Slater was quite 
conspicuous and was chairman of the local grievance committee. While 
the strike was in progress, he was sent west to Moberly, St. Louis, 
Springfield, and other points as a delegate of the Knights of Labor, to 
to confer with Master Workman Powderly, and others. Mr. Slater 
emerged from the fight with credit, having always worked for law and 
order as well as justice. He is a member of Summit city lodge, No. 170, 
F. & A. M., of Robin Hood lodge of Sons of St. George, No. 216, 
Kekionga Council of the National Union. He is a member of the First 
Baptist church, and was instrumental in erecting the present church 
building of that congregation, he collecting over $800 in contributions 
for the same. Mr. Slater was married at Heller's Corners, April 20, 
1859, to Jane E. Dafforn, who was born in Staffordshire, England, 
March 20, 1837, and came with her parents to America in 1855. To* 
this union thirteen children have been born, four of whom suryiveu 
William M., born September 20, 1861, now married and residing in> 
Kansas City, Mo., Rosetta M., born October 15, 1864; Ada, born Octo- 
ber 20, 1873, and Herbert G., born April 6, 1876. Mrs. Slater is --a 
member of the First Baptist church. 

Louis Hazzard, inspector of oils for the Twelfth Indiana congres- 
sional district, and a member of the common council of Fort Wayne, was 
born in Newburg, on the river Rhine, Germany, August 12, 1844. He 
is the son of Bernhard Hazzard, who emigrated to America with his 
family in 1849. His wife, daughter, and infant child, died at 
Indianapolis in three days' time while en route from New York to Fort 



276 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Wayne. Bernhard Hazzard while living in Germany was a wholesale 
and "retail wine and provision merchant, but on reaching Allen county 
settled on a farm in Washington township, and followed farming until his 
death, which occurred February 26, 1874, at the age of sixty-two years 
and six months. Louis Hazzard was reared on the farm, and secured 
such education as was possible in the country schools. February 29, 
1862, he enlisted in Company E, Nineteenth United States infantry, and 
served until February 29, 1865. He was with the Army of the Cum- 
berland, and among the important engagements he participated in were 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Nashville, Franklin, Stone River, Buz- 
zard's Roost, Chattanooga, Mission Ridge, siege of Atlanta and Mar- 
rietta, Ga., from which latter point he was sent back to Lookout Moun- 
tain, where he remained until discharged. Returning to Fort Wayne, 
in 1865, he went to work for the firm of Clark & Rhinesmith, lumber 
dealers, and a few months later entered the employment of N. G. Olds 
& Son. While with that firm, in June, 1865, he met with an accident 
which caused the loss of his right arm. In the spring of 1870, he re- 
moved to Sheldon, Allen county, where for six years he dealt in grocer- 
ies and provisions, then in boots and shoes and groceries, during which 
time he also acted as ticket agent for the Muncie railway, was postmas- 
ter of the town, and supervisor of the district in which Sheldon is lo- 
cated. In 1876 he returned to Fort Wayne, and soon afterward w T as 
appointed bailiff for the superior court of Allen county, a position he 
held about four years. In 1882 he was appointed oil inspector for the 
Twelfth congressional district, by Governor Gray, and is holding that 
position at present, having been re-appointed and commissioned March 
1, 1889. In 1887 he was elected a member of the city council from the 
Ninth ward for a term of two years: re-elected to serve two years 
more, time expires 1891. Mr. Hazzard is a member of Phoenix lodge, 
No. 101, K. of P., of Summit City division, No. 12, U. R. K. of P., of 
Sion S. Bass post, No. 40, G. A. R., and of the Patriotic Circle. He 
was married December 20, 1865, to Anna Sargent, of Allen county, 
and they have one son, William Ellsworth, born October 22, 1866. 

Federal Offices. — The "federal relations" of Fort Wayne have been 
a prominent part of its history from the very inception of the settlement. 
Before the earliest settlers under the present regime had thought of mi- 
grating hither, the United States flag floated from the old fort, and the 
soldiers of the garrison were for some time the main part of the popu- 
lation. Here treaties were made with the Indians and land offices estab- 
lished by the United States. In later days, here was the site of a federal 
camp for the enlistment and drilling of troops from the "Old Tenth" 
district, and following the war of the rebellion a pension agency was 
established here, at which a large volume of business was transacted 
until the consolidation of Indiana agencies at Indianapolis, which agency 
was during the Cleveland administration, in charge of Col. C. A. Zol- 
linger, of Fort Wayne. Now, Fort Wayne is a seat of the United 
States circuit court for Indiana, presided over by Hon. W. A. Woods, 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 277 

and possesses one of the handsomest government buildings in the coun- 
try, in which the postoffice also finds quarters. 

The first postmaster at Fort Wayne, Samuel Hanna, opened his office 
in 1822 one door east of Colerick's hall. He was succeeded by Henry 
J. Rudisill, who kept the office in a frame building on the north side of 
Columbia street, between Calhoun and Clinton. In the same place the 
office remained during the terms of Oliver Fairfield and Smallwood 
Noel, but William Stewart, who was appointed in 1845, removed the 
office to the west side of Calhoun street, between Berry and Main. 
Samuel Stophlet was appointed in 1849, an< ^ J onn G. Maier in 1853, and 
during the latter's term the first mail arrived by railroad, and he was 
the first postmaster appointed by the president. Moses Drake succeeded 
in 1 861, and he established the office, which had been kept in various 
places by his predecessors, on Court street, where it remained until the 
government building was erected. Peter P. Bailey filled out the unex- 
pired second term of Mr. Drake, and was succeeded by Jacob J. Kamm, 
who was chosen by a popular election in 1869, there being a consider- 
able number of candidates. He served eight years, and was followed 
by Frederick W. Keil, who held until the appointment of William 
Kaough, in August, 1885. Four years later the present incumbent, 
C. R. Higgins, took charge of the office. 

William Kaough, an energetic and prosperous citizen of Fort Wayne, 
who has filled a conspicuous position in the political history of the city 
as a democratic leader, was in August, 1885, appointed postmaster by 
President Cleveland, and the functions of this important office have been 
by him ably and faithfully performed. He has been a resident of the 
county during his entire life, was raised on the farm of his parents in 
Washington township, and educated in the public schools. In 1872 he 
removed to Fort Wayne, became engaged in the agricultural implement 
trade, in which he was quite successful, taking a prominent place among 
the active business men of the city. His interest in political affairs has 
always been an absorbing one, and he has done the party of his choice 
valuable service. In 1885 he acted as chairman of the democratic cen- 
tral committee. He is a worthy member of the Catholic church. Mr. 
Kaough was born in Washington township, June 11, 1844. His father, 
Nicholas Kaough, was born in Ireland in 1800, c*ame to Allen county 
more than half a century ago, and was one of those who cleared away 
the timber from the present site of the Cathedral. He married Mar- 
garet Brown, who was born in 1823, and they have had five children, 
of whom William was the second born. The father died in 1876, but 
the mother is still living, making her home in this city. 

Cecilius R. Higgins, postmaster at Fort Wayne, late chief clerk of 
the western division of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railway 
company, is a native of Ohio, born at Kalida, Putnam county, January 
21, 1847. Afterward his parents removed to De^hos, Ohio, where he 
was raised to manhood, and educated in the puolic schools, and where 
he began his career as a railroad man. His first employment was as a 



278 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

messenger boy, and while serving in this capacity he learned telegraphy, 
and was given a position as an operator. About the year 1867 he was 
appointed ticket and freight agent of the Pittsburgh & Fort Wayne 
road at Delphos and Ada. January 1, 1868, he was called to Fort 
Wayne to accept the important position of train dispatcher of the west- 
ern division, which he filled during nine years. He then acted two years 
in the capacity of wood and tie agent for the company, and in 1879 was 
appointed chief clerk, and this responsible position he held until the 
summer of 1889. Those admirable qualities of character which have 
made him so successful in railroad life have also made him popular with 
his fellow-citizens in all social relations. Having always taken an active 
interest in politics, he was, in 1886, tendered the republican nomination 
for auditor, a trust which he accepted. He made a gallant contest for 
the success of the ticket, but was unable entirely to overcome the tre- 
mendous adverse majority in the county, although he ran 2,700 votes 
ahead of his ticket. During the exciting campaign of 1888, Mr. Hig- 
gins served as treasurer of the Allen county republican central committee, 
and as a director of the Morton club, and rendered efficient service to 
the republican national ticket. In recognition of his services, and that 
executive ability he has manifested in other positions, he was appointed 
by President Harrison, June 18, 1889, postmaster at Fort Wayne, which 
position he assumed July 9, 1889. Mr. Higgins was married May 6, 
1S74, t0 Ella S. Hale, of West Virginia, a niece of O. W. Jefferds, 
with whom she was raised, and they have two children : Celia and Adah. 
Mrs. Higgins is a member of .the First Presbyterian church. 

The important position of deputy postmaster, an office in its duties 
closely related to the public, is satisfactorily filled by Otto P. Herbst, 
who has been a resident of Fort Wayne since 1865. He received his 
education in the public schools and at Concordia college. For several 
years he was engaged in the meat market business in this city, but on 
September 1, 1885, was tendered the position of stamp clerk in the post- 
office. He served in that capacity until January 1, 1887, when he was 
appointed deputy postmaster. He is an enterprising citizen, and is 
prominently connected with building and loan associations, being presi- 
dent of the German association No. 1, and secretary of German No. 5, 
Summit City, Wayne, German Allen and Jefferson associations. Politi- 
cally he is prominent among the young democrats. He was married 
December 5, 1877, to Mary Bullerman, a native of this city, born May 7, 
1858, and they have three children: Frederick H., Clara D. and Henry 
W. They are members of the Lutheran church. Mr. Herbst was 
born at Indianapolis, November 8, 1857, son of Frederick and Dora 
(Turkopp) Herbst, natives of Germany. The father, who was born 
April 10, 1825, came to the United States in 1854, and after living two 
years at Columbus, Ohio, removed to Indianapolis. There he enlisted 
in 1 861, in Company K, Forty-seventh Indiana infantiy, and served 
faithfully three years, receiving an honorable discharge in 1864. He 
came to Fort Wayne with his family in 1865, and was accidentally 



MUNICIPAL AND FEDERAL. 279 

drowned March 12, 1886, in the old canal. His widow resides in this 
city; she was born February 5, 1824. Two of their children are living, 
Otto P. being the elder. 

John W. Hayden, a prominent citizen of Fort Wayne, was born in 
Brown township, Franklin county, Ohio, May 18, 1S37. His father, 
Isaac Hayden, was born in Fayette county, Perm., March 21, 1809, and 
was married in 1833, to Elizabeth Crabb, who was born in Franklin 
county, Ohio, August 15, 1815. He died in 1862. He was of English 
descent, she of Scotch, and their parents both served in the war of 1812, 
his father being at the battle of the river Raisin. Their only other 
child was Emeline, born in 1835, who died in 1857. In 1848 the family 
removed to Kosciusko county, Ind., where they settled in a cabin on 
160 acres of land, and here, without the advantages of good schools or 
church privileges, except such as the itinerant preacher furnished, 
John W. grew up to the age of nineteen, when he was sent to Fort 
Wayne college. He completed the course here in i860, and began the 
study of law with Hon. Isaac Jenkinson, and was admitted to the bar on 
April 22, 1861. President Lincoln having issued his proclamation for 
75,000 three months' volunteer troops, he enlisted in Company G, of 
the Twelfth Indiana volunteers. Being appointed second sergeant, he 
held that position* until the expiration of his enlistment when he re- 
enlisted for one year, but on account of disability contracted while in 
the line of duty he was "discharged at Poolsville, Md., August 31, 1861. 
Returning home he was engaged for several years in the pension office 
at Fort Wayne, and subsequently began the practice of law. August 
12, 1875? he was appointed register in bankruptcy by Judge W. Q. 
Gresham, which office he held until the repeal of the law in 1878. On 
the organization of the United States district court at Fort Wayne, he 
was appointed deputy United States marshal by W. W. Dudley, and 
held this position until the change of administration in 1884. In the 
meantime he had built up a large and lucrative real estate and loan busi- 
ness, at which he is now occupied. Mr. Hayden is a Methodist, as were 
his parents. Reared a whig, he became an enthusiastic republican, and 
early in life adopted for his political motto, " Colonization and qualified 
suffrage," a doctrine which he still believes could have saved the Union 
its tremendous sacrifice in settling the question of slavery. He was 
united in marriage May 18, 1866, with Sarah M., daughter of Dr. Sam- 
uel J. Green, of Wayneton, Ind., and they have had five children born 
to them, two of whom are living, Grace G. and John R. Mr. Hayden 
is a Mason of the Thirty-second degree, a Knight Templar and a mem- 
ber of the G. A. R. 

Thomas W. Blair, deputy United States marshal for the northern 
district of Indiana, was born in Defiance county, Ohio, September 15, 
1850. His father, Joseph Blair, was born in Ohio, September 10, 1824, 
and was a farmer by occupation, and a worthy and highly esteemed 
man. He married Jane Ritchhart, also a native of Ohio, born August 8, 
1829, who died in Defiance county, December 28, 1865. The father 



28o VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

died in Paulding county, April 7, 18S2. Thomas W. Blair is the eldest 
of their three children, and his childhood and youth were spent upon the 
farm of his parents. After receiving a common school education he 
began work in 1872, at the trade of cooper, at Antwerp, Ohio, and he 
followed that occupation until 1881, when he came to Fort Wayne and 
established himself in business as a cooper. He was so engaged until 
January, 1886, when he sold his business and embarked in the grocery 
business, in which he continued until January, 1888. Mr. Blair was 
married February 10, 1876, to Amanda J.Smith, who was born in Pauld- 
ing county, Ohio, in 1853, the daughter of Judge Ezra Smith. He is a 
member of Harmony lodge, No. 19, I. O. O. F., and of Phoenix lodge, 
K. of P., No. 101, and is a member of the supreme body of the order of 
the .National Union. In politics Mr. Blair is an active republican, and 
in 1886 he was the nominee of his party for the office of senator for the 
district composed of the counties of Allen and Whitley, the opposing 
candidate being Col. I. B. McDonald, of Columbia City. Mr. Blair 
made a splendid contest against overwhelming odds, and going into the 
canvass with an adverse majority of 3,500, reduced it to 671. In May, 
1889, he was appointed deputy by United States Marshal Dunlap, of 
Indianapolis, and he has already made an honorable record. In an early 
day, counterfeiters were not rare in northern Indiana, but for many 
years a counterfeiters' den had not been found, until Marshal Blair, early 
in September, 1889, discovered a complete outfit for the production of 
spurious coin in the garret of D. D. Rhynard, near Monroeville. On 
this case Mr. Blair worked three days and nights, and the culprit was 
safely lodged in jail. He resigned the deputy marshalshipj September 
23, 1889, to accept the position of assistant mailing clerk in the post- 
office. 

Louis S. C. Schroeder, a deputy collector of United States internal 
revenue, stamp department, is a native of Fort Wayne, born Septem- 
ber 10, 1857. His father, C. Louis Schroeder, was born in Germany, 
January 1, 1827, arrived in America June 24, 1852, and on March 13, 
1856, was married to Eliza Rippe, who was born in German)', April 
10, 1838, and came to America June 18, 1854. They had two children, 
of whom the younger, Charles J. H. Schroeder, was born in Fort 
Wayne, February 4, i860, married Louisa Lahmeyer, October 4, 1883 
(she was born February 27, i86i)>and has one child, Carl Louis, born 
January 14, 1889. Louis S. C, the elder, received his education in the 
English and German schools of Fort Wayne, and at fourteen years of 
age entered the drug store of Dreier Brothers, where he remained five 
years. Then, in May, 1877, at the age of twenty, he formed a partner- 
ship with his brother, who was seventeen, and embarked in business as 
druggists. It is probably the youngest firm of the kind on record, but 
they succeeded in their enterprise, and now at the corner of Broadway 
and Washington streets, are doing a prosperous business. Louis S. C. 
Schroeder is also president of the Schroeder medicine company, of Fort 
Wayne, of which his brother Charles J. H. is treasurer and Carl Weber 



» PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 28l 

is secretary. The Schroeder medicine company is a thriving young 
industry, organized March i, 1889, for the purpose of manufacturing 
four specialties: "Weber's Catarrh Cure," "Weber's Toilet Lotion," 
" Weber's Corn Cure " and " Weber's Tooth Ache Drops." Though 
yet in its infancy, the prospects for this enterprising concern are of the 
most flattering nature. Mr. Schroeder is an active adherent of the 
democratic part}', and he was in August, 1886, appointed to the deputy 
collectorship. He was married in November, 1879, to Lauretta, born 
in Fort Wayne, March 5, i860, daughter of Orlando E. Brad way, who 
was born in Massachusetts, March 10, 1834, an d married in 1857 Ellen 
Grusch, who was bor,n in Pennsylvania, April 3, 1836. Mr. Schroeder 
and wife are members of St. John's Lutheran church. 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 

Parks. — The city has no centrally located public park, and many, 
visitors to Fort Wayne go away in the belief that in these needful places 
of recreation there is a woeful deficiency. On the contrary, there are parks 
in abundance, situated at no great distance from the business center, but in 
the need of money for water-works, streets, sewerage and other public 
works that made more imperative demands upon the municipal purs>e, 
they have until late years been somewhat neglected. The present pur- 
pose of the common council is to speedily remedy this defect, and ap- 
propriations for shade trees, flower beds, graveling of walks, drainage 
and fencing, seats and so on are cheerfully voted. Within the past 
twelve months much money has been intelligently expended in this 
direction, and before long Fort Wayne will have delightful breathing 
places for its populace, which, while they may not be made strikingly 
attractive by reason of the level character of the ground, may neverthe- 
less become models of landscape, gardening and exquisite floriculture. 

The city owns a large tract of land in the ninth ward, between North 
Cass street and Spy Run, which was years ago set apart for park pur- 
poses. A line of street cars makes it accessible from all parts of the 
city, and pedestrians will be occupied but fifteen minutes in a walk from 
the court-house, crossing the St. Mary's river by either the Clinton street 
or the Wells street bridges. On the east side courses Spy Run 
which the city proposes to deepen and widen into a lake of sufficient 
size for pleasure boats. The ground is elevated, the soil of gravel, 
overlaid with sand, and so is easily drained. During the present year a 
large appropriation was made for shade trees which have been planted. 
It is planned to erect on this property permanent buildings of graceful 
and attractive design, reserving always enough of the grassy lawns for 
games of base ball, quoits, cricket, Scottish games and other athletic 
sports, with possibly a track for bicycle riders. The water-works pump- 
ing house with its two monster low pressure engines, its great supply 
pool, fed from a series of deep flowing wells is a short distance to the 



282 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

north and afford objects of interest and attraction to the pleasure seeker. 
A little further off are the St. Vincent's orphanage, the power house of 
the electric light company with its great engine and powerful dynamos, 
and but a little farther the Centlivre boat-house where a fleet of pretty 
pleasure boats invite to breezy rides over the waters of the majestic St. 
Joseph river. 

By the will of the late Thomas Seomney it was provided that the 
beautiful Seomney park of sixty-one acres, which lies in the bend of the 
St. Mary's river in the west end of the city, shall revert within a few 
years to the public use. The cleared portion of the property is on a 
gentle slope, the rest is covered with a heavy growth of forest trees. It 
is on these grounds that the Northern Indiana fair has been held for 
many years past. They contain a half-mile race track, several hundred 
horse and cattle stalls, and a few large buildings which have been used 
for exhibition purposes. Street cars run to the principal gate. 

A delightful place for recreation is Williams park in the sixth ward. 
It is reached by the Belt line cars which pass the principal entrances. 
The park is amply shaded by a thick growth of young forest trees, has 
been thoroughly drained and been made beautiful in various ways. The 
boundaries of Williams park are Creighton and Hoagland avenues, Pon- 
tiac and Webster streets. The grounds are the property of the heirs 
of the late Hon. Jesse L. Williams, and the improvements are made by 
them. 

The same gentlemen have beautified the site of old Fort Wayne, 
and have placed there the flag staff and the cannon, with mention of 
which this chapter begins. 

Hayden Park takes its name from Hon. T.J. Hayden. It is a nearly 
triangular piece of ground in the eighth ward. It is not quite a block 
in extent, and though small is situated in a thickly settled portion of the 
city, admirably adapted to the greatest usefulness to the public. Numer- 
ous shade trees have been set 'out, flower gardens planted and it is 
planned to make this little park a gem of landscape gardening. 

A large park, designed especially for the benefit of the citizens of 
of the west end, was thrown open to the public last year. It is called 
McCulloch park after Hon. Hugh McCulloch, ex-secretary of the treas- 
ury, who gave the land. This park will be made especially attractive. 
It is reached by the Belt line of street cars. 

In this connection may appropriately be mentioned Lindenwood 
cemetery, the beautiful city of the dead, to which tender and solemn 
associations draw many visitors. Here, covered by the gentle hand of 
nature are the graves of many whose names are recorded in this history, 
and many a magnificent monument commemorates the prominence of 
worthy men and women who have passed away. This property was 
purchased on July 5, 1859, by Jesse L. Williams, Hugh McCulloch, 
Charles D. Bond," David F. Comparet, Royal W. Taylor, Allen Hamil- 
ton, Alexander M. Orb, John E. Hill, Pliny Hoagland, Alfred D. Brand- 
riff, Oehmig Bird and I. D. G. Nelson, for the sum of $7,627.50. The 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 283 

title was first in the name of Mr. Williams, for the use of the company, 
and was deeded to the association on May 14, i860. On the latter day 
the organization was completed by the election of I. D. G. Nelson as 
president, and Charles D. Bond as secretary and treasurer. The grounds 
were set apart with solemn ceremony on Ma}^ 30, i860, by a remarkable 
coincidence anticipating the observance of a day now dedicated to the 
deceased soldiers of the republic. The grounds were then in a wild, 
unattractive state, and much money has been expended for their 
improvement. 

Lindenwood cemetery now comprises 124 acres, of which seventy 
acres are used for burial. The grounds are surrounded by an iron 
fence, i,7°o feet in length, is five feet high, set upon stone posts, three 
feet in the ground. It cost $2,652.25 and will iast for generations. 

The " Gate Lodge," built in a picturesque style of Gothic architec- 
ture, is located just inside the entrance gates covering a space 35x31 
feet. The floors are laid with black and white marble tile, and the var- 
ious rooms wainscoted with marbelized slate, and the walls and grained 
ceilings neatly frescoed. A circular bell-tower breaks out in one of the 
angles, and at the base is an open loggia leading to both the private of- 
fice and reception room. 

On the 17th day of March, 1884, the trustees sold about three acres 
lying on the west border of the cemetery grounds, to the Achduth 
Veshalom congregation' for their exclusive use for burial purposes. 

A large sum of money has been expended in winding walks, and 
several miles of cobble stone gutters have been put down. The com- 
pany secured by a substantial culvert over the old canal feeder, and by 
a finely graded pike such an approach from the city as few cemeteries 
possess. The place is visited annually by thousands of strangers, who 
praise its unrivaled beauty. 

Two of the corporators of the association now sleep within the con- 
fines of the cemetery, Hon. Jesse L. Williams and O. A. Simons. 
Their demise has made changes necessary in the corporators and trus- 
tees. The former board is now composed of Hugh McCulloch, S. B. 
Bond, I. D. G. Nelson, O. P. Morgan, A. P. Edgerton, George H. Wil- 
son, J. H. Bass, W. O. H. Hoffman, J. D. Bond, A. E. Hoffman, E. H. 
McDonald and John Orff. The board of trustees consists of Messrs. 
I. D. G. Nelson, O. P. Morgan, S. B. Bond, George H. Wilson and 
John H. Bass. The superintendent and landscape architect, is John W. 
Doswell. 

Since the opening of the cemetery, John H. Doswell has held the 
position of superintendent and landscape architect. This esteemed citi- 
zen was born in the city of London, November 3, 1827. His childhood 
was spent in that metropolis until he was about nine years of age, when 
his parents removed to the vicinity of Southampton, where he was reared 
to manhood. He served an apprenticeship with a florist, and followed 
that calling in England until 1852, during a portion of which time he was 
in the employ of W. D. Page at Southampton, and for four 3-ears was 



284 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

in the gardens of the Earl of Radnor, near Salisbury, Wiltshire, from 
where he went to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. Afterward he 
was head gardener for Sir William Medlican, at Venhall, Somerset. In 
September, 1852, he emigrated to the United States and spent the fol- 
lowing winter at Cincinnati, where he was in the employ of the late 
William Resor, having charge of his green houses. He next went to 
Wisconsin, purchased some land and engaged in farming, but in the fall 
of 1859 returned to Cincinnati. In December, 1859, ^ e cam e to Fort 
Wayne and took charge of Linden wood cemetery. In the summer of 
1888 he was engaged in laying out and improving all the city park plats. 
Mr. Dos well was married in England in July, 1852, to Catherine J. 
Humphries, who was born in Gloucester, England, April, 1825. Of 
their ten children, the following are living : Haidee, wife of W. H. 
Brady; George, florist; Alfred, florist; H. J., assistant superintendent of 
Lindenwood; Emma, wife of I. B. Adams; Nellie L.; A. C, florist. 
Mr. Doswell is a member of the Episcopalian church. 

City Hospital. — No worthier institution of more humane ends is to 
be found than that conducted at the southwest corner of Washington 
and Barr streets by the City Hospital association, incorporated Novem- 
ber 2, 1878, which may embrace any philanthropical person who will 
sign the constitution and by-laws. The property is that formerly known 
as the Hanna house, a massive brick building excellently adapted to the 
purposes. Mrs. C. L. Smith is the matron, and her Christian and moth- 
erly interest in the welfare of the patients, commends her to their 
affectionate regard. The lady is assisted by a corps of professional 
nurses. The hospital has accommodation for thirty patients and derives 
nearly its entire income from free gifts. A well equipped ambulance 
will shortly be put in service. The affairs of the hospital are managed 
by a board of nine directors, of whom M. L. Albrecht is president; 
W. D. Page, secretary, and E. F. Yarnelle, treasurer. 

Places of Amusements. — With places of amusements Fort Wayne has 
been fairly well supplied. In 1853 Mr. E. F. Colerick erected Coler- 
ick's hall on the north side of Columbia street, in the middle of the 
block, between Clinton and Barr. This was the first public hall of any 
consequence, and it was opened on December 26, 1853, and for many 
years was a popular resort. The stage was small. In the rear of the 
auditorium was a gallery running across the room. In 1864 the place 
was refitted, the gallery was extended around the room, and private 
boxes were added, and the whole theater was handsomely decorated. 
A few years afterward it passed into the hands of Capt. J. B. White, 
who rechristened it White's opera house, and was twice gutted by fire. 
It has since been rebuilt for business purposes. 

In 1868 Hervey Brothers, of Montreal, contracted with an associa- 
tion, called the Rink association, to erect a skating rink covering lot 
95, original plat, on the north side of Berry street, between Clinton and 
Barr. The building was afterward turned into a tobacco factory, and in 
1878 was sold and refitted as a place of amusement. A stage was put 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. . 285 

in and the floor was raised. The name of the Academy of Music was 
bestowed upon the property. For a time it was used as a roller skating 
rink, but is now devoted to general theatrical purposes. The present 
owner is Mrs. Charles Fletcher, and the lessee is Fred C. Baltz. 

The Olympic Theater was built by the executors of the Washington 
Erving estate, at the southeast corner of Clinton and Columbia streets, 
in 1868. It had a seating capacity of 1,300. One year later it was 
leased by Robert L. Smith, who changed the name to the Bijou. On 
February 1st, it was partially destroyed by lire, and was rebuilt. On 
May 17, 1 88 1, it was again gutted, and after a number of months was 
rebuilt for business purposes. The Bijou was a first class variety 
theater. 

The Princess rink is a creature of the roller skating craze of three 
years ago. It was opened in April, 1876. It is the largest place for 
holding popular meetings in northern Indiana, has a seating capacity of 
2,800, and covers a plat of ground 100x150 feet, at the southeast corner 
of Main and Fulton streets. It was erected by B. S. O'Connor, John C. 
Eckart, and W. A. Foote, the former gentleman owns a half-interest. 
The Princess is lighted with electricity and heated with natural gas. 

By far the handsomest theater ever built in Fort Wayne is that 
erected by the Masonic temple association at the northeast corner of 
East Wayne and Clinton streets. The building cost $75,000, and bes ; des 
its splendid opera-house provides on its three upper floors accommoda- 
tions for Fort Wayne commandery, No. 4, K. T., the most elaborate in 
the state, with rooms for the occupancy of the four blue lodges. 

The Masonic temple association was formed in the winter of 1877-78 
and included in its membership many prominent citizens who were not 
Masons. A subscription amounting in round numbers to $30,000 was 
raised, and in June, 1879, tne contract for enclosing the building, accord- 
ing to the plans of Architect Thomas J. Tolan, was let to Hueston & 
Co., of Dunkirk, Ohio. This firm put in the foundation and had made 
some progress in erecting the walls when they failed, and on February 
25, 1880, abandoned the contract. The unfinished walls were boxed up 
and not until 1882 was work resumed by the association, issuing bonds 
to the amount of $30,000 and running twenty years. A majority of 
these bonds were taken by Hon. James Cheney of this city, who became 
trustee of the bond holders. The contract for the completion of the 
building was let to Christian Boseker. Material changes were made in 
the plans in the way of cheapening the construction of the upper stories. 

On November 6, 1884, the Masonic temple, as the theater is called, 
was opened to the public with a series of brilliant concerts by the Emma 
Abbott grand opera company. The actual number of seats is 846, but 
with the four beautiful boxes and with other accommodations that can 
be made available, seats may be provided for 1,000 people. On June 
18th last, at a meeting of the Masonic temple association, the sum of 
$1,000 was appropriated for new scenery, new carpets and the intro- 



286 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

duction of natural gas. Masonic temple has a Clinton street frontage 
of seventy feet and a depth of 120 feet on Wayne street. 

The Catholic library hall is a handsome contribution to the city from 
the efforts of Very Rev. J. H. Brammer, vicar general of the diocese 
of Fort Wayne. It stands on Calhoun street at the southwest corner of 
Cathedral square, and is of noble and commanding appearance. The 
corner-stone was laid June 3, 1881, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Spaulding, of 
Peoria, 111., who delivered an eloquent address. The hall is of mag- 
nificent proportions and has a well appointed stage, two galleries, etc. 
The building cost $65,000. 

Natural Gas. — The important matter of how best to secure a supply 
of natural gas for Fort Wayne first took definite shape at a meeting 
held in the circuit court room in 1886. Robertson J. Fisher was chosen 
president and C. B. Woodworth secretary. Earnest speeches were 
made and under the belief that boring at Fort Wayne would be at- 
tended with the same success as at Findlay, Ohio, and places in Indiana 
to the south, a company was organized and called the Fort Wayne 
natural gas and fuel mining company. Four wells were sunk to the 
average depth of 1,400 feet, one near the Berghoff brewery, one near 
the Gay street over-head bridge, one near White's wheel works and 
one near the Centlivre brewery. In all of these wells gas was "struck," 
but in an insufficient quantity to reward the projectors of the scheme. 
The first well, however, that near Berghoff's brewery, has not been 
unprofitable. It was sold to the brewery company and continued for 
two years to supply a constant and considerable supply of gas to the 
boilers. After expending $12,000 this company abandoned further 
effort, and a new company, organized by J. C. Peltier, E. L. Craw and 
others, to make further search for gas. A well was bored in the east 
end of the city and another on the Peltier farm, three miles west of the 
city. These efforts were no more successful than those of the first 
company. Gas in small volume was invariably found but with it came 
a strong flow of water that choked the wells. 

Matters were in this shape when, in the spring of 1887, the Sala- 
monie mining and gas company was organized for the purpose of piping gas 
to this and other towns and cities from lands leased in Blackford county, Ind., 
forty to forty-five miles south of Fort Wayne, and near the line of the 
Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville railway. Hon. R. C. Bell was 
elected president of the company and Superintendent W. W. Worthing- 
ton of the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville railway, was elected 
secretary and treasurer. The company first bored four wells near 
Montpelier and piped and supplied that town. The success of this under- 
taking straightway attracted attention from Fort Wa}-ne capitalists, and 
the project of piping gas to this city was then given its first serious con- 
sideration. The capital stock of the company was $50,000, and of this 
amount, there was but $10,000 paid ip. It was agreed that if a favor- 
able ordinance could be secured from the common council of Fort Wayne, 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 287 

that more capital could be enlisted and the work could be prosecuted to 
success. 

In the fall of 1888, after long and weighty deliberation and many 
annoying delays, the council passed such an ordinance as warranted the 
great undertaking. The company was at once re-organized and its 
capital stock was increased to $600,000. About $350,000 of this 
amount was subscribed in Fort Wayne, and $250,000 was taken in New 
York city. At an election of officers, Hon. William Fleming was made 
president, and Henry C. Paul, vice president, treasurer and general 
manager. 

Contracts for pipe and pipe laying, aggregating $400,000, were let, 
and within ten days thereafter the pipe was being delivered at Millgrove, 
Blackford county, Fort Wayne and many points along the line of the 
Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville railway. 

The services of Max Hofman, an expert engineer, were secured, and 
an office was opened on Clinton street, in part of the same building long 
occupied by the postoffice. The work was carried to a successful com- 
pletion last fall, and at once prepared Fort Wayne for the greatest stride 
in her history. The company has long leases' on 10,000 acres oi gas- 
bearing land, and with its twenty wells, can furnish forty million cubic 
feet of gas in twenty-four hours, enough to supply many cities of the 
population of Fort Wayne. 

The main pipe enters the city from the south, near the old Wabash 
gravel pit, and the gas is conducted at a high pressure through two prin- 
cipal east and west mains, laid along Creighton avenue and Washington 
street. From these mains it is supplied through specially constructed 
automatic valves to the other mains, the valves admitting only so much 
gas as will give to the consumers the small pressure at which it can be 
used to the most advantage. The entire plant from the wells to and 
through the city represents ninety-eight miles of pipe. The connection 
having been completed there was a display of natural gas at the reduc- 
ing station southwest of the city, witnessed by many people, on the 
evening of September 19, 1889. At that date the company had four- 
teen wells, with a capacity of fifty to sixty million feet per da} r , and 
intended to add sixteen wells during the season. A well known expert 
at that time declared that the Fort Wayne plant is the best in the United 
States. 

The advantages of natural gas are so obvious that they need not 
here be recited. Among the chief points of excellence claimed for it 
over other fuels are cleanliness, no dust, no soiling of furniture, saving 
in the wear and tear of removals, uniform temperature, and freedom of 
the consumer from colds, is noiseless, regular and convenient; there is no 
dusty cellar, no carrying up of wood and coal and down of ashes, no 
search for kindling, no change of price and as to cost, it is at least 
30 per cent, cheaper than any other fuel. It is worthy of note that the 
best stores and private houses in Fort Wayne will be warmed this win- 



288 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ter with natural gas and the fuel used in the increasing number of fac- 
tories comes from the same inexhaustible source. 

Local Transportation. — During the era of stage lines, those convey- 
ances were numerous, for the city was the center of a large system of 
diverging routes, for the transportation of mail and passengers to all 
parts of northeastern Indiana. Many of these ran daily, and at the 
smaller towns they visited, at least, were the objects of much interest. 
The first omnibus line in Fort Wayne, was established by James Walker in 
February, 1857, and for a considerable period the local passenger traffic 
was performed by the omnibus and hack lines exclusively. Finally in 
1871, the desire for a cheaper and more convenient mode of transporta- 
tion was so strongly felt that an association was formed, which filed its 
articles September 8, 1871, under the style of the Citizens' street rail- 
way company. Of this corporation John H. Bass was made president, 
Gilbert E. Bursley, secretary, and H. M. Williams, treasurer; directors, 
S. B. Bond, Samuel T. Hanna, John H. Bass, R. S. Taylor and H. M. 
Williams. On October 10, 1871, the city council passed an ordinance 
authorizing the company to lay lines of railway on Calhoun, Creighton, 
Wallace and Lafayette streets. The first superintendent of the system 
was Gilbert E. Bursley. This older corporation was succeeded in 1887, 
by the Fort Wayne street railroad company, of which John H. Bass is 
president; S. B. Bond, vice president; James M. Barrett, secretary; A. S. 
Bond, treasurer, and L. B. McNutt, superintendent. Another street car 
line, running from the intersection of Calhoun and Superior streets, 
along Spy Run to the French brewery, was built by C. L. Centlivre, and 
was completed in 1888. 

Lorenzo D. McNutt, superintendent of the Fort Wayne street rail- 
road, has devoted his life to the thorough study of the methods of suc- 
cessful and proper management of city transit facilities, and his efficiency 
in his present position is evidence that his career has been and will be 
one valuable to the public. He was born in Sandusky county, Ohio, 
June 30, 1849. His father, Calvin P. McNutt, was born in New York 
in 1805, was a farmer by occupation, and married Jane Slults, who was 
born in New Jersey in 1S06. Both died in Lucas county, Ohio, he in 
1870, and she in 1880. They had eleven children, eight now living, of 
whom Lorenzo D. was the youngest. He was raised on the farm, 
receiving a common school education, and remained there until 1872, 
when he removed to Toledo, and entered the employment of the street 
railroad company. He remained with that company until 1878, making 
such rapid advancement that at the end of that time he was given the 
foremanship of the fVlinneapolis street railway company. He was after- 
ward for several years engaged in laying street railway track in various 
cities. In the spring of 18S7 he went to Cleveland, and entered the 
employment of F. D. H. Robinson, as assistant superintendent of Supe- 
rior street railway, and in the fall of that year came to Fort Wayne and 
accepted the superintendency above mentioned. Mr. McNutt was mar- 
ried in 1 368 to Emeline M. Barnes, who was born in Illinois in 1849, and 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 289 

they have four children: Willard C, Elizabeth J., Henry T. and 
Norian V. He is in politics a republican, and he is a member of the 
Masonic order. 

Charles F. Myers, a worthy pioneer citizen of Fort Wayne, was born 
at Vintheim, Prussia, May 14, 1828. His parents, Frederick and Mary 
(Hansarms) Myers, coining to America in 1836, he was early introduced 
to the new world. Their voyage occupied nine weeks, and tending at 
New York, they came directhy to Fort Wayne, arriving here Novem- 
ber 11. Two or three years later the family settled on land in Preble 
township, Adams county, Ind., where the father was occupied at agri- 
culture until his death in i860, his wife surviving him until October, 1865. 
Charles shared their pioneer toil until he was fifteen years old, when he 
started out for himself, and first found employment for three years at 
Fort Wayne, as chore boy at the home of Hon. F. P. Randall. Then 
he was engaged for a year on a farm near town. After that he was for 
six years chiefly employed driving team for William Ewing and Hugh 
McCulloch. Saving his earnings he bought a team, and about this time, 
November 21, 185 1, was married to Sophia Caroline Hitzemann, who 
was born at Hobbenzen, Germany, September 28, 1831. She came to 
this country with her mother at the age of thirteen, her father, Christian 
Hitzemann, having emigrated six years previously. During 1853, Mr. 
Myers engaged in canal boating, and in 1854 he removed to Adams 
county, where he farmed until 1862, when he made his home perma- 
nently at Fort Wayne. In 1863 he became engaged in the business of 
street sprinkling, and for several years he, or the firm of which he was 
a member, did the entire sprinkling for the city, and during the twenty- 
six years he has been so engaged, he has done an extensive business. 
Much of his attention since 1862 has also been given to the purchase 
and sale of horses, and for several years he has conducted a livery stable 
at Nos. 112 and 114 Webster street. His long residence here has made 
him a host of friends, and his acquaintance is very extensive. By all he 
is highly esteemed. He has six children : Mary Sophia Susanna, Sophia 
Christina Mary, William Christian, Henry Frederick William, Carl 
Henry Ferdinand and William Frederick, of whom the second and third 
are dead. William Frederick is a veterinary surgeon and a graduate of 
the Chicao veterinary college. The family are members of the Eman- 
uel Lutheran churc^. 

James W. Pearse, formerly superintendent of the Citizens' street 
railroad, has had a varied and successful business career. On first 
leaving his Fairfield county, Ohio, home, he served one year in the 
quartermaster's department during the civil war; then became engaged 
in the dry goods business at Newark, Ohio, where he remained until 
1869. After that date he traveled for the Ohio Valley glass works, of 
Wheeling, W. Va., until 1872, then beginning an engagement of one 
year as traveling salesman for E. R. Taggart & Co., of Philadelphia. 
For five years up to 1878 he engaged in agriculture in Adams town- 
ship, Allen county, removing in February of that year to Lancaster, 

XIX 



29O VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Ohio, where he was proprietor of the Mithoff house, the leading hotel 
of that city, for two years. In 1881, having returned to this city in the 
previous year, he was appointed superintendent of the street railway, 
which responsible position he held for about six years. At the time of 
his resignation, January 1, 1887, to take effect in March, he had already 
engaged in the dairy business, and to this he gave his attention until the 
next fall, when he was for a short time engaged in buying and selling 
horses. In February, 1888, he became the proprietor of a livery barn 
at No. 263 Calhoun street, which he has since conducted. Mr. Pearse 
was born near Lancaster, Ohio, March 24, 1844, son °^ J am es W. and 
Hannah D. (Ward) Pearse, natives respectively of Fairfield county, 
Ohio, and Syracuse, N. Y. He was married February 16, 187 1, to 
Frances M. Bowser, daughter of Jacob C. and Delilah (Click) Bowser, 
both of Fairfield county, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Pearse have had four 
children : Fannie, Charles J., Harry W. and Bessie C, the first two of 
whom are deceased. Mr. Pearse is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias. In politics he is a prominent worker on the side of the repub- 
lican party. During the campaign of 1888 he served as chairman of 
the political committee of the Morton club, doing effective service. He 
is an honorable and upright citizen. 

Emmet W. Powers, a prominent business man of Fort Wayne, was 
born in Wayne township, Allen county, April 7, 1848, the son of John 
A. and Margaret (Parrent) Powers, the former of whom, a native of 
New York, became a pioneer of this county. The parents removed to 
this city when Emmet was a small child, and this has ever since been 
his residence. He received his education in the city schools, and in 
1858 became engaged in the manufacture of handles with his father. 
In 1870 he became a partner of C. P. Fletcher, in the baggage and 
transfer business. In 1878 Mr. Fletcher sold his interest to Messrs. 
Angell & Barnett, and the firm was then known as Powers & Barnett 
until October 1, 1879, when Mr. Powers retired and removed to a large 
farm which he had purchased in Huntington county. This property, 
which contained 615 acres of good land, he cultivated until the spring 
of 1 88 1, when he sold it, and in September following, returned to Fort 
Wayne. From the fall of 1880, he was engaged in the purchase and 
sale of horses and cattle until the spring of 1882, when he re-purchased 
an interest in the transfer, and the firm of Powers & Barnett has since 
done an extensive business. They are the proprietors of the immense 
establishment on East Wayne street, and conduct the only exclusive 
baggage and transfer business in the city. Mr. Powers for several 
years past has also given much attention to the breeding and training 
of fast horses, and owns a stock farm four miles south of the city. In 
1887 he became a member of the Fort Wayne importing and breeding 
company, of which he is now a prominent member. Mr. Powers is 
active and successful in businiss life, and in all relations has a high 
standing. He is an Odd Fellow, and a republican. 

Asahel Jackson Read, an old and respected citizen, is one of the 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 



29I 



worthy pioneers. -' He was born in New Hampshire, March 27, 1815, 
the son of Asahel and Esther Read, natives of that state. When he 
was four years old his parents removed to Syracuse, N. Y., where he 
grew to manhood, receiving a common school education. In 1844 he 
accompanied his parents to Allen county, and they settled in Cedar Creek 
township, removing two years later to Wayne township, where Mr. 
Read was engaged at farming until 1852, when he came to the city and 
entered the livery business, in which he has now had thirty-seven years' 1 
experience in this city. In 1868 he built his large barn on West Wayne 
street. He was married in April, 1837, to Fannie Aiken, who died in 
1847, leaving one son, Henry A. In April, 1849, he was married again 
to Maria Patterson, his present wife, by whom he has a son, Charles 
Read, one of the proprietors of the Pixley clothing house, of Fort 
Wayne, and a daughter, Esther, the wife of George Brown, of Lafay- 
ette, Ind. Mr. Read is one of the city's worthiest citizens, and his life 
of industry permits him to spend his declining years in comfortable cir- 
cumstances. Dr. Henry A. Read, eldest son of the above named, was 
born near Salina, Onondaga county, N. Y., December 21, 1838. After 
his father entered the livery business he assisted him until 1855, when 
he was employed as an express deliverer. He determined to devote 
himself to veterinary surgery, and in 1859 entered the school of veter- 
inary surgery and medicine of Boston, where he was graduated in i860. 
He has ever since practiced his profession in this city, with the exception 
of a period in 1865-6 spent as agent for the Merchants' union express 
company. From that time up to 1870 he also was engaged in the livery 
with his father in addition to his practice. During a subsequent period, 
1879 to I ^^5, he again resumed that business. He has attained a high 
rank in his profession, and is highly esteemed by the communitv. In 
his practice he has made a specialty of the application to the treatment 
of animals of the principles of neurotomy, and his success in this 
specialty has made him a reputation throughout the United States. Dr. 
Read was elected to the city council in 18S5, from the third ward, and 
re-elected in 1886 and 1888. He was married February 25, 1863, to 
Mary E., daughter of Owen Owens, formerly of Marion township. 

The popular livery establishment of Ligget Brothers, was founded 
in 1873, the partnership then being formed between Robert A. and 
James Ligget. Their parents were John and Nancy (Young) Ligget, 
the father a native of Maryland, the mother of Jefferson county, Ohio. 
About a decade subsequent to their birth in 1852, the parents removed 
this county and settled in Lafayette township, where the youth of the 
brothers was spent on a farm. Robert A. Ligget, the elder, was born 
in Jefferson county, Ohio, May 10, 1842. At nineteen years of age he 
began to learn the trade of plow-maker, and spent an apprenticeship of 
three years in the works of A. D. Reid, of Fort Wayne. He then en- 
listed in Company A, Twelfth regiment Indiana infantry, November 17, 
1864; was with Sherman from Savannah to Washington, and partici- 
pated in Bentonville, and several skirmishes. He was honorablv dis- 



292 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

charged at Louisville, July 17, 1865, and then resumed work at his 
trade here, Ft. Wayne. In 1867, he and Charles Messing bought the 
factory in which he worked, but sold it at the end of a year and a half. 
He continued to work at his trade until 1873, the last two years of that 
period being occupied at Rock Island, 111. He was married September 
9, 1879, to Mrs. Rebecca Sorg, and they have one child: Roy, born 
May 9, 1881. Mr. Ligget is a Mason, and in politics a republican. 
James Ligget was born in Carroll county, Ohio, August 26, 1843. He 
first worked at a trade as carriage maker at Zanesville, Ind., but this was 
interrupted by his enlistment August 8, 1862, in Company H, Seventy- 
fifth Indiana volunteers. He served until the close of the war, partici- 
pating in the battles of Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, the battles between 
Chattanooga and Atlanta, and the capture of that city, and the march to 
the sea. Upon his muster out, June 6, 1865, at Washington, he came to 
Fort Wayne, and for about seven years was engaged at his trade, leav- 
ing that in 1872, to embark in the livery business. Mr. Ligget was 
married June 18, 1873, to Fannie E., daughter of Amos and Eliza Davis. 
She is a native of Sulphur Springs, Ohio. They have six children, 
each alternate one being a son: Phraortes C, Grace B., James A., 
Blanche, John W., and Nellie. Mr. Ligget is a member of the G. A. R., 
and past grand of Harmon)- lodge, No. 19, 1. O. O. F., and a member of 
the encampment. 

Among the leading liverymen of the city is Josiah F. Fletcher, who 
was born in Nashua, Hillsboro county, N. H., September 27, 1833, the 
son of Loami and Mary Ann (Boutelle) Fletcher. His father is a na- 
tive of Massachusetts. Mr. Fletcher was reared in his native town, and 
was chiefly employed in a cotton mill in his youth, though he also learned 
the carpenter's trade and the making of whips. At about eighteen 
years of age he went to Boston, Mass., and worked at the whip trade 
three or four years. He then made his way to Chicago, and for several 
years engaged there in the manufacture of coffee and spices. Mr. 
Fletcher came to Fort Wayne in 1861, and has since lived here. For 
two years he conducted a hotel, and then turned his attention to the liv- 
ery business, at which he has since been successfully occupied. He was 
married April 19, 1862, to Margaret Fay, who was born in January, 
1834. Mr. Fletcher's present place of business is at No. 32 Barr street. 

In 1867, for the purpose of giving his children superior educational 
advantages, George W. Ames, who had since 1S38 been engaged in 
•agriculture in Adams county, removed to Fort Wayne, where he still 
resides. During fifteen years of his residence he was proprietor of a 
truck line, and prospered in business. He is now retired* esteemed as 
an honorable and upright man and worthy citizen. Mr. Ames was born 
in Bradford county, Penn., December 12, 1822, the son of Rufus and 
Amy (Head) Ames, natives respectively of Massachusetts and New 
York. When he was three years old the family removed to Tioga 
county, Penn., and nine years later to Delaware county, Ohio, leaving 
there in 1838, to settle in Adams county, Ind., where the father passed 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 



293 



the remainder of liis life, nearly thirty years. Mr. Ames was married 
in Adams county, September 6, 1843, to Mary A., daughter of Ezekiel 
and Cornelia (Swazey) Hooper, who was born in Fairchild county, 
Ohio, April 13, 1824. They have had nine children: Ezekiel H., Ru- 
fus, Aaron S., Francis M., Samuel B., Benson C, George F., Ida H. 
and Lemuel M., of whom Aaron, Francis and Lemuel are deceased. 
The two eldest sons served in the war of the rebellion. Mr. and Mrs". 
Ames are members of the Methodist Episcopal church; in politics he 
is a republican. 

Dr. George P. Barnum, the well known veterinary surgeon and 
liveryman, was born in Keeseville, N. Y., July 18, 1831, the son of 
Piatt and Hannah (Hull) Barnum, both natives of Vermont. When he 
was but six months old, his parents removed to West Chateaugay, Frank- 
lin county, N. Y., where his boyhood was spent on a farm. At the 
early age of thirteen he started out for himself and made his way to 
Burlington, Vt. where he secured a position in the veterinary hospital of 
William I. Richardson, a prominent surgeon of that vicinity, and a gradu- 
ate of a college in London. He remained there until he was nearly 
twenty-one years of age, having had full charge of the establishment 
after he reached the age of sixteen. He removed to Milwaukee, Wis., 
arriving there November 1, 1852, and soon afterward to Madison, where 
he was for one year employed -Ity the month in his profession." Going 
to St. Paul, he practiced his profession one year, and then moving to 
Grant county, Wis., farmed and practiced until 1861. In April of 
that year, he engaged in the livery business at Marion, Iowa, and 
remained there until October, 1865. He continued to practice his pro- 
fession, and in 1S6S, went to Omaha, Neb., and conducted a stable and 
practiced until April, 1870, when he came to Fort Wayne. Until 1871 
he gave his time here to the profession, but in that year began the man- 
agement of a large livery barn, to which he has given much attention 
in connection with the breeding and training and campaigning of fast 
horses. Mr. Barnum was married March 15, 1852, to Eliza Curtis, of 
Burlington, Vt. ; she died in October, 1856, and March 1, 1857, he mar- 
ried Mary White, of Jones county, Iowa. She died in October, 1866, 
and on Christmas eve, 1871, he was married to his present wife, Sahna 
Mercer, of Owasso, Mich. He had one child by his first wife and two 
by his second, but all are dead. He has adopted three children, since 
deceased. He is in politics a republican. While in Wisconsin he served 
five years as deputy sheriff. Mr. Barnum is a second cousin of the 
veteran showman, P. T. Barnum. 

At the early age of twelve years, James O. Jenson, now a prosperous 
citizen of this city, started from his native town of Lockport, N. Y., and 
turned westward to seek his fortune. He found a position at Nashville, 
Barry county, Mich., where he spent his youth clerking in a general 
store, being ten years in the employment of William A. Aylesworth. 
Removing to Big Rapids, Mich., he spent three years in lumbering, and 
prospered, but at the end of the period named his large saw, planing, 



294 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



shingle and lath mill was destroyed by fire, at a loss of $26,000. Since 
then Mr. Jenson has devoted his attention to horses, dealing in them 
extensively. In the fall of 1885 he came to Fort Wayne, and in Decem- 
ber, 1888, became a partner in a livery barn, which he aids in manag- 
ing in connection with his business. He is prospering, has accumulated 
considerable property, and the energy which inspired him to start out in 
life single handed in a strange land, has enabled him to overcome the 
effects of his severe losses. Mr. Jenson is a member of the Odd Fel- 
lows, and is in politics a democrat. He was born May 22, 1859, the son 
of John and Abbv Jane (Dunning) Jenson, who were natives of New 
York. 

Ashley C. Perrin, prominent among those engaged in the livery bus- 
iness in Fort Wayne, traces his ancestry to John Perryn, who was born 
in England in 1614, and sailed to America in the ship "Safety," land- 
ing at Braintree, Mass., in 16^5. He died September 13, 1674. ^ s 
son John had a son John, born October 12, 1668, who also had a son 
John, born March 8, 1692, and the latter a son, Jesse, born January 24, 
1726. Jesse married Rachel Ide, and their son Asa was born July 18, 
1775. The latter married Rebecca Thatcher, and their son Austin, 
born July 18, 1801, and his wife ]yfary, daughter of Nathan Johnson, 
were the parents of Ashley C. Perrin. He was born in New York, 
March "21, 1828, in the eighth generation of the Perrin family in this 
country. In 1829 his parents became pioneers in Wayne county, Mich., 
where he grew to manhood. In 1S52 he started for California, 
and en route was shipwrecked and delayed on the southern coast of 
Mexico about two months. In California he mined one year, and was 
then engaged seven years in transporting freight. Soon after his return 
home he engaged in hotel-keeping at Plymouth, Mich. In 1864 he was 
for a year and a half occupied in the livery business at Ypsilanti, and 
then conducted a furniture store at Plymouth, finally returning to the 
livery business. In May, 1873, he came to Fort Wayne, and has ever 
since conducted a large livery barn at No. 62 East Wayne street. Mr. 
Perrin was married January 1, 1861, to Mary Ann Dodge, who died in 
January, 1865, leaving two children, May and Eloise. February 27, 1S67, 
he married Ellen Dodge, sister of his first wife, and they have one son, 
Robert Ashley, born December 3, 1881. Mr. Perrin is a Royal Arch 
Mason, and a member of the council in that order. In politics he is a 
democrat. 

Among the prosperous liverymen of Fort Wayne should be named 
Charles W. Fulton, who embarked in his business at Burgettstown, 
Penn., September 12, 1877. He came to Fort Wayne in the fall of 1888, 
and is now the proprietor of a barn at No. 13 Pearl street. Mr. Fulton 
was born in Washington county, Penn., September 20, 1852, son of 
John J. and Margaret (Canon) Fulton, both natives of that county. He 
spent his boyhood on a farm, and then learned telegraphy, and for about 
one year had charge of an office at Oakdale, Penn., on the Pan Handle 
railroad. Then for three years he was engaged in hotel keeping at 



PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 295 

Burgettstown. Mr. Fulton was married March 28, 1878, to Laura Bell 
McFarland, a native of his home county. She was born March 2, 1856, 
the daughter of Andrew McFarland. In politics, Mr. Fulton is a dem- 
ocrat. 

John C. Brinsley was born at Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, Eng- 
land, October 7, 1828. He is the son of Charles and Mary Jackson 
Brinsley, the latter being the sister of the Rev. Thomas Jackson. She 
died when her son was but four years old. In his early youth he 
served an apprenticeship of three years at the moulder's trade, and at 
' sixteen was employed in a pottery, where he worked about four years. 
In 1849, tne ^ther, son and one sister, immigrated and settled at Wash- 
ington, Middlesex county, N. Y. Subsequently, John C. was employed 
at boating between New Brunswick, N. J., and New York city, and 
afterward found employment as a potter, at South Amboy, N. J., one 
year; at Pottsville, Penn., nearly two years; at Patterson, Penn., 1852 
to 1854; at Covington, u Ky., until the fall of 1855. He then removed 
to Crestline, Ohio, where he was engaged first as a clerk in the office 
of the Adams express company. In 1856 he entered the employment 
of the Ohio & Indiana railroad company, as brakesman, and at the end 
of one year he was promoted conductor, which position he held seven 
years, five of which he was conductor of passenger trains, his run ex- 
tending from Kent, Ohio, to Dayton, Ohio. For seven months he 
served as passenger conductor on the Indianapolis Junction railroad, 
from Hamilton to Indianapolis, and then accepted the same position on 
the Fort Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati, and in two months was promoted 
master of transportation, which important position he held for eight 
years. Meanwhile, in 1871, he had removed his family to Fort Wayne, 
and this city has since been his home. Since 1881 he has conducted a 
feed and sale stable, having an extensive and lucrative custom. He 
erected his large building on Pearl street, known as the Red Lion 
stable, in 1887. He is prominent as a citizen, in Masonry has attained 
the degree of Knight Templar, and membership in the lodge of Per- 
fection, is a past president of the St. George society, and in politics is 
a republican. He was married at Middleport, Penn., October 27, 1852, 
to Harriet Gibson, who was born at Old Mines, near Wilkesbarre, Penn., 
March 11, 1831, daughter of Thomas and Maria Gibson. They have 
had five children: Alfred (deceased), Alvina L., Charles M., John C, 
and Herbert. Mr. and Mrs. Brinsley are members of the Episcopal 
church. 



296 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 

Beginning with the earliest settlement, as will be seen in the suc- 
ceeding pages, and elsewhere in this work, where the Catholic and 
Evangelical Lutheran churches are treated of, missionary labor and the 
preaching of the gospel had their inception at Fort Wayne. These early 
labors in the cause of religion bore good fruit, and to-day the vigorous 
and earnest church organizations, and the stately temples and educa- 
tional institutions they have built up, form no small part of those evi- 
dences of intelligence and progress which the citizen of Fort Wayne is 
disposed, with just pride, to present to the world. As has been inti- 
mated the history of two powerful denominations are elsewhere pre- 
sented, and the following pages will be devoted to an account of other 
organizations of importance. 

First Presbyterian Church* — The history of the First Presbyterian 
church of Fort Wayne embraces the whole period of the growth of the 
city from a small collection of frontier settlers to the present time. 
The roots of the church are intertwined with those of the city, and many 
leading citizens have been embraced in its communion. This brief 
sketch is chiefly compiled from a history of the church up to October, 
1882, prepared the late Jesse L. Williams, who was one of its ruling 
elders from January, 1834, untu his death, October, 1886. The first 
Protestant minister known to have visited Fort Wayne was the Rev. 
Matthew G. Wallace, a Presbyterian, who accompanied the army as 
chaplain when Gen. Harrison marched to the relief of the garrison in 
181 2. But the first Presbyterian minister to preach to the settlers by 
ecclesiastical appointment was the Rev. John Ross, one of the heroic 
pioneer missionaries of Indiana, familiarly known as "Father Ross," 
who had been appointed by the Presbyterian general assembly mission- 
ary for this frontier region. His earliest visit was made in December, 
1822. Coming with a companion from Warren county, Ohio, through 
the wilderness, the wolves howled around their camp at night, and meet- 
ing a snow storm and intense cold they were obliged to leave their con- 
veyance frozen fast in the mud, and leading their horses, it being too 
cold to ride, walked the last part of the way to Fort Wayne, where arriv- 
ing late at night the missionary found a warm and hospitable welcome 
from Samuel Hanna, who afterward became a ruling elder in the church. 
The settlement then comprised about 150 souls, including French and 
half-breed families, mainly engaged in the Indian trade. The field of 
"Father Ross's " missionary labors was too widely extended for him to 
remain long at one place, but he visited the settlement here five times 
from 1822 till 1826. 

In 1829 the Home missionary society, in response to an appeal made 
by Allen Hamilton the previous year, appointed the Rev. Charles E. 

* By Rev. David W. Moffat. 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 297 

Furman as missionary to Fort Wayne. Mr. Furman arrived November 
13, and remained till the following summer. Writing to the mission 
rooms in New York, February 20, 1830, he said: " From this place, 
one hundred miles in every direction, it is a wilderness. * * This 
county contains only seven or eight hundred inhabitants." Of Fort 
Wayne, he said : " The people are hospitable and have more intelli- 
gence and liberality of feeling than any similar town I have found in the 
country." He also suggested the organization of a Presbyterian church. 
In June, 1831, the Rev. James Chute visited Fort Wayne, and at the 
request of the Presbyterians residing here, on July 1, 1831, organized 
the First Presbyterian church with eleven members, and continued min- 
istering to the young church till his death, December 28, 1835. There 
was no house of worship. The services connected with the organiza- 
tion of the church were held in the open air under a rude shelter of 
boards near what is now the junction of Columbia with Harrison streets; 
and for six years following, the congregation met for public worship 
wherever it could find a place, successively occupying a carpenter shop, 
a school-house, the Masonic hall and the court-house, till in 1837 they 
found rest in a frame church forty feet square which they erected on 
the south side of Berry street, between Barr and Lafayette streets. 
After the death of Mr. Chute, the Rev. Daniel Jones, and following 
him for a few months in 1837 the Rev. Jesse Hoover, a Lutheran, min- 
istered to the congregation. 

In October, 1837, the congregation having occupied their church 
building, the Rev. Alexander T. Rankin began his ministry which con- 
tinued till September, 1843. All these ministers, already mentioned, 
had been either missionaries or stated supplies, but now, well estab- 
lished, vigorous and growing, the church desired to have a pastor, and 
in May, 1844, called the Rev. W. C. Anderson, D. D., to that office. 
The same month six members were dismissed, who, with others, were 
organized into the Second Presbyterian church of Fort Wayne. Dr. 
Anderson declined the call tendered him, but occupied the pulpit for six 
months, when by reason of failing health, he was obliged to retire. By 
his advice a call was extended to the Rev. H. S. Dixon, who accepted, 
and in September entered upon his work as the first pastor of the 
church. The building erected in 1837 was becoming too small to accom- 
modate the increasing congregation, and in 1845 a larger edifice of brick 
was begun, the site being at the southeast corner of Clinton and Berry 
streets. The basement was occupied for public worship in 1847. In 
the fall of that year, Mr. Dixon resigning, the pulpit was supplied for 
six months by the Rev. Hawes, and in August, 1848, the Rev. J. G. 
Riheldaffer accepted a call to the pastorate, in which he continued till 
185 1, when he resigned. 

In November, 185 1, the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D. D., having been 
called, became pastor, and in the next November the church at the cor- 
ner of Clinton and Berry streets was completed, dedicated and wholly 
occupied for worship. The pastorate of Dr. Edwards continued till 



298 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

July, 1855, when he resigned to accept the presidency of Hanover col- 
lege. He was succeeded by the Rev. John M. Lowrie, D. D., who was 
installed in November, 1855, and remained pastor of the church till his 
death, September 26, 1867. During Dr. Lowrie's pastorate, the church 
edifice was enlarged, a mission in the south part of the city was estab- 
lished, and all the arrangements were made in pursuance of which, 
December 2, 1867, thirty-four members were dismissed to be organized 
into the Third Presbyterian church of Fort Wayne. The site chosen 
was at the northeast corner of Calhoun and Holman streets. It was 
contributed by a lady of the church, and upon it, the members of the 
congregation placed a commodious brick church, fully equipped at a cost 
of $15,000. Dr. Lowrie was succeeded in the pastorate March, 1868, 
by the Rev. Thomas H. Skinner, D. D., who resigned September' 18, 
1871, to accept a call from the Second Presbyterian church of Cincin- 
nati. February 5, 1872, a call was given to the Rev. David W. Moffat, 
D. D., then pastor of the Georgetown Presbyterian church-, Washington, 
D. C, and, having accepted it, May 1, he entered upon his pastorate 
which still continues. 

Saturday evening, December 16, 1882, the church edifice was des- 
troyed by fire. One year's delay in rebuilding was occasioned by the 
determination of the congregation to select another location. During 
the next summer the old site was sold to the United States government, 
and is now occupied by the postoflice building. A new site was pur- 
chased two squares south, at the northeast corner of Clinton and Wash- 
ington streets, and in the spring of 1884, the new edifice was begun. 
The congregation continued to meet for Sabbath worship, in the circuit 
court-room until May 1, 1883, and after that in the Jewish synagogue 
for two years and five months. The first Sabbath of October, 1885, 
they began to meet in the lecture room of the new church, and May 1, 
1886, the auditorium was open for public worship. The church is a 
majestic and beautiful stone structure, the style of architecture being a 
modification of the gothic, and the total width east and west 100 feet; 
and the total length north and south 134 feet. The interior, which is 
complete in all its appointments, is handsomely finished in California red- 
wood. The pews, pulpit, pulpit furniture and wood-work of the organ 
are of cherry. The north end, divided from the auditorium by a parti- 
tion, has two floors. On a level with the auditorium are the lecture 
room and Sabbath school rooms, and on the floor above are the church 
parlors. The cost of the site was $12,000, and of the building proper, 
with the spire yet unfinished $65,879. The total cost of the building 
including organ, pews, furniture, etc., and excluding the site has been 
$81,855. The number of members in the full communion of the church 
is 450, the congregation aggregating about double that number. 

The Rev. David W. Moffat, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian 
church, Fort Wayne, was born of Scottish parents, January 9, 1835, in 
Morris county, N. J. His father, David Douglas Moffat, was a farmer. 
The next year the family emigrated to Madison, Ind., and, on a farm on 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 299 

one of those beautiful hills which overlook the city and the Ohio river, 
the boyhood of David was spent. He attended school in Madison, and 
afterward entered Hanover college, six miles distant, from which he was 
graduated in 1858, his parents meanwhile having removed to the vicin- 
ity of Vernon. With a little aid from his father he paid his own way 
at college, earning the money principally by teaching part of each year. 
It was a time of intense political agitation and he took a deep interest 
and active part in the great anti-slavery debate and movement to pre- 
vent the extension of slavery into the new territories. Having chosen 
the profession of law while in college, he began, after his graduation, to 
prepare himself by private study at Vernon, for entering a law school, 
and it was while thus engaged that the course of his life was changed. 
Though religiously trained by Christian parents, he had become indif- 
ferent to the personal claims of religion upon him, and in his opinions 
vibrated between extreme liberal views of Christianity and skepticism. 
Judging that every professional man ought to have a settled and intel- 
ligent knowledge of the teachings of the Bible, he entered upon a sys- 
tematic study of it. Becoming, as he progressed, more and more 
interested in his biblical studies, they encroached on, and at length 
wholly absorbed the time he had allotted to Blackstone and Kent. He 
reviewed the Christian Evidences, and though they seemed satisfactory, 
he found the most powerfut evidence of Christianity to be Christianity 
itself as unfolded in the biblical revelation. The result was a 
firm persuasion of the divine origin of that revelation, faith in 
Jesus Christ as the Son of God and Saviour of men, and a decision to 
live a Christian life. He united with the Presbyterian church in July, 
1859, hi s own convictions of the teachings of the Bible leading him into 
the church of his fathers. The desire to preach sprang up at once 
and soon overcame his love for law and for political life. In January, 
i860, he entered the theological seminary at Princeton, N. J., in which 
the Rev. James C. Moffat, D. D., his oldest and only living brother, 
has been professor of church history since 1861. He graduated from 
the seminary in -May, 1862, was licensed to preach in June of that year 
by the Presbytery of Madsion, in session at Hanover, and in April, 1863, 
was ordained to the ministry. After preaching a year in Clinton county, 
and two years at Vernon, in Jennings county, in 1866, he accepted a call 
to the First Presbyterian church of Madison. In 1870 he was unex- 
pectedly called to the Presbyterian church in Georgetown, D. C, and 
although bound to Madison by the strongest ties he decided it was his 
duty to go. He began his work at Georgetown in February, and two 
years afterward returned to Indiana in response to a call from the First 
Presbyterian church of Fort Wayne. May 1, 1872, he entered upon 
this pastorate in which he has remained until the present time. January 
20, 1870, he was married to May J., eldest daughter of Samuel Coch- 
ran, of Madison. She died at Fort Wayne, October 29, 1882, leaving 
one son and two daughters, since which he has remained a widower. 



300 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

Second Presbyterian Church. — This, one of the strong and flourish- 
ing religious organizations of the- city, was organized May 5, 1844, with 
twelve members. Henry Ward Beecher, then a young preacher of the 
new school faith at Indianapolis, was called here by those who inclined 
to that doctrine, and he made the trip to Fort Wayne, arriving here on 
horse-back for the purpose, as he jocularly remarked to Mrs. J. L. 
Williams upon his arrival, of " splitting the church." The new church 
was founded successfully but now is at one with the older organization, 
and under the same general church government. On June 4, 1S44, 
Rev. Charles Beecher was invited to become the stated supply for one 
year, and he remained in that capacity until April 28, 1850, when he 
was installed as pastor. In the same summer he removed to the east, 
and while there resigned his charge. This first pastor was a zealous 
worker and thorough student, and preached with such effect that his 
congregation was increased to over 100. By his exertions was erected 
during the early years of his ministry the church building which was in 
use for many years. After Mr. Beecher's resignation, the church did 
not remarkably flourish for some time, and during this period the sup- 
plies were Revs. Isaac W. Taylor, David C. Bloose, Mr. Ray, and Amzi 
W. Freeman. In November, 1854, R- ev - E. Curtis was called by the 
church, and the membership was considerably increased during his pas- 
torate. He was succeeded by W. R. Palmer in 1861, and Rev. George 
O. Little in May, 1866. The latter served until August 18, ^1870. 
W. J. Erdman, who did important and valuable work for the church, 
was stated supply until June, 1874, an< ^ during his service Glenwood 
chapel was erected and dedicated for use as a Sunday-school mission. 
Rev. Joseph Hughes succeeded in July, 1874, and was followed by 
Rev. W. H. McFarland, who served from June, 1876, to June, 1886, 
when he resigned and went abroad for his health. From April, 1887, 
to October, 1888, Rev. J. M. Fulton acted as pastor, but ill health com- 
pelled him to resign. During his service, the movement was inaugu- 
rated for the abandonment of the venerable temple and the erection of 
a new one on the same site. This edifice .was soon begun, and has pro- 
gressed rapidly, through the great energy of those in charge, systematic 
organization, and the liberal contributions of the congregation and many 
friends throughout the city. This new building, one of the finest in the 
state, it is expected will be occupied by the close of 1889. It has a 
beautiful stone front, the side and rear walls being of brick with stone 
finish. The spacious plans afford an auditorium capable of seating 600 
persons, ample Sunday-school rooms and social parlors. The ceiling 
and sides of the interior are ornamented with quartered oak and fresco, 
and the seats are of quartered oak antique, and cherry finish. The total 
cost is about $30,000. Memorial windows have been placed in the new 
building as follows: by Hon. Hugh McCulloch, Mrs. Susan McCulloch, 
the heirs of D. S. Beaver, Fred W. Antrup, Col. C. B. Oakley and Mrs. 
O. J. Wilson, the latter two to the memory of Benjamin W. Oakley and 
Harriet Oakley. The church has included in its membership a consid- 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 3OI 

erable number of those prominent in the history of Fort Wayne and 
the country. The only survivor of the first members is Mrs. Susan 
McCulloch, wife of Hon. Hugh McCulloch. Hon. W. H. H. Miller, 
now attorney general of the United States, was a trustee of the church 
in 1869. At present the membership of the church is about 300. The 
pastor is Rev. James L. Leeper, of Reading, Penn., who accepted an 
unanimous call in November, 1888, and has been an* earnest worker for 
the good of the organization and its building enterprise. The trustees 
at the present time are Solomon Bash, F. W. Antrup, Joseph Hughes, 
H. V. Root and C. B. Beaver. 

The Third Presbyterian church, a daughter of the First church, was 
organized as has been mentioned, in 1867, and the church building was 
completed in 1869. This edifice has lately been repaired to a consider- 
able extent and re-frescoed. For a short time after the organization, 
the congregation worshiped in a frame building on Holman street, after- 
ward temporarily occupied by the Episcopal church. The church has 
nourished, is one of the prominent religious" organizations of the city, and 
now has a membership of 250. A Sunday-school is maintained, with 
an average attendance of 220. The first record of official action by the 
organization bears date December 8, 1867. Rev. N. S. Smith, under 
whom the church was organized, was the pastor until the winter of 
1873, after which the office was supplied by Rev. John Woods until the 
spring of 1874. The succeeding pastors have been: Harlan G. Men- 
denhall, installed May 6, 1875; W. B. Minton, installed June 20, 1878; 
J. Vance Stockton, installed June 4, 1880; S. Ferre Marks, installed May 
29, 1882; David Scott Kennedy, installed May 3, 1886; J. M. Boggs, 
installed January 6, 1889. The first elders were: W. N. Andrews, 
J. B. McDonald and Andrew Wallace, and since then have served M. P. 
Longacre, John M. Wilt, N. D. Lindley, B. M. Herr, and the present 
elders, C. E. Shultze, who was installed May 5, 1872, O. B. Fitch, A. E. 
Van Buskirk, J. D. Chambers, J. C. Mudge, W. D. Page, W. Meyers. 
The deacons in service are : Thomas Sinclair and J. W. Donavin ; trustees, 
G. W. Morgan,- W. Diffenberger, A. M. Tower, W. Harrison, F. M. 
Wilt, and the congregational officers are William Creighton, president, 
E. G. Schulze, secretary. 

The First Baptist Church. — The history of the Baptists of Fort 
Wayne, writes E. G. Anderson, esq., dates back to the year 1820, when 
Rev. Isaac McCoy, under the appointment of the Baptist Triennial 
convention, came as missionary to the Miamis and Pottaw r attomies, tribes 
of Indians whose reservations were located in this vicinity. Elder Mc- 
Coy found it a difficult task to reach a people who were very suspicious of 
any advance of the white man, and it was a long time before he could 
gain their confidence and tell them of a Saviour's love. He succeeded, 
however, in gathering some fifty children together and instructing them 
in the truths of the gospel. But few white people had ventured into 
this country at that time, partly on account of the terrible malaria that 
was then so prevalent. But the success that attended Elder McCoy's 



302 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

work induced the society to still further occupy this important field. In 
182 1 Rev. John Sears received the appointment as missionary among 
the Ottavvas, and arrived at Fort Wayne August 1, 1822. He was ac- 
companied by his wife and brothers. Reinforced by these new recruits 
Elder McCoy organized a church and adopted articles of faith. The 
names of eight whites, two Indian women and one black man appear on 
the roll. 

This church was short-lived, Elder McCoy going west with the 
Miamis, and Elder Sears and his wife prostrated with malarial fevers, 
were compelled to return to New York, leaving his brother alone in the 
field, but after twenty-three days of labor he also succumbed, dying with 
typhus fever, November 3. Thus the little church became extinct. 

For the next fifteen years we hear no more of the Baptists in this 
locality. In 1835-6 we learn that Revs. Tisdale, French and Moore 
preached here occasionally to the Baptists, who had moved to the village 
and vicinity, and in January, 1837, the brethren who had been worship- 
ing with other denominations began the organization of a church of 
their own faith, and after the earnest efforts of Rev. Robert Tisdale it 
was consummated. On Saturday, April 15th, 1837, by previous invi- 
tation, Revs. Tisdale, Moore and Fry, met with the church to complete 
its organization. The Presbyterian congregation kindly gave them the 
use of their church for the occasion. After appropriate exercises the 
following persons appeared and signed the roll of membership: Richard 
Worth, Elizabeth Worth, John Fairfield, William Worth, Sarah Swop, 
Hannah Worth, Meriam Sawtelle, Ann Archer and Elizabeth Morgan. 
It was a joyous yet solemn beginning, ten souls agreeing in solemn 
covenant to maintain the faith once delivered to the saints in all its 
purity and simplicity. On the following Sabbath the First Baptist 
church of Fort Wayne was duly re-organized, Elder Moore preaching 
the sermon, Elder Fry extending the right hand of fellowship assisted 
by Elder Tisdale. Services were continued for several days and some 
new converts were baptised, among them Ann Girard, known to the 
older members. 

The progress of the new church was at first very slow. A good 
deal of difficulty was experienced in securing and maintaining a pastor. 
Elder Tisdale remained with the little flock for a few months. He was 
followed by Revs. William Corbin and William Cox, in short pastorates. 
The need of a church building was sadly felt and meetings were" held 
at the homes of the different members, and when the preacher came, 
the little brick school-house was secured. After the resignation of 
Brother Cox, the church was without pastoral care until October, 1841, 
when Rev. William Gildersleeve became the pastor, at a salary of $300 
a year. During his ministry, some progress was made and new hopes 
inspired the membership. Many additions were made to the church, 
among them, Messrs. Lewis Embry and Jeremiah Mason, both of whom 
have gone to their heavenly reward. The Eel River church was organ- 
ized during the pastorate of Mr. Gildersleeve, and the frame church was 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 303 

built on " Clay Hill," on a lot donated by Hon. Samuel Hanna. March 
nth, 1843, Rev. J. H. Dunlap was invited to the pulpit. He remained 
for two years. During this period, severe trials came upon the church 
and serious troubles arose among the membership which were never 
fully healed until death removed all parties concerned. About this time 
Mr. E. M. Ferris and family were admitted by letter. Rev. George 
Sleeper supplied the pulpit for a few months after the resignation of 
Mr. Dunlap, but declined continued service. April 4, 1846, Rev. H. D. 
Mason became pastor. By his earnestness, new life was infused into 
the work of the church and a new inspiration was given all along the line. 
The lot on the corner of Berry and Clinton streets was secured, and in 
the summer of 1848, the frame church was moved upon it. No obstacle 
was allowed to hinder the best interests of the church. 

After two years of faithful service Mr. Mason resigned and for 
nearly two years thereafter the Baptists were without any regular pas- 
tor. Preaching, however, was maintained by the Rev Mr. Searls as a 
supply, until he was stricken down by malaria. Elder D. W. Burrows 
then supplied the pulpit for more than a year. 

In May, 1850, Rev. J. D. Meeson began his pastoral labors. He 
was sustained in part by the Home Missionary society. His ministry was 
one of great power and Zion put on a new life, for God was with her and 
the Spirit seemed to find ready access to many hearts. A revival of 
great power followed, Brother Mason preaching. Among those who 
came into the church were Mrs. R. Cothrell, Emily Philley, Eliza 
Coombs and Charlotte Rupert, N. Sibray and wife and sister, Sarah 
Holmes. All of these are still active members. The retirement of Rev. 
Mr. Mason was a great loss to the church. May 1, 1853, Rev. U. B. 
Miller was called. He was a man of more than ordinary force in the 
pulpit, and was an earnest worker for the Master. For three years the 
church enjoyed his ministry, and the cause of Christ was greatly ad- 
vanced. But the Home Missionarv society declined to extend further 
aid and Pastor Miller resigned for lack of sufficient support. 

Rev. C. W. Rees, a young man who had just graduated from the 
Kalamazoo college, became pastor on September 4, 1856. He was a 
mighty power in God's hands, and in a little over a year sixty were 
added to the church membership, mostly by baptism. Mr. Rees re- 
signed October 31, 1857. He is now pastor of a church at Glensburgh, 
Ore. The next pastor was Rev. Stephen Wilkins. He was a man of 
considerable power in the pulpit and strongly impressed his hearers with 
his quaint way of putting the gospel truths. He served the church for 
two and a half years with great satisfaction. No pastor succeeded him 
for several months and there was only occasional preaching by such sup- 
plies as could be obtained. February 6, 1861, Rev. William Frary ac- 
cepted an invitation to preach. He was invited to resign, and ended 
his connection with the church on June 2, 1861. 

Dr. G. L. Stevens became pastor September 25, 1861. He was a 
valuable servant, an excellent man, and a good preacher. During his 



304 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ministry there was a large increase of membership. At this time the 
necesssity of a new house of worship became very apparent and plans 
for building were set on foot. The pastor, together with Messrs. San- 
ford Lumbard, Isaac Dripps and Thomas Stevens, aided by a self-sac- 
rificing people and sympathizing friends, reared and dedicated to God, 
our present beautiful church home. Dr. Steven's pastorate was contin- 
ued over a period of over seven years. 

March 1, 1869, Rev. J. R. Stone, D. D., was called. This man of 
blessed memory needs no words to speak his praise. He was an exem- 
plary Christian gentleman as well as an ideal pastor. He was an honor 
to his calling. A man of genial though dignified habits, by his life and 
daily walk the Baptist cause received an impetus and recognition never 
before accorded it. After years of faithful service he resigned, to accept a 
call to the church at Lansing, Mich., where after a brief pastorate, he fell 
asleep mourned by all who knew him. Truly blessed is the memory of 
such a man. Many were begotten of the Lord through his labors, and 
were he to 'speak to-day, he would say : Be thou faithful, that yemay also 
enter into the rest prepared for those that love our Lord Jesus Christ. 

After Dr. Stone's resignation, correspondence was immediately 
opened with several clergymen with a view to settlement as to pastor, 
and by special request, Rev. S. A. Northrop met the committee of the 
church as Rome City where it was agreed. that he should preach from 
the vacated pulpit two Sabbaths. He came, we saw, he conquered and 
on September 1st, he entered upon his duties. Of the first four and 
a half years of Dr. Northrop's pastorate it may be said: "O Zion, how 
stately have been thy steppings, how grand thy conquests! The glory 
of the Lord has risen upon thee, and thy power has gone out through 
all the land." 

From 190 the membership has increased to nearly 700. The latent 
power of the church has been brought into action, and to-day the Baptist 
people are a faithful band of earnest workers, fully awake to the neces- 
sity of the hour, and ready for any work in the Master's vineyard. The 
handsome house of worship was this year greatly improved in 
appearance and considerably enlarged by the building of a new front. 
The attendance is generally limited only by the seating capacity of the 
large auditorium. 

Rev. Stephen A, Northrop, the distinguished pastor of the First 
Baptist church of Fort Wayne, was born at Granville, Licking county, 
Ohio, April 7, 1850. His father, William R. Northrop, a native of 
Gallipolis, Ohio, is also a clergyman of the Baptist church, and is at 
present engaged at Monroe, Mich. The son, Stephen, spent the first 
ten years of his life in his native state, and then accompanied his parents 
to Michigan. At twenty years of age he entered Denison university at 
Granville, Ohio, and pursued the classical course three years, then en- 
tering Madison university, Hamilton, N. Y., where he was graduated 
with the degree of A. B., in June, 1876. He stood first in his class in 
Greek literary work and oratory, and was noted as a debater. While 




■r<- .-■■'- ' :s« 




'<~s CY\, Opl^~L &£ 




CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 305 

in college he was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. 
Subsequently his Alma Mater conferred upon him the degree of A. M, 
In the fall of 1876 Mr. Northrop entered upon a course of theological 
study in the Rochester seminary, Rochester, N. Y., a Baptist institu- 
tion, meanwhile filling the pulpit of the First Baptist church at Ashville, 
Chautauqua county, N. Y. On July i, 1877, he received a call from 
the First Baptist church of Fenton, Mich., where is located the Baptist 
ministers' home for the states of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin. Here he remained over five years, during which period 
more than 200 were added to the church. In July, 1882, he 
received the unanimous call of the First Baptist church of Fort Wayne, 
to succeed the late Rev. J. R. Stone, D. D., and this call he accepted 
and assumed the pastorate September 1, 1882. Immediately afterward 
improvements were made in the house of worship to the value of $6,000. 
Rev. Northrop is now serving his eighth year, and during this time be- 
tween 700 and 800 have been added to the church. In 1887 
he was elected president of the board of managers of the Baptist min- 
isters' home, for a term of two years, and he is also one of the trustees 
of the Baptist assembly at Laporte, Ind. In politics Mr. Northrop is a 
republican, and he had the honor of offering prayer at the Wednesday 
session of the national republican convention at Chicago, in June, 1888. 
He was married August 16, 1877, at Hamilton, N. Y., to Leitie A. 
Joslin, who was born at that place September 8, 1856, and is a graduate 
of Hamilton female seminary. Her father, William C. Joslin, a business- 
man of Hamilton, led the choir in the Baptist church there for forty- 
three years. This musical talent is shared by his daughter, a charming 
vocalist, who has filled the position of soprano singer in the choir of her 
husband's church since his residence in Fort Wayne. They have one 
child, Laura May. Pastor Northrop has been able to solve the vexing 
problem, "How to reach the masses." He has succeeded in this respect 
beyond his highest expectation. Throngs of our people have sought the 
door of the Baptist church for years, till the congregation was obliged 
to enlarge their house of worship, at an expense of $8,000, increasing 
the seating capacity to 1,600. The value' of the property is $45,000. 

The only other Baptist church in the county of Allen, that of Eel 
River township, may here be appropriately mentioned. It was organ- 
ized December 21, 1844, mainly through the efforts of Elder Wedge, 
and the first members were John Ross, Appleton Rich, John J. Savage, 
Mary Ross, Sarah Rich, Mary Crow, Mary Savage and Sally Lowen. 
The organization was effected in the log school-house near the present 
site of the church, and that primitive building, 16x24 feet in dimensions, 
was used as a church until a short time after April 15, 1848. At that 
time trustees were elected, and a building committee appointed for a 
new church, which was not, however, completed until the summer of 
1850. This building was 24x30, and cost $250 besides labor. Many 
years later the congregation had outgrown its quarters and a meeting 
was held August 19, 1871, which resolved to build a new church. There 
xx 



306 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

wrs a delay until January, 1877, when Thomas Larimore, William J. 
Mayo and John M. Taylor were appointed a building committee, and 
they prosecuted the work so vigorously that the congregation has wor- 
shiped for several years in a handsome church built of brick, in dimen- 
sions 40x60 feet, with a spire 120 feet high. The first pastor of the 
church was A. S. Bingham, who was chosen in the May following the 
organization. He served, most of the time for thirty years. The first 
deacons were Appleton Rich and John Ross. Elder Bingham was a 
faithful worker, and though the church was not much developed in that 
time in benevolence and Sunday school work, it was nevertheless abreast 
of the church development of that day. Nearly 200 members were 
added during Elder Bingham's pastorate, which ended October 1, 1875. 
During the latter part of this period he was assisted by Elder A. Latham. 
Elder Jones served one year from November, 1878, and was succeeded 
by D. D. Spencer for one year. J. H. Winans served the church two and 
a half years in connection with Churubusco, until January, 1885, and 
left the church prospering. In the following August, B. F. Harman was 
called, who served a short time, after which the church was supplied by 
Rev. C V. Northrop, then a student for the ministry. Rev. W. S. 
Kent, the present pastor, took charge in November, 1886, and has since 
the first year, given the church half of his time, doing valuable service, 
through which there have been thirty-three additions. The church has 
been much adorned and beautified. It is an imposing church building, 
having cost $5,000, and the cemetery adjoining is one of the largest in 
the county. 

Methodist Efiscofal Churches. — In the year 1824, James Holman, 
one of the famous Holman family, of Wayne county, Ind., a local 
preacher of the Methodist church, removed with his family to Fort 
Wayne, then a small village, and purchasing a farm in what is now a part 
of the city north of the St. Mary's river, made his residence in a log 
cabin near where now the New York, Chicago & St. Louis railroad 
crosses the river. True to his vows, Mr. Holman preached the gospel 
to as many as would come to his house to hear him, or would gather 
where he went, throughout the county. These meetings continued until 
in the latter part of 1830. Alexander Wiley, then a presiding elder of 
the Ohio conference, came to Fort Wayne to establish a mission, to be 
embraced in his district. About the same time Nehemiah B. Griffith 
was appointed by the Ohio conference to take charge of this mission. 
He was succeeded by Richard S. Robinson, and the latter by Boyd 
Phelps, under whose ministration it was named Maumee mission. The 
last missionary sent by the Ohio conference was Freeman Farnsworth. 
During this period the meetings of the class were held at various con- 
venient places. In 1832 the class consisted of six members, Judge Robert 
Brackenridge and wife, James Holman, wife and daughter, and Miss 
Alderman, afterward Mrs. Simon Edsall. After Rev. Farnsworth had 
served one year, the conference of Indiana having just been formed, sent 
to this place Rev. James S. Harrison, and Maumee mission became Fort 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 307 

Wayne circuit. During the pastorate of Rey. Harrison, 1835-36, art' 
attempt was made to build a church, and have a regular place of wor- 
ship. A lot on Main street, between Cass and Ewing, was secured, and 
a large frame was erected, with an imposing steeple, gothic windows,, 
etc. But the congregation finding itself unable to complete, abandoned 
the structure and the frame was afterward taken down and the lot re- 
verted to the Ewings. The congregation continued to hold services 
where places cd*uld be found, in the Masonic hall, a two-story brick build- 
ing where Bash's elevator now stands, or in a carpenter shop on the lot 
where Root & Co.'s store now is, and sometimes in the school-house, 
then located on the site of the county prison. 

Fort Wayne circuit was served successively by Revs. Stephen R. 
Ball, James T. Robe and Jacob Colclazer. During the pastorale of the 
latter, Alexander M. Mcjunkin, whose name is worthy of prominence 
in the history of the Maumee valley, generously gave the use of his 
school-house to the Methodists, where they worshiped and held Sunday 
school until the second and this time successful attempt was made to 
build a house of worship. A frame building was erected, finished and 
occupied in 1840, on the corner of Harrison and Berry streets. In this 
year the circuit became Fort Wayne station, to which F. A. Conwell 
was appointed. He was succeeded by George M. Boyd, Hawley B. 
Beers, J. S. Bayless, SamuelBrenton, Amasa Johnson, William Wilson, 
Homer C. Benson and Milton Mahin. In 1849 tne membership was 
217, and at this time, under the eldership of Samuel C. Cooper, William 
Wilson being pastor in charge, the congregation was divided, and the 
withdrawing members founded Wa}me Street church, building a house 
of worship on the. corner of Wayne and Broadway streets. The first 
frame church built on Berry street in 1840 gave way twenty years later 
to the brick edifice, known as the Berry Street church. Since the 
division in 1849, resulting in two Methodist Episcopal churches, three 
additional churches have been founded and buildings erected, Simpson 
church in the south part of the city, Trinity in the north, and St. Paul's 
on the east side. 

Berry Street church has 416 members, and its house of worship is 
valued at $22,000, parsonage $8,000. The present pastor is W. M. 
VanSlyke. At Wayne street there are 478 members; church, $22,000, 
parsonage, $4,000; pastor, R. M. Barnes. Simpson street, G. B. M. 
Rogers, pastor, has sixty-five members and a church valued at $6,000. 
St. Paul church, M. E. Cooper, pastor, has 219 members, and the prop- 
erty is estimated at $4,000. Trinity has a church worth $2,000, and 
123 members under charge of D. M: Shackleford. The total number 
of members of the Methodist Episcopal churches of the city at the 
last report was 1,301. 

Fort Wayne College. — At the third session of the North Indiana 
conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, held at La Porte, Ind., in 
September, 1846, the Fort Wayne female college was organized. The 
first session, which was informal, of the board of trustees was held on 



3<dS valley of the upper maumee. 

the 2Sth of the same month and year, and the board regularly organized 
under a charter, June 19, 1847. The corner-stone of the college build- 
ing was laid on the 24th of June, 1847, Rev. Samuel Brenton delivering 
an address on the occasion. Hon. A. C. Huestis was the first president, 
serving from September 1847, to May, 1848, when he was succeeded 
by G. H. Rounds, who held the position until July 30, 1849. Upon his 
resignation the vacancy -was filled by the appointment of Rev. Cyrus 
Nutt, who served until September 3, 1850, and then resigned. A. C. 
Huestis was acting president until April 19, 1852, when Rev. S. T. Gil- 
lett became president, serving until September 24 of the same year. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Samuel Brenton until August 4, 1855, when 
Rev. Reuben D. Robinson became president, serving until December 
18, 1866. Several changes occurred in the management of the institu- 
tion until March 20, 1872, when Rev. R. D. Robinson again became 
president, serving this time for five years. He was succeeded by Rev. 
W. F. Yocum, who continued in the management of the institution for 
the eleven succeeding years, tendering his resignation as president June 
14, 1SS8. At the same time Rev. H. N. Herrick was elected to the 
presidency and sustains that relation at the present time, September, 1889. 
During these years the progress of the institution was not the most 
satisfactory, and steps were taken, as occasion seemed to demand, to 
remedv existing deficiencies. At a meeting of the trustees, March 1st, 
1*849, tne president laid before them a communication from Rev. 
Samuel Brenton, on the subject of having a male department in connec- 
tion with the college, which was referred to a committee consisting of 
Messrs. Edsall and Williams. At a subsequent meeting of the board, a 
resolution looking to the consummation of this end was laid on the table. 
In March, 1850, the faculty united in a written request to the board ask- 
ing the privilege of admitting male students at the commencement of 
the next term This request was granted, and at a meeting of the board 
on the 17th of August, 1852, it was resolved "that in the opinion of the 
board, it is expedient to establish a college for the education of males at 
this place, to sustain the same relation to the North Indiana conference 
that the Fort Wayne college does, and that we will co-operate with the 
North Indiana conference and the friends of education, in carrying into 
effect such a project." On the 10th of October, 1855, the "Fort Wayne 
female college" and the "Fort Wayne collegiate institute for young 
men " were consolidated into an institution known as the " Fort Wayne 
college." The history of the college has been that of one continuous 
struggle from its beginning. Sometimes the indications seemed favor- 
able for its establishment upon a good financial basift, and yet none of its 
plans have been fully accomplished. Rev. R. D. Robinson, D. D., who 
presided over it for seventeen years, and Rev. W. F. Yocum, D. D., for 
eleven years, deserve great credit for what has already been accom- 
plished, having been ably assisted by such men as William Rockhill, 
Allen Hamilton, Joseph K. Edgerton, John M. Miller, George Brecken- 
ridge and many others. 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 



309 



At a meeting of the National association of local preachers held 
in the college chapel, Fort>Wayne, September nth to 14th, 1886, the 
committee on education recommended: that the efforts of the associa- 
tion shall be confined and directed to only one institution of learning 
at a time, and that such benefactions shall be continued until such insti- 
tution be placed on a firm financial basis, and be thereb}' made perman- 
ently an honor to the association thus fostering it; the committee pro- 
ceeded to state certain favorable facts and concluded: Your committee, 
in view of these facts, also in view of the action your body heretofore 
had, and that said college is the first applicant, therefore, and in consid- 
eration of its central location, its healthy Christian work and influences, 
and the promising field of its operations, we recommend that the Fort 
Wayne college be selected by the association to be the recipient of its 
benefactions, and be declared to be under its patronage. 

There was cited in this report the following communication from the 
trustees, signed by H. C. Hartman, vice president: 

Dear Brethren: — In view of the favorable action taken by your 
association, in behalf of the Fort Wayne college, at its session in 
Brooklyn in 1885, we feel emboldened to present our institution again to 
your consideration. 

We have adopted resolutions providing for special rates and facilities 
for students who are local preachers of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and also for the children of local preachers, and for students who are 
preparing themselves for missionary work. 

We desire }^our endorsement as an association. In the event of your 
aid to the extent of the endowment of a chair in our college, we sug- 
gest that it be named in a manner to become a permanent record of 
your munificence and practical aid to the cause of education. Should 
your association be enabled, in the providence of God, to do more than 
this, we would meet it in a corresponding spirit and give you an equita- 
able representation upon the board of trustees. You would then be 
joint owners with us of our college, for the legal title is the trustees of 
the Fort Wa}me college. 

This association had at each of its annual sessions since the above 
was passed taken favorable action in behalf of the college, and at the 
joint meeting of trustees and visitors held June 20, 1889, Hon. Chauncey 
Shaffer, of New York, in behalf of the friends of Bishop William Tay- 
lor, and Dr. C. B. Stemen and William B. Chadwick, the educational 
committee of the National association of local preachers, made a proposi- 
tion that they would secure for the institution certain liberal financial aid 
on condition that the name of the college be changed to William Taylor 
college, or university, as might be mutually agreed upon. The joint 
board accepted the proposition, appointed the proper committees, and 
at the present time the indications are very encouraging for the change 
in name as soon as it can be legally accomplished and for the institution's 
beginning an era of real satisfactory prosperity. 



310 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

The Protestant Efiscofal Church at Fort Wayne. ■ — Over half a 
century ago, in the spring of 1839, Rev. Benjamin Hutchins, a mission- 
ary of the Protestant Episcopal church, came to Fort Wayne, and 
through his efforts Christ church was organized, May 27th, of which 
the first vestrymen were Thomas Broon, William L. Moon, James Hut- 
chinson, Samuel Stophlet, and Merchant W. Huxford. The meeting 
for organization held at the Academy, was presided over by Allen Ham- 
ilton, and Robert E. Fleming was secretary. Other members than these 
named were: W. W. Stevens, Samuel Hanna, Thomas Pritchard, M. W. 
Hubbell, James Parry, Dr. Beecher, P. G. Jones, and Joseph Pickens. 
This organization continued and the name being changed, was the foun- 
dation of Trinity church. On May 25, 1844, Trinity church was orga- 
nized, with Rev. Benjamin Halsted as rector, and the following officers: 
Jacob Hull, senior warden; Peter P. Bailey, junior warden; Lucien P. 
Ferry and R. M. Lyon, vestrymen; Ellis Worthington, clerk, and I. D. G. 
Nelson, treasurer. Mr. Halsted administered the first communion on 
July 7, 1844, to seventeen persons. Services were held for several 
years at the old court-house. There was an effort made in 1846 to sup- 
ply the needed edifice, and Willian Rockhill offered to donate a lot if 
$1,000 were raised for the building, but the amount not being secured, 
that lot was abandoned, and a lot purchased for $85 on the southeast 
corner of Berry and Harrison streets, where the first church was erected, 
a small building, in which was placed "an organ with four stops," as 
appears from an official paper at that time, and all was paid for. On 
April 6, 1848, Mr. Halstead was succeeded by Rev. H. P. Powers, and 
he was followed by Rev. Joseph S. Large, who arriving in November, 
1848, served the church a considerable period, both at this and at a later 
time, and by his spiritual power and self-devotion accomplished much 
for the church. During his first pastorate an addition was made to the 
church building, largely increasing its capacity, and it was consecrated, 
May 23, 1850, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Upfold. . In the fall of 1857 Mr. 
Large was succeeded by Rev. E. C. Pattison, who was in a short time 
followed by Rev. Caleb A. Bruce, and he by Stephen H. Battin, of 
Cooperstown, N. Y., in May, 1859. Rev. Large was called again by 
the church in September, 1863, and in November, C. D. Bond was 
authorized to purchase the site for a new church on the corner of Berry 
and Fulton streets, which was secured at a cost of $3,000. The corner 
stone was laid in 1865, and a handsome church was completed August 
1, 1866, the total cost of the building being $21,050. The building is 
a fine specimen of ecclesiastical architecture, built of stone, in pure 
gothic style, with apsidal chancel the full width of the nave. The seat- 
ing capacity is 450. At the time the church was built, Peter P. Bailey 
was senior warden, I. D. G. Nelson, junior warden, and the vestrymen 
were C. B. Bond, F. P. Randall, Warren Withers, John S. Irwin, Philo 
Rumse}\ Messrs. Bond and Irwin held the keys of the edifice after 
completion, and no services were held until it was entirely paid for. The 
church is now building a rectory and a parish building, which are to be 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 311 

of stone, to harmonize in plan with the church, which they adjoin, so as 
to form a quadrangle. The total cost will be $10,500. Colin C. Tate 
became rector of the church in 1872, and remained until the fall of 1879, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. William N. Webbe. In December, 
1888, the latter was succeeded by Rev. A. W. Seabreese. Hon. I. D. 
G. Nelson, who has been a warden for forty years, is now senior 
warden, a position he has held for about thirty years. Hon. F. P. Ran- 
dall, now and for twenty-five years junior warden, has been a member 
of the vestry thirty-eight years, and Dr. John S. Irwin, one of the pres- 
ent vestrymen, has performed that function since 1855. The other 
vestrymen are W. L. Carnahan, Stephen B. Bond, H. W. Mordhurst, 
B. D. Angell and Charles E. Bond. 

On May 24, 1869, a petition was presented for the organization of 
another parish east of Calhoun street, and the church of the Good Shep- 
herd was established. A building was purchased of the Third Presby- 
terian church and moved upon a lot on Holman street, which had been 
purchased, and here services were held for a few years, first by Rev. 
John Gay, afterward by Rev. Walter Scott, but many of the members 
removing, the building was sold and vacated. Of the organization, 
still in existence, Dr. John A. Irwin is senior warden,- Hon. A. P. Ed- 
gerton, junior warden, and W. L. Carnahan, S. B. Bond and William 
Plavfair, vestrymen. 

Trinity English Evangelical Lutheran Church. — The origin of this 
congregation dates as far back as 1836, when Rev. Jesse Hoover, a 
Lutheran minister, came from Woodstock, Va., as a missionary to gather 
and organize the scattered Lutheran families in Allen and neighboring 
counties. The formal work of organizing was effected October 14, 
1837, by the adoption of the " Formula for the Government and Discipline 
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church," approved by the Evangelical 
Lutheran General Synod of the United States. Provision was made for 
services in both English and German. After Rev. Hoover's death in 1838, 
Rev. F. Wyneken assumed charge and continued the mission work in the 
self-sacrificing?spirit of his predecessor until his resignation in 1845. Dur- 
ing his ministry the accessions to the congregation consisted mainly of 
German immigrants who settled in and around the city. His successor, 
Rev. W. Siehler, being able to minister only in German, it became 
necessary for those desiring English services to effect a reorganization. 
Accordingly, with the approval of their German brethren, the prelim- 
inary steps for the establishment of an exclusively English congregation 
were taken March 22, 1846, and on the 19th of April following a con- 
stitution was adopted in which the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and 
the Small Catechism were designated as the doctrinal basis. Among 
the seventeen charter members were many who had been instrumental 
in effecting the original organization in 1837. 

The first board of officers consisted of Elders S. Cutshall and E. 
Rudisill; deacons, H. Rudisill and C. Ruch. A small frame church at 
the corner of Berry and Lafayette streets, in which the Presbyterians 



312 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

had formerly worshiped, was at once purchased and the services of 
Rev. W. Albaugh secured. He was succeeded in 1850 by Rev. A. S. 
Bartholomew, who severed his connection by resignation, April 28, 1856. 
The resulting vacancy continued until 1859, when Rev. W. P. Ruth- 
rauff became pastor! During his ministry the present site was purchased, 
having a frontage of 185 feet on Wayne, and 150 feet on Clinton, street. 
In 1863 a fine church and commodious parsonage were erected. Rev. 
Ruthrauff resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by Rev. A. J. Kunkle- 
man, who nine months afterward removed to Philadelphia, Penn. 

The present pastor, Rev. S. Wagenhals, was elected while yet a 
student of theology, and assumed charge June 14, 1S68. The property 
has been improved from time to time, and extensive additions to both 
church and parsonage were made in 1885. The membership at present 
numbers 437, with a flourishing Sunday-school. 

The church has a national reputation among Lutherans as the place 
where the general Synod was divided in 1866 and the general council 
organized in 1867. 

Rev. Samuel Wagenhals, D. D., pastor of the Trinity English 
Evangelical Lutheran church, Fort Wayne, was born at Lancaster, 
Ohio, January 17, 1843, son of Rev. John and Catharine (Ludwig) 
Wagenhals. His education was begun in the schools of Lancaster, 
which he attended until fourteen years of age, when he entered Capital 
university, at Columbus, Ohio. Being limited in means he was com- 
pelled to withdraw from college during his junior year in order to secure 
the necessary funds, which he did by teaching school. He then resumed 
his studies and graduated at the age of nineteen. During his senior 
year he also acted as a tutor in the preparatory department. In July, 
1862, two weeks after his graduation, he enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany A, One Hundred and Fourteenth Ohio volunteer infantry, com- 
manded by Col. Cradlebaugh. He took part in the battles of Chickasaw- 
Bluff, Arkansas Post, and many of the skirmishes of Gram's initial 
movement on Vicksburg. After the battle of Port Gibson, he was 
promoted sergeant-major of the regiment, and served in that rank in the 
battles of Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, and the siege of Vicks- 
burg. Subsequently, he went with his regiment to the department of 
the Gulf, where it was engaged in campaign and garrison duty, until the 
spring of 1864, when it joined the Red River expedition under Gen. N. P. 
Banks. In the summer of 1864 he was commissioned first lieutenant of 
Company B, and held that rank until the close of the war. He also par- 
ticipated in the investment and siege of Mobile, and during this last 
campaign served as assistant engineer of the second division, thirteenth 
army corps. Two weeks after being mustered out at Columbus, Ohio, 
Mr. Wagenhals entered the Evangelical Lutheran Theological seminary, 
at Philadelphia, Penn., where he studied three years, and was ordained 
a minister of this demonination June 10, 1868. Two days later he 
arrived in Fort Wayne, and has ever since been a resident of the city 
and in charge of his present congregation. In years of continuous ser- 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 313 

vice he is the oldest minister in the city, and his long acquaintance with 
the people has only the more endeared him to them. He is a man of 
scholarly attainments, and is one of the ablest divines of the city. 

The Reformed Churched 'of the city are of great importance, contain- 
ing large congregations, having spacious houses of worship, and pastors 
of notable intelligence and piety, who work unceasingly for the welfare 
of their charges. The original church, the German St. John's Reformed, 
was organized in 1844, with fourteen members. Three of these are 
now living, Henry Hilgemann, Philip Ruehling and Daniel Bashelier. 
At first the little congregation worshiped in the Sunday school room of 
the Presbyterian church, but in the same year of organizing the lot was 
purchased which is still held by the society, and a frame church was 
under roof in 1845, and was slowly finished. This was about a quarter 
of a century later sold to the African church, and the present commo- 
dious church building was begun in 1869. It was completed in 1871 at 
a cost of $20,000, and dedicated September 3. It has a seating capacity 
of about 800. The church also has a school building, which cost about 
$3,000, built in 1883, in which, a school is maintained, and the total value 
of the church property is about $30,000. There is a flourishing Sun- 
day school of 360 attendance, a ladies' society of 100 members, and a 
young men and young ladies' Christian association of about sixty-five 
members. The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Karroll, who served but a 
short time, being succeeded by J. A. Beyer, who was soon followed by 
F. B. Altamatt. K. Bossard served about eight years from 1848, and 
H. Benz during the year following. J. H. Klein was called in 1855, 
remained thirteen years, and following him F. B. Schwedes served five 
years and A. Krahn two years. In 1876 began the pastorate of Rev. 
Carl Schaaf, one of the prominent ministers of the denomination in the 
west, who is still in charge of this church. The membership is about 700. 

An offshoot of the above is the Second German Reformed Salem 
church which was formed by about forty members of the older church, 
who purchased for their first place of meeting the old Baptist church 
which stood on Clinton street, between Berry and Wayne. Subsequently 
the society purchased the lot on the opposite side of the street of which 
they now occupy part, the south half having been sold as the site of the 
Masonic temple. Here a church was erected in 1870-71 at a cost of 
$10,000. In 1879 tne parsonage was built, and, an addition was made 
to the church in 1886. Rev. C. Cast was the first pastor and served 
until 187 1, when he was succeeded by Rev. Muhler. He remained about 
two years, C. Baum two and a half years, and Rev. Kriete, the present 
able and esteemed pastor, began his work here in November, 1875. 
There are now 350 members. 

Grace Reformed church, the Fort Wayne organization of the Eng- 
lish branch of the denomination, was organized May 13, 1883, by Rev. 
T. J. Bacher, with fifty charter members. The church first worshiped 
in the old Jewish synagogue on Harrison street, but immediately began a 
movement toward the building of a church of its own. On June 13, 



3H 



VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 



1883, a lot on East Washington street was purchased for $4,000, and on 
October 29, of the same year, it was resolved to build, provided there 
could be $500 raised in the church and $500 outside. The congrega- 
tion at once subscribed $819.50, and sufficient other funds being raised, 
the contract was let December 10. There was then erected a building 
which is intended as a part of a larger structure to be built in the future, 
and this was dedicated July 27, 1884, at which time the whole amount 
of the debt, $500, was raised. The ladies provided carpets, seats, etc., 
and all worked together with such zeal, that in May, 1889, the church 
had raised and expended $11,664.57. A parsonage has also been pro- 
vided at a cost of $2,000. Rev. Bacher continued as pastor until April, 
1888, when he was succeeded by Allen K. Zartman, now officiating. 

Rev. Charles F. Kriete became a supply pastor of the Salem 
Reformed church, in the latter part of 1875, and on January 1 of the 
following year accepted the call to the pastorate. He was licensed to 
preach February 16, 1876, and ordained March 2. Since that date he 
has ably ministered to this congregation, being a worthy and devoted 
pastor. Mr. Kriete was born in the province of Westphalia, Prussia, 
August 18, 185 1, son of John H. and Catherine S. (Stuckman) Kriete. 
The family came to America in 1856, and settled on a farm in Sheboy- 
gan county, Wis. At sixteen years of age he entered the Reformed 
college and seminary of Sheboygan, called the Mission House, and 
remained three years, during which period he also taught school three 
months. In August, 1870, he entered the Heidelberg college at Tiffin, 
Ohio, and graduated in the classical course in 1874. He tnen entered 
the theological seminary of the same institution, and studied until coming 
to Fort Wayne. He was married May 7, 1878, to Caroline C, daugh- 
ter of Rev. John H. Klein, D. D., of Louisville. She was born in Fort 
Wayne, March 11, 1857. Mr. and Mrs. Kriete have had live children: 
Emilia C, Theodore H. C, Charles D., Laura A., and Edwin H., the 
last of whom died in infancy. 

Achd'uth Veshalom synagogue, of B'nai Israel, of Fort Wayne, 
was organized in 1848, the moving spirits being A. Oppenheim, Sigis- 
mund Redelsheimer, J. Lauferty, F. Nirdlinger and others. For sev- 
eral vears after the organization the congregation met at the home of 
Mr. Nirdlinger, but the membership increased to such proportions that 
in 1857 a building was purchased on Harrison street, and subsequently 
dedicated as a synagogue. The first rabbi was Rev. Solomon, who of- 
ficiated until 1859, when he was succeeded by Rev. Rosenthal, and the 
latter in 1861, by Rev. E. Rubin. In 1874 the congregation erected a 
magnificent temple, one of the finest in the west, at a cost of $25,000. 
This is built in the gothic style, presents an imposing appearance, and 
the interior is exquisite in finish and design. It affords a seating capac- 
ity for 800, besides gallery for the choir, Sabbath school rooms, lecture 
rooms and vestry rooms. This splendid structure was dedicated with 
appropriate ceremonies, the address on the occasion being delivered by 
Rabbi Wise, of Cincinnati. Rev. Rubin, in whose term this structure 



CHURCHES OF FORT WAYNE. 315 

was begun and completed, died in 1880, after nineteen years' service, 
and the congregation then elected Dr. Israel Aaron, a student from the 
Hebrew Union college of Cincinnati. He came after a lapse of one 
year and remained three years, then taking a position with a congrega- 
tion in Buffalo. He was succeeded by Rabbi T. Shanfarber, also a 
graduate of the Hebrew Union college, who after two years was called 
to Baltimore*. Rabbi A. Gutmacher, from the same college mentioned, 
is the present incumbent, and is highly esteemed for his many scholarly 
accomplishments. In 1887 the congregation purchased a beautiful tract 
of land, adjoining Lindenwood cemetery, which has been handsomely 
improved as a cemetery. The present membership is about fifty, and 
the present officers are: Simon Frieberger, president; M. Frank, vice 
president; L. Lumley, secretary; L. Falk, treasurer; trustees, A. Op- 
penheimer, Solomon Rothschild, Julius Nathan and Mac Fisher. 

The Evangelical association, a denomination of that family of 
churches, of which the Methodist Episcopal is the greatest member, has 
one society at Fort Wayne which was organized May 18, 1867, with 
sixteen members, as the result of services held at the Third Presbyterian 
church by Revs. D. S. Oakes and M. W. Steffey. The latter was the 
first pastor of the new organization, which proceeded at once to build a 
frame church at the corner of Clinton and Holman streets, at a cost of 
$2,000. The membership is now eighty-five, and the trustees are John 
Rabus, F. Schoch and David Rentschler. The succession of pastors 
has been: J. N. Gomer, W. Kreuger, J. Schmidli, E. Evans, P. Roth, 
Joseph Fisher, M. Hoehn, Joseph ■ Fisher (second term), Jacob Miller 
and D. D. Speicher. 

Plymouth Congregational church of Fort Wayne, was organized 
September 20, 1870, by Dr. N. A. Hyde, of Indianapolis, with twenty-five 
members, who met at first for worship in a building opposite the present 
church. In the following year the congregation undertook the erection 
of a house of worship, which was completed in 1872, a frame building 
on the corner of Washington and Fulton streets. The cost of this struc- 
ture was $5,500. The first pastor was John B. Fairbank, who served 
five years. He was succeeded by Anselm B. Brown, who served one 
year, and was followed by Joel M. Seymour, who labored for the church 
energetically and successfully for nearly eight years. Edwin A. Hazeltine 
was then pastor for eighteen months, and was followed by Jeremiah C. 
Cromer, who was called in May, 1889, to a church in Chicago. The 
church has at present about 130 members. The officers are as follows: 
deacons, John Gilbert, B. H. Kimball, James Cairns and N. H. Fitch; 
trustees, W. V. Douglas, James Cairns, G. W. Pixley, W. E. Mossman 
and E. O. Poole; treasurer, T. J. Rodabaugh; clerk, P. L. Potter. 

Christian Church. — This was organized in 1870, by Rev. John N. 
Aylesworth, who was the first pastor. There were but seven charter 
members of this society which has been successful in its growth, and 
these and those admitted from time to time, met for a few years in 
Anderson's hall. The seven charter members were Mrs. Eliza Rhine- 



316 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

smith, Susan Rhinesmith, Mrs. Elizabeth Bartlett, Mr. Ketchum, Matilda 
Stirk, Mrs. Hathaway and Mr. Rhodes. The building of the church 
edifice on the corner of West Jefferson and Griffith streets, was begun 
about the time of the panic of 1873, and consequently it was not ready 
for the church to occupy until 1875. Mr. Aylesworth, the first pastor, 
was succeeded by L. L. Carpenter, and the succession since then has 
been Thomas Mason, William Aylesworth, George P. Ireland, George 
P. Slade, M. L. Blaney, George H. Sims. The officers of the organ- 
ization are : Trustees, John Rhinesmith, John Dalman, B. W. Rambo, 
Israel B. Adams; elders, John Dalman, C. W. Halberstott, Allen P. 
Jackson; deacons, David Braden, John N. Broom, Gilbert E. Hutchins, 
B. W. Rambo; clerk, Miss Lizzie F. Erwin; treasurer, Dr. T. H. 
McCormick. The present membership is about 350. 

The United Brethren church at Fort Wayne was organized in 1875? 
by Rev. R. L. Wilgus, and among the original members were Charles 
McNair and wife, William Fox and wife, John Stites and wife, J. Q. 
Kline and wife, and Catherine Wingate. They met during the first 
three years of the church's history, in a building on the corner of 
Fulton and Washington streets, which they rented, and they subse- 
quently occupied a frame chapel on East Lewis street, opposite the 
site of the present brick church, which was erected in 1883, at a cost of 
$4,000, including the site. This building was dedicated by Bishop 
Weaver. The pastors from the beginning have been R. W. Wilgus, 
J. L. Luttrell, D. A. Johnson, J. P. Stewart. The latter, who was a 
student at, and is now a trustee of, Otterbein university, entered the 
ministry in 1873. He came to Fort Wayne in 1882, and during his 
pastorate of seven years, the building of this congregatian was erected, 
and also that of the Second church, which he organized. During his 
ministry here he received about 300 persons into the church fold. He 
was succeeded by John W. Lower, the present pastor. The member- 
ship of this organization is now 148. The trustees are G. H. Judy, 
James Trythall, J. T. Crawford, O.J. Bowser, A. D. Craig; stewards, 
A. A. Bowser, P. Titus. The Second church, organized in 1886, has 
a church edifice at the corner of Boone and Fry streets, and the present 
pastor is Rev. Mr. Spray. 

The German Lutheran and Catholic churches will be found in sepa- 
rate chapters in another part of this work. 



NEWSPAPERS OF FORT WAYNE. 317 



NEWSPAPERS OF FORT WAYNE. 

The situation of Fort Wayne, with reference to other cities of metro- 
politan pretensions, is exceedingly favorable to the growth of her news- 
papers. Toledo is ninety-six miles away; Chicago, 148 miles; Indian- 
apolis, 120 miles, and Cincinnati, 160 miles. Accordingly a large and 
fertile field for the distribution of live newspapers from this central point 
has attracted the attention of many publishers, probably too many, for 
the opinion is generally shared that if there were fewer dailies in Fort 
Wayne their quality and usefulness might be expected to improve. At 
the present time no less than six daily papers are published here. Of 
these the Gazette and Journal appear in the morning, and the Sentinel, 
JVezvs, Staats Zeitung and Freie Presse in the afternoon. 

The oldest of the city newspapers is the Sentinel. It is also, with 
one or two exceptions, the oldest newspaper in the state. Its first issue 
bears the date of July 6, 1833. The publishers were Thomas Tigar 
and S. V. B. Noel, two citizens who were among the most prominent in 
all public affairs for many years. Strangely enough these gentlemen 
differed radically in politics. Mr. Tigar was an uncompromising demo- 
crat and Mr. Noel was a stalwart whig. Accordingly, the paper was 
not at first noted for strong allegiance to either party, but generally ob- 
served a neutral course. The population of Fort Wayne was then about 
300 people, and the publication of the little weekly was an ambi- 
tious undertaking of very doubtful financial success. It was a hard strug- 
gle. There were few merchants to advertise, and there were slight 
resources for news. Moreover the purses of the proprietors were slen- 
der enough. But it managed to survive and has long since rounded its 
half century of usefulness, and is one of the most valuable newspaper 
properties in the state. It was first issued from the old Masonic hall 
building, on lot 154, original plat, being on the north side of Columbia 
street, opposite where the Wayne hotel now stands. Mr. Noel retired 
within a few months with more experience than wealth, and the publi- 
cation of the paper was continued by Mr. Tigar, who at once announced 
its policy as democratic, and held it firmly to that creed, until in 1837, it 
was sold to Hon. George W. Wood. The new proprietor was a whig, 
and the politics of the paper were at once changed, and it continued to 
be anti-democratic dui'ing his ownership, but has since his retirement 
been a firm and steadfast supporter of the democratic party. Mr. Wood 
conducted the Sentinel for three years, and in 1S40, sold to Hon. I. D. 
G. Nelson, still a resident of the city. Mr. Nelson restored the paper 
to the democratic party, and continued the publication until January, 
1841, when he sold to Thomas Tigar, one of the founders, who contin- 
ued to be its active head for nearly twenty-five years. 

The next owners were Hon. W. H. Dills, now a resident of Auburn, 
and I. W. Campbell, who, after a checkered life, is again working at the 



318 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

case in a St. Louis job printing office. These gentlemen had shortly 
before purchased from Hon. John W. Dawson the Fort Wayne Times, 
democratic, and the two papers were merged under the name of the 
Times-Sentinel. 

In January of the next year, 1866, there was another change, Messrs. 
E. Zimmerman, best known as the proprietor of the Valparaiso, Ind., 
Messenger, and Hon. Eli Brown, afterward prominent in Whitley county 
politics and as member of the state senate, becoming owners. The 
name of the paper was now changed to that of Democrat. Steam power 
was introduced and the paper was generally improved. Within the 
next few years there were many other owners and partners, Judge 
Robert Lowry, who purchased Mr. Brown's interest in 1868, Robert 
D. Dumm and L. A. Bruner, a firm known as Burt & Tucker, John W. 
Henderson and Frank Furste. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Bruner sold his 
interest to Hon. William Fleming, who also purchased Mr. Lowry's 
interest. R. D. Dumm & Co. issued the Democrat as a morning paper 
for a short time, but the change was not satisfactory and the evening 
publication was resumed. 

On January 30, 1873, the ownership passed to R. D. Dumm and 
Hon. William Fleming, who restored the name of Sentinel, and in April, 
1874, tne P a P er was purchased by the Sentinel Printing company, com- 
posed of Hons. A. H. Hamilton, R. C. Bell, William Fleming, S. B. 
Bond, M. Hamilton, F. H. Wolke and other prominent democrats. The 
price paid for the paper was $50,000. The Sentinel Printing company 
had an active existence until the spring of 1877, when the paper passed 
into the hands of Hon. William Fleming. Until the 1 6th of April, 1879, 
he was its sole proprietor, and he then transferred the paper to William 
R. Nelson, a son of Hon. I. D. G. Nelson, and Samuel E. Morss, the 
latter of whom had had principal editorial charge while Mr. Fleming was 
proprietor. The new firm enlarged the paper's facilities and improved 
it in many ways, Mr. Morss's keen "nose for news" and his facile pen 
quickly bringing the Sentinel to the front rank of state papers. The 
city was raked for local news as with a fine tooth comb, and in every 
department there was a force and sprightliness that won much favor for 
the new firm. 

On August 1 st, 1880, Mr. E. A. K. Hackett purchased the Sentinel 
and has been since in possession. Under E. A. K. Hackett's manage- 
ment the paper has been more prosperous than at any time in its pre- 
vious history. It is now considered not only the best paper in the city 
of Fort Wayne, but one of the leading papers in the state. It has the 
exclusive control of the Associated and United press associations, has 
its own special telegraph wire running into its office and has all the facili- 
ties for publishing a metropolitan newspaper. The Weekly Sentinel is 
read by almost every farmer in Allen county, and has the largest circu- 
lation of any weekly newspaper outside the city of Indianapolis in the 
state of Indiana. It is printed in its own building at No. 107 Calhoun 
street, one of the neatest, handsomest and best arranged newspaper 



NEWSPAPERS OF FORT WAYNE. 3 1 9 

buildings in the state. It is of brick, 25x70 feet in size, three stories 
high, with a basement. In the basement is the engine and press room. 
The first floor contains the counting room, job printing department and 
stock room. The second floor contains the editorial, reporters' and tele- 
graph operators' rooms. The third floor contains the composing room 
and book bindery. 

The American Farmer was established six years ago by E. A. K. 
Hackett. It has a circulation that reaches all over the United States 
and Canada. It is published as a premium paper, and is the original 
publication in that field. It is edited by S. D. Melsheimer and printed 
in the Sentinel. building. 

Thomas Tigar commenced in May, 1843, the publication of a Ger- 
man paper called Der Deutsche Bcobachter von Indiana. The late Dr. 
C. Schmitz was editor. The publication was not long continued. 

In 1856 a German paper called the Democrat was published in Fort 
Wayne, E. Engler was the editor. The Democrat was short-lived. 

The Indiana Staals Zeitung first saw the light in 1858. Mr. G. B. 
Newbert was its first editor, and its politics were from then until now demo- 
cratic. The Staats Zeitung seems not to have attracted great attention 
until 1862, when Hon. John D. Sarnighausen, a scholarly gentleman, 
cam^to Fort Wayne and assumed editorial control. He infused into the 
sheeWiew life. Within a year or two he became sole owner and the paper 
has since grown to be a power among the German thinking people of 
northern Indiana. Mr. Sarnighausen has been in editorial charge all 
these years except when called to serve his country in the state senate. 
The Daily Staats Zeitung was established in 1877, and has proved a 
success from the beginning. 

Public prints of more or less longevity, and which require no extended 
notice, are the Evening Transcript, published by William Latham and 
Henry Cosgrove; the Indiana Freemason, a monthly, Sol D. Bayless, 
editor; the Casket, by the students at the Methodist college; the Alert, 
whose publisher is forgotten; the Plow Boy, an agricultural pamphlet; 

The Trite Democrat (pamphlet), by R. D. Turner; The Standard and 

Weekly, by D. W. Burroughs; the 'Jeffersonian, the Laurel Wreath, 
the Call, by W. R. Ream; the Republican, by P. P. Baily; the Boys' 

World, by W. J. Bond; the Item, by George R. Benson; the Volks- 
freund, by Rudolph Worch, and the Mail, by W. J. Fowler. The 

Volksfreund deserves some special mention. The editor was a positive 
man who wrote strong and fierce leaders and attracted to his paper for 
a time some of the patronage that the Germans had regularly bestowed 
upon the older Staats Zeitung. 

But all these papers have passed away. In their day they served 
useful purposes no doubt, but most of them lacked the essential element 
of presenting the news of the day, and to this fact their early decay can 
probably be principally attributed. 

The Fort Wayne Times, when it had a separate existence, by which 
is meant before it was merged with the Sentinel, had for editors strong 



320 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

writers, and it was a power in local and state politics. It was established 
in 1 841 by George W. Wood. He sold to Henry W. Jones, who con- 
tinued it until the end of the year 1844. In March, 1844, Mr. Wood 
commenced a campaign paper called the People's Press, and after the 
close of the campaign of that year, the two publications were united 
under the name of the Times and People's Press. A sale of this property 
was made in March, 1848, to T. N. Hood and Warren H. Withers. 
On August 31, 1849, Mr. Withers retired and George W. Wood was 
admitted. Messrs. Hood & Wood continued as partners until Septem- 
ber 7, 1853, when Mr. Wood leased his interest for one year, to Mr. 
John W. Dawson. The firm of Dawson & Wood changed the title of 
the paper to the Times. Within a few months Mr. Hood sold his 
interest to Messrs. Dawson & Wood. On July 16, 1854, Mr. Wood 
having retired, Mr. Dawson began issuing the Daily Times. The daily 
edition was discontinued two years later, but on February 1, 1859, was 
revived and continued until October, 1864. The publication office was 
situated at the northeast corner of Columbia and Clinton streets, in the 
second and third stories. This building, which was known as the Times 
building, was destroyed by fire March 28, i860, and was at once 
rebuilt. The paper and job office were sold in 1865, to Messrs. Dills & 
Campbell, and was subsequently merged in the Sentinel. Mr. Dawson 
served for a time as territorial governor to Utah. His widov^Mrs. 
Amanda Dawson, -still resides in this city. 

The Fort Wayne Gazette, the leading republican organ of northern 
Indiana, like the Sentinel and Times, has had numerous changes of own- 
ership, but never since its initial number has it failed to be the consist- 
ent and stalwart champion of the principles of freedom and equal rights 
to all men of whatever race or color, under the constitution. It was 
established as an afternoon paper in 1863, by D. W. Jones, who came 
from Grant county, Ind., for that express purpose. The first place of 
publication was the old Times office corner, which has sheltered so many 
3 T oung newspaper enterprises. Mr. Jones was not only the publisher 
but the editor. A few months later Hon. Isaac Jenkinson purchased an 
interest and became editor. In October of the same year a new cylin- 
der press was put in and a portable engine was added to the office. The 
Gazette thus became the first successful steam printing house in Fort 
Wayne. 

In March, 1864, Mr. Jones sold his interest to H. C. Hartman, esq., 
and the new firm enlarged the paper to a seven-column folio. Mr. 
Hartman retired in 1867, and in October, 1868, Mr. Jenkinson sold a 
third interest to James R. Willard, and a third interest to Amos W. 
Wright, and in the spring of 1869, the entire business was transferred 
to these parties. For the next few years changes of ownership were 
frequent. Gentlemen owning interest in the paper at various times were 
Robert G. McNiece, who had been principal of the high school, and is 
now a clergyman of much distinction at Salt Lake City, D. S. Alexan- 
der, M. Cullarton, John N. Irwin and J. J. Grafton. The organization 




';•'•: 



^■Atillo 



" R. Leon** 



NEWSPAPERS OF FORT WAYNE. 321 

had by this time assumed the form of a joint stock company, and all of 
the stock was sold to Capt. J. B. White, who sold a half interest to Gen. 
Reub. Williams and Quincy A. Hossler, now successful publishers at 
Warsaw. 

Williams & Hossler lost money on the purchase, and in July, 1876,. 
the Gazette was sold to Keil Brothers. D. S. Keil, now deceased, be- 
came business manager, and Fred W. Keil, editor. Silas McManus, 
better known as a dialect poet, and W. J. Fowler, were among the best 
known city editors. Under the Keil management the paper prospered. 
It was enlarged and its circulation greatly expanded. The owners also 
began the publication of "patent insides" for country weeklies, and had 
over 100 on their list when this part of the business was sold to Chicago 
parties and became the nucleus of the Newspaper Union, an establish- 
ment which has since grown to vast proportions. The Keils sold the 
Gazette to Messrs. B. M. Holman and Theron P. Keator, who conducted 
a remarkably vigorous campaign against the democratic party. In Feb- 
ruary, 1887, the new proprietors having failed to make good all their 
financial obligations, on motion of the Keils a receiver was appointed 
and Judge O'Rourke of the circuit court named John W. Hayden, esq. 
At the end of a few months the paper was sold by the receiver to 
Messrs. N. R. and Frank M. Leonard, and has since been conducted 
by them under the style of N. R. Leonard & Son. The senior partner 
had been professor of mathematics and astronomy in the Iowa state 
university, and the junior partner had been a practical newspaper man 
for many years. On January 1, 1889, F. M. Leonard retired, and the 
paper is now conducted solely by N. R. Leonard. The Gazette is a 
clean, honorable, fair dealing journal, and while vigorously republican is 
always deferential to opposite political views. 

The Fort Wa\me Morning Journal is the offspring of the Fort 
Wayne Weekly Journal, which was founded December 14, 1868, by 
T. S. Taylor and Samuel Hanna. It was originally a republican paper, 
the object of the gentlemen named being to make it the republican 
organ of the county, displacing the Gazette. In this attempt they failed 
and the Journal, after passing through various hands, notably those of 
Mr. Clark Fairbank and the late Judge Samuel Ludlum, became in 1880, 
the property of Thomas J. Foster, then state senator, and the price was re- 
duced to a cent. Senator Foster turned the paper into a dyed-in-the- 
wool democratic organ and it has remained so ever since. After the 
deplorable death of Senator Foster the paper was purchased by Ironsides 
& Co., of Louisville, Ky., who soon sold to M. V. B. Spencer. The latter 
found the business unsuitable to his tastes and organized a stock company 
which took the paper. Among the stockholders, besides Mr. Spencer, were 
Col. C. A. Zollinger, Hon. C. F. Muhler, Hon. Allen Zollars, Dr. L. S. Null, 
Samuel Miller, M. A. Null, F. C. Boltz, and others. G. W. Lunt was 
the first business manager under the new regime, and George F. Shutt 
was the first editor. Mr. Shutt retired and was succeeded by W. P. 
Cooper and Mr. Lunt was succeeded by Mr. Miller. The latter con- 

XXI 



32 2 VALLEY OF THE UPPER MAUMEE. 

ducted the business very successfully, and purchased from the other 
stockholders nearly all of their holdings. Mr. Miller died in January, 
1887, and on the first day of March of the same year the Miller shares 
were purchased by Col. C. A. Zollinger, who shortly sold to Christian 
Boseker. The latter conducted the paper with success, increasing its 
reputation and its circulation, and on June 10, 1889, sold his stock to 
W. W. Rockhill and A. J. Moynihan, who are now in charge. Mr. 
Rockhill is president and business manager of the company, and Mr. 
Moynihan is secretary and treasurer, besides performing the duties of 
editor. The Journal prints the united press report, and its publishers 
promise that it will increase its usefulness to the public. 

The Daily News. — Perhaps the most successful daily newspaper in 
Fort Wayne is the youngest, and to careful and prudent management, 
and a consistent following out of a policy thought to be for the people's 
best interests, is its success to be ascribed. The Daily News originated 
with W. D. Page, its present proprietor and editor, who in its establish- 
ment associated with himself, Charles F. Taylor. The early issues 
were printed on a platen press and the paper was so small that an oppo- 
sition afternoon paper sneeringly referred to it as a " hand bill," and 
prophesied its collapse within ninety days. But what it lacked in size 
it made up in sprightliness. Its popular city editor, the late A. V. D. 
Conover, was a brilliant and pungent paragrapher. Within a month 
the Nexus had a bona -fide circulation of 1,600 copies, and to-day it claims 
to print more papers than any other city daily. In November, 1887, Mr. 
Taylor sold his interest to Mr. Page, and with it, his half-interest in 
Poultry and Pets, a monthly publication which leads its class in America, 
and which is devoted to interests its title sufficiently explains. The Daily 
Nexus is conspicuous among other successful dailies from the fact that it has 
never had a dollar of the patronage from the city, county or state gov- 
ernment, that has been extended more or less generously to all of its 
rivals. It has carved out an honorable place for itself in the newspaper 
world, and fills it admirably as " the people's paper." 

The Dispatch occupies a position among Fort Wayne newspapers 
that is peculiarly its own. It was started a little over ten years ago, and 
it has been independent in politics, but with a strong leaning at times 
toward the theories of the greenback party. After the defeat of Gen. 
Weaver, its candidate for the presidency, the interests of the labor party 
were taken up. The paper is the uncompromising foe of anything that 
looks like a clique, a monopoly or a trust, and more than any other city 
paper its columns bear the personality of its editor, Mr. James Mitchell. 

The Freie Presse, at the head of which is Mr. Otto Cummerow, is a 
daily paper which challenges the older Staats Zeitung for the support of 
our German citizens. It is of neat appearance, its local and editorial 
matter are well prepared. From the large amount of patronage secured 
it is evident that the Freie Presse has come to stav. 

George W. Wood, one of the pioneer printers and editors of Indiana, 
was born in Goshen, Orange county, N. Y., on the 4th day of Septem- 



NEWSPAPERS OF FORT WAYNE. 323 

ber, 180S, and resided in that state, where he learned the art of practical 
printing, and also devoted much time to the study of the law, until about 
1834, when he removed to Ann Arbor, Mich., and thence, in 1836, to 
Fort Wayne. Here he entered the Sentinel office, then owned by Thomas 
Tigar, esq., and is entitled to the distinction of being the second news- 
paper man at Fort Wayne. In 1837 he purchased the Sentinel from 
Mr. Tigar, and published it until 1840, when he disposed of it to I. D. G. 
Nelson. A month afterward, he purchased a newspaper establishment 
from H. B. Seaman, of Defiance, Ohio, and moving it to Fort Wayne, ' 
founded the Fort Wayne Times. In March, 1840, he was elected mayor 
of Fort Wayne, being the first person elected to that position after the 
city was incorporated under a charter. He resigned the office, however, 
on the 5th of July, 1841, and Joseph Morgan was elected to fill the 
vacancy. February 18, 1843, he leased the Times to Henry W. Jones, 
who conducted it about two years, when Mr. Wood resumed control of 
it, combining with it the People's P?rss and calling it the Fort Wayne 
Times and People's Press. He continued its publication until March 23, 
1S48, when he sold it to Messrs. Withers & Hood. In August, 1849, ne 
re-purchased the interest of Mr. Withers, and the paper was conducted 
by G. W. Wood & Co. until September 9, 1855, when it was leased to 
Hood & Dawson until the next June, when he sold his entire interest to 
John W. Dawson. On the 25th of June, 1849, a telegraph line was 
established from Toledo to La Fayette, and Mr. Wood became the first 
operator at Fort Wayne, and continued for some time in that capacity. 
He is also entitled to the honor of establishing the first daily newspaper 
in Fort Wayne, which he placed under the management of Messrs. 
Latham & Rayhouser. Immediately after this, he entered the office of 
Hon. Samuel Hanna, where he remained until the death of the latter, 
managing the vast public and private interests of that gentleman for many 
years, and after his death, acted with Samuel T. Hanna, as administrator 
of the estate. Besides these positions of personal trust, he was appointed 
register of the land office by President Fillmore, in 1849, and held the 
office until it was removed to Indianapolis. After the organization of the 
Ohio & Indiana railroad, he became the agent of the company for the 
sale of the lands received for stock subscriptions, and from 1854, when 
the first cars commenced running to Fort Wayne, until i860, he was ac- 
tively associated with Samuel Hanna in the management of that corpo- 
ration. In all these positions he discharged his duties creditably and 
with honor, and proved himself to be man of large capacity, good judg- 
ment and incorruptible honesty. He was an uncomproming whig, and 
an ardent admirer of Webster and Clay. He was remarkably simple 
and unostentatious in appearance and demeanor, a man of few words, 
except with his family, and with those whose good